The Command to Honor One’s Parents

 I take refuge with Allaah from the accursed devil.  

بِسْمِ اللَّهِ الرَّحْمَـنِ الرَّحِيمِ 

  Bismillah-ir-Rahman-ir-Raheem: In the name of Allah, the Compassionate, the Merciful.  

 Welcome to my blog and praise the Magnificent Lord as you enter: Allahu Akbar: Allah is the Greatest .

May the Peace and Blessing of Allah Azza wa Jal, our Lord Glorified and Praised be He, be upon our beloved Prophet, his Family, and Companions.

The Command to Honor One’s Parents.

وَقَضَى رَبُّكَ أَلاَّ تَعْبُدُواْ إِلاَّ إِيَّـهُ وَبِالْوَلِدَيْنِ إِحْسَـناً إِمَّا يَبْلُغَنَّ عِندَكَ الْكِبَرَ أَحَدُهُمَا أَوْ كِلاَهُمَا فَلاَ تَقُل لَّهُمَآ أُفٍّ وَلاَ تَنْهَرْهُمَا وَقُل لَّهُمَا قَوْلاً كَرِيمًا

(23. And your Lord has Qada [decreed] that you worship none but Him. And that you be dutiful to your parents. If one of them or both of them attain old age in your life, say not to them a word of disrespect, nor reprimand them but address them in terms of honor.)

وَاخْفِضْ لَهُمَا جَنَاحَ الذُّلِّ مِنَ الرَّحْمَةِ وَقُل رَّبِّ ارْحَمْهُمَا كَمَا رَبَّيَانِى صَغِيرًا

(24. And lower unto them the wing of submission and humility through mercy, and say: “My Lord! Bestow on them Your mercy as they did bring me up when I was young.”)

Surah 17 Al Isra Verse 23-24

Tafsir Ibn Kathir

Allah commands us to worship Him alone, with no partner or associate. The word Qada [normally having the meaning of decree] here means “commanded”. Mujahid said that

(And He has Qada) means enjoined. This is also how Ubayy bin Ka`b, Ibn Mas`ud and Ad-Dahhak bin Muzahim recited the Ayah as:

“And your Lord has Wassa [enjoined] that you worship none but Him.” The idea of worshipping Allah is connected to the idea of honoring one’s parents. Allah says:

(And that you be dutiful to your parents.) Here He commands good treatment of parents, as He says elsewhere:

(give thanks to Me and to your parents. Unto Me is the final destination) [31:14]

(If one of them or both of them attain old age in your life, say not to them a word of disrespect,) means, do not let them hear anything offensive from you, not even say “Uff!” which is the mildest word of disrespect,

(and do not reprimand them) means, do not do anything horrible to them.

(and do not reprimand them) `Ata’ bin Rabah said that it meant, “Do not raise your hand against them.” When Allah forbids speaking and behaving in an obnoxious manner, He commands speaking and behaving in a good manner, so He says:

(but address them in terms of honor.) meaning gently, kindly, politely, and with respect and appreciation.

(And lower unto them the wing of submission and humility through mercy,) means, be humble towards them in your actions.

(and say: “My Lord! Bestow on them Your Mercy as they did bring me up when I was young.”) means, say this when they grow old and when they die. Ibn `Abbas said: “But then Allah revealed:

(It is not (proper) for the Prophet and those who believe to ask Allah’s forgiveness for the idolators. ..)” [9:13] There are many Hadiths which speak about honoring one’s parents, such as the Hadith narrated through a number of chains of narration from Anas and others, which states that the Prophet climbed up on the Minbar, and then said, ((Amin, Amin, Amin.)) It was said, “O Messenger of Allah, why did you say Amin” He said:

(Jibril came to me and said, “O Muhammad, he is doomed who hears you mentioned and does not say Salla upon you.” He said, “Say Amin,” so I said Amin. Then he said, “He is doomed who sees the month of Ramadan come and go, and he has not been forgiven.” He said, “Say Amin,” so I said Amin. Then he said, “He is doomed who grows up and both his parents or one of them are still alive, and they do not cause him to enter Paradise.” He said, “Say Amin,” so I said Amin.)

(He is doomed, he is doomed, he is doomed, the man whose parents, one or both of them, reach old age while he is alive and he does not enter Paradise.) This version is Sahih although no one recorded it other than Muslim.

Imam Ahmad recorded Mu`awiyah bin Jahimah As-Salami saying that Jahimah came to the Prophet and said: “O Messenger of Allah, I want to go out to fight and I have come to seek your advice.” He said,

(Do you have a mother) He said, “Yes.” The Prophet said,

(Then stay with her, for Paradise is at her feet.) Similar incidents were also recorded by others. This was recorded by An-Nasa’i and Ibn Majah.

Imam Ahmad recorded that Al-Miqdam bin Ma`dikarib said that the Prophet said:

(Allah enjoins you concerning your fathers, Allah enjoins you concerning your mothers, Allah enjoins you concerning your mothers, Allah enjoins you concerning your mothers, Allah enjoins you concerning your close relatives then the next in closeness.) This was recorded by Ibn Majah from the Hadith of `Abdullah bin `Ayyash.

Ahmad recorded that a man from Banu Yarbu` said: “I came to the Prophet while he was talking to the people, and I heard him saying,

(The hand of the one who gives is superior. (Give to) your mother and your father, your sister and your brother, then the closest and next closest.)”

رَّبُّكُمْ أَعْلَمُ بِمَا فِى نُفُوسِكُمْ إِن تَكُونُواْ صَـلِحِينَ فَإِنَّهُ كَانَ لِلاٌّوَّابِينَ غَفُوراً

(25. Your Lord knows best what is in your souls. If you are righteous, then, verily, He is Ever Most Forgiving to those who turn to Him in repentance.)

Surah 17 Al Isra Verse 25

Tafsir Ibn Kathir

Sa`id bin Jubayr said: “This refers to a man who said something that he did not think would be offensive to his parents.” According to another report: “He did not mean anything bad by that.” So Allah said:

(Your Lord knows best what is in your souls. If you are righteous,)

(He is Ever Most Forgiving to those who turn to Him in repentance.) Qatadah said: “To the obedient who pray.”

(He is Ever Most Forgiving to those who turn to Him in repentance.) Shu`bah narrated from Yahya bin Sa`id from Sa`id bin Al-Musayyib; “This refers to those who commit sin then repent, and commit sin then repent.” `Ata’ bin Yasar, Sa`id bin Jubayr and Mujahid said: “They are the ones who return to goodness.” Mujahid narrated from `Ubayd bin `Umayr, concerning this Ayah: “This is the one who, when he remembers his sin when he is alone, he seeks the forgiveness of Allah.” Mujahid agreed with him on that. Ibn Jarir said: “The best view on this matter is of those who said that it refers to the one who repents after committing sin, who comes back from disobedience to obedience and who leaves that which Allah hates for that which He loves and is pleased with. ” What he said is correct, for Allah says,

(Verily, to Us will be their return) (88:25). And according to a Sahih Hadith, the Messenger of Allah would say when he returned from a journey,

(We have returned repenting, worshipping and praising our Lord.)

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The Prophethood of Prophet Musa (Moses), peace be upon him

 I take refuge with Allaah from the accursed devil.  

بِسْمِ اللَّهِ الرَّحْمَـنِ الرَّحِيمِ 

  Bismillah-ir-Rahman-ir-Raheem: In the name of Allah, the Compassionate, the Merciful.  

 Welcome to my blog and praise the Magnificent Lord as you enter: Allahu Akbar: Allah is the Greatest .

  May the Peace and Blessing of Allah Azza wa Jal, our Lord Glorified and Praised be He, be upon our beloved Prophet, his Family, and Companions.

The Prophethood of Prophet Musa (Moses), peace be upon him.

اذْهَبْ أَنتَ وَأَخُوكَ بِـَايَـتِى وَلاَ تَنِيَا فِى ذِكْرِى

 (42. Go you and your brother with My Ayat, and do not, you both, slacken and become weak in My remembrance.)

اذْهَبَآ إِلَى فِرْعَوْنَ إِنَّهُ طَغَى

(43. Go both of you to Fir`awn, verily, he has transgressed.)

 فَقُولاَ لَهُ قَوْلاً لَّيِّناً لَّعَلَّهُ يَتَذَكَّرُ أَوْ يَخْشَى

(44. And speak to him mildly, perhaps he may accept admonition or fear (Allah).)

Surah 20 Ta Ha Verse 42-44

(Go you and your brother with My Ayat,) This means with My proofs, evidences and miracles.

(And do not, you both, slacken and become weak in My remembrance.) `Ali bin Abi Talhah related from Ibn `Abbas that he said, “This means do not be slow.” Mujahid reported that Ibn `Abbas said, “This means do not be weak.” The meaning here is that they should not slacken in the remembrance of Allah. Rather, they both should remember Allah during their meeting with Fir`awn so that the remembrance of Allah can be an aid for them against him. The remembrance of Allah would be their strength and their power that would defeat him. Allah’s statement;

(Go both of you to Fir`awn, Verily, he has transgressed.) means that he has rebelled and become haughty and insolent against Allah and he has disobeyed Him. 

(And speak to him mildly, perhaps he may accept admonition or fear (Allah).) This Ayah contains a great lesson. Even though Fir`awn was the most insolent and arrogant of people and Musa was the friend of Allah among His creation at that time, Musa was still commanded to speak to Fir`awn with mildness and softness. Therefore, their invitation to him was with gentle, soft and easy speech that is used by one who is a close friend. This is so that the message may have more effect on the souls, and so it would have deeper and more beneficial results. This is as Allah, the Exalted, says,

(Invite (mankind) to the way of your Lord with wisdom and fair preaching, and argue with them in a way that is better.) ﴿16:125﴾ Concerning Allah’s statement,

(perhaps he may accept admonition or fear (Allah). ) This means that perhaps he will recant from that which he is in of misguidance and destruction,

(or he will fear) meaning that he will become obedient due to fear of Allah. This is as Allah says,

(For such who desires to remember or desires to show his gratitude.) ﴿25:62 ﴾ Thus, to remember means to recant from that which is dangerous, and fear means to attain obedience.

قَالاَ رَبَّنَآ إِنَّنَا نَخَافُ أَن يَفْرُطَ عَلَيْنَآ أَوْ أَن يَطْغَى

 (45. Both of them said: “Our Lord! Verily, we fear lest he should hasten to punish us or lest he should transgress.”)

 قَالَ لاَ تَخَافَآ إِنَّنِى مَعَكُمَآ أَسْمَعُ وَأَرَى

 (46. He (Allah) said: “Fear not, verily, I am with you both, hearing and seeing.”)

فَأْتِيَاهُ فَقُولاَ إِنَّا رَسُولاَ رَبِّكَ فَأَرْسِلْ مَعَنَا بَنِى إِسْرَءِيلَ وَلاَ تُعَذِّبْهُمْ قَدْ جِئْنَـكَ بِـَايَةٍ مِّن رَّبِّكَ وَالسَّلَـمُ عَلَى مَنِ اتَّبَعَ الْهُدَى

 (47. “So go you both to him, and say: ‘Verily, we are both Messengers of your Lord, so let the Children of Israel go with us, and torment them not; indeed, we have come with a sign from your Lord! And peace will be upon him who follows the guidance!”)

إِنَّا قَدْ أُوحِىَ إِلَيْنَآ أَنَّ الْعَذَابَ عَلَى مَن كَذَّبَ وَتَوَلَّى

(48. `Truly, it has been revealed to us that the torment will be for him who denies, and turns away.`”)

Surah 20 Ta Ha Verse 45-48

Tafsir Ibn Kathir

Allah, the Exalted, informs that Musa and Harun pleaded to Allah, expressing their grievance to him:

(Verily, we fear lest he should hasten to punish us or lest he should transgress.) They meant that Fir`awn might seize them unexpectedly with a punishment, or transgress against them by tormenting them, when they actually did not deserve it. Ad-Dahhak reported from Ibn `Abbas that he said that transgress here means, “To exceed the bounds.”

(He (Allah) said: “Fear not, verily, I am with you both, hearing and seeing.”) meaning; “Do not fear him (Fir`awn), for verily, I am with you and I hear your speech and his speech as well. I see your place and I see his place as well. Nothing is hidden from Me of your affair. Know that his forehead is in My Hand, and he does not speak, breathe, or use any force, except by My leave and after My command. I am with you by My protection, My help and My support.”

(So go you both to him, and say: “Verily, we are both Messengers of your Lord…”)

Concerning his statement,

(indeed, We have come with a sign from your Lord!) meaning with evidence and a miracle from your Lord.

(And peace will be upon him who follows the guidance!) meaning, `peace be upon you if you follow the guidance.’ Because of this, when the Messenger of Allah wrote a letter to Heraclius, the emperor of Rome, beginning with,

(In the Name of Allah, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful. From Muhammad, the Messenger of Allah, to Heraclius the emperor of Rome. Peace be upon him who follows the guidance. Thus, to proceed: Verily, I invite you with the invitation of Islam. So accept Islam and you will be safe, and Allah will give you a double reward.) Due to this, Musa and Harun said to Fir`awn,

(And peace will be upon him who follows the guidance! Truly, it has been revealed to us that the torment will be for him who denies, and turns away.) In His flawless revelation, Allah has revealed to us that torment is prepared exclusively for those who reject the signs of Allah and turn away from His obedience. As Allah says,

(Then for him who transgressed all bounds, and preferred the life of this world, Verily, his abode will be Hellfire.) ﴿79:37-39﴾ Allah, the Exalted, also says,

Therefore I have warned you of a blazing Fire. None shall enter it save the most wretched. Who denies and turns away.) ﴿92:14-16﴾ Allah also says,

(So he neither believed nor prayed! But on the contrary, he belied and turned away.) ﴿75:31-32﴾ This means that he denied with his heart and turned away by his actions.

 قَالَ فَمَن رَّبُّكُمَا يمُوسَى

(49. Fir`awn said: “Who then, O Musa, is the Lord of you two”)

قَالَ رَبُّنَا الَّذِى أَعْطَى كُلَّ شَىءٍ خَلْقَهُ ثُمَّ هَدَى

(50. Musa ﴾said: “Our Lord is He Who gave to each thing its form and nature, then guided it aright.”)

قَالَ فَمَا بَالُ الْقُرُونِ الاٍّولَى

(51. Fir`awn  ﴾said: “What about the generations of old”)

  قَالَ عِلْمُهَا عِندَ رَبِّى فِى كِتَـبٍ لاَّ يَضِلُّ رَبِّى وَلاَ يَنسَى

(52. Musa said: “The knowledge thereof is with my Lord, in a Record. My Lord neither errs nor forgets.”)

Surah 20 Ta Ha Verse 49-52

Tafsir Ibn Kathir

 Allah, the Exalted, informs about Fir`awn that he said to Musa, in his rejection of the existence of a Supreme Maker and Creator, Who is the God of everything and his own Lord and Owner:

(Who then, O Musa, is the Lord of you two) meaning “Who is the one who called you forth and sent you For verily, I do not know him and I have not given you any god other than myself.”

((Musa) said: “Our Lord is He Who gave to each thing its form and nature, then guided it aright.”) `Ali bin Abi Talhah related that Ibn `Abbas said, “He is saying that He created a mate for everything.” Ad-Dahhak said that Ibn `Abbas said, “He made the man a man, and the donkey a donkey and the sheep a sheep.” Layth bin Abi Sulaym reported from Mujahid that he said, “He gave everything its form.” Ibn Abi Najih said that Mujahid said, “He fashioned the creation of every moving creature.” Sa`id bin Jubayr said concerning His statement,

((Who) gave to each thing its form and nature, then guided it aright.) “He gave each of His creatures what is suitable for its creation.” Therefore, He did not give man the form of a wild beast, nor did He give wild beasts the form of the dog. Likewise, the dog’s form is not like the sheep’s. He also gave creature a suitable spouse, and He influenced everything towards that mate. There is no species of creation that is exactly like another species. They are different in their actions, their forms, their sustenance and their mating. Some of the scholars of Tafsir have said that this statement, “He gave to each thing its form and nature, then guided it aright,” is similar to Allah’s statement,

(And Who has measured; and then guided.) ﴿87:3﴾ This means He measured out an ordained amount (of sustenance, actions, etc.) and then guided His creatures to it. He wrote the deeds, the appointed times of death and the provisions. Then, the creatures traverse upon that and they are not able to avoid it, nor are they able to abandon it. In this Ayah Musa is saying that our Lord is the One Who created the creation, measured out its ordainment and compelled the creatures to that which He wanted.

((Fir`awn) said: “What about the generations of old”) The most correct opinion concerning the meaning of this, is that when Musa informed Fir`awn that his Lord Who sent him is the One Who creates, sustains, ordains and guides, Fir`awn began to argue, using the previous generations as a proof. He was referring to those people of old who did not worship Allah. In other words, “If the matter is as you say, then what happened to those people They did not worship your Lord. Instead they worshipped other gods besides Him.” Musa said to him, in response to this, that if they did not worship Allah, then Allah knows precisely what happened to them and He will give them just recompense for their deeds, as is written in Allah’s Book (of decrees). This Book is called Al-Lawh Al-Mahfuz (The Preserved Tablet) and it is the Book of Deeds.

(My Lord neither errs nor forgets.) This means that nothing eludes Him and He does not miss anything, whether it is small or great. He does not forget anything and His Most Exalted knowledge is described as encompassing everything. Blessed be He, the Exalted, the Most Holy and free of any imperfections. The knowledge that creatures have has two deficiencies. The first is that it does not completely encompass anything, and the second is that the creature is prone to forget after knowing. Therefore, Allah has declared Himself above such deficiencies.

الَّذِى جَعَلَ لَكُمُ الاٌّرْضَ مَهْداً وَسَلَكَ لَكُمْ فِيهَا سُبُلاً وَأَنزَلَ مِنَ السَّمَآءِ مَآءً فَأَخْرَجْنَا بِهِ أَزْوَاجاً مِّن نَّبَـتٍ شَتَّى

 (53. Who has made earth for you like a bed; and has opened ways for you therein, and has sent down water (rain) from the sky. And We have brought forth with it various kinds of vegetation.)

 كُلُواْ وَارْعَوْا أَنْعَـمَكُمْ إِنَّ فِى ذلِكَ لأيَـتٍ لاٌّوْلِى النُّهَى

(54. Eat and pasture your cattle; verily, in this are Ayat for men of understanding.)

مِنْهَا خَلَقْنَـكُمْ وَفِيهَا نُعِيدُكُمْ وَمِنْهَا نُخْرِجُكُمْ تَارَةً أُخْرَى

(55. Thereof We created you, and into it We shall return you, and from it We shall bring you out once again.)

 وَلَقَدْ أَرَيْنَـهُ ءَايَـتِنَا كُلَّهَا فَكَذَّبَ وَأَبَى

(56. And indeed We showed him (Fir`awn) all Our Ayat, but he denied and refused.)

Surah 20 Ta Ha Verse 53-56

Tafsir Ibn Kathir

This is from the completion of Musa’s speech concerning the description of His Lord when Fir`awn asked him about Him. He (Musa) said,

(He Who gave to each thing its form and nature, then guided it aright.) Then, Fir`awn attempted to present some argumentative rebuttal during Musa’s reply. Yet, Musa continued by saying, “He is the One Who made the earth as a bed for you.” Some recited the word as Mihadan and others recited it as Mahdan, which means `a place of rest that you settle down upon.’ It also may mean `that which you stand upon, sleep upon or travel upon its back.’

(and has opened ways for you therein.) This means, `He made roads for you to walk upon their shoulders.’ This is just as He, the Exalted, said,

(And placed therein broad highways for them to pass through, that they may be guided.) ﴿21:31

(and has sent down water from the sky. And We have brought forth with it various kinds of vegetation.) referring to the various species of plants, such as vegetation and fruits. Some are sour, some are sweet, some are bitter and there are other kinds as well.

(Eat and pasture your cattle (therein);) meaning, `something that is food for you and a palatable fruit for you, and something that is for your cattle as fodder for them, both green and dry.’

(Verily, in this are Ayat.) This means proofs, signs and evidences.

(for men of understanding.) meaning those who possess correct and upright intelligence realizing that there is no god worthy of worship except Allah, and there is no true Lord other than Him.

(Thereof We created you, and into it we shall return you, and from it We shall bring you out once again.) meaning, `the earth is your beginning. For your father, Adam, was created with dirt from the surface of the earth. You also will be returned to the earth. This means that you will become dirt when you die and decay.’ The statement, “And from it We shall bring you out once again,” means,

(On the Day when He will call you, and you will answer with His praise and obedience, and you will think that you have stayed (in this world) but a little while!) ﴿17:52 ﴾ This Ayah is similar to Allah’s statement,

(He said: “Therein you shall live, and therein you shall die, and from it you shall be brought out.”) ﴿7:25

(And indeed We showed him (Fir`awn) all Our Ayat, but he denied and refused.) This means that the proofs, signs and evi- dences were establi- shed against Fir`awn and he saw them with his own eyes, but he still denied and rejec- ted them due to his disbelief, abstinence and transgression. This is as Allah, the Exalted, says,

(And they belied them wrongfully and arrogantly, though they themselves were convinced thereof.) ﴿27:14

 قَالَ أَجِئْتَنَا لِتُخْرِجَنَا مِنْ أَرْضِنَا بِسِحْرِكَ يمُوسَى

(57. He (Fir`awn) said: “Have you come to drive us out of our land with your magic, O Musa”)

فَلَنَأْتِيَنَّكَ بِسِحْرٍ مِّثْلِهِ فَاجْعَلْ بَيْنَنَا وَبَيْنَكَ مَوْعِداً لاَّ نُخْلِفُهُ نَحْنُ وَلاَ أَنتَ مَكَاناً سُوًى

 (58. “Then verily, we can produce magic the like thereof; so appoint a meeting between us and you, which neither we nor you shall fail to keep, in an open place where both shall have a just and equal chance.”)

قَالَ مَوْعِدُكُمْ يَوْمُ الزِّينَةِ وَأَن يُحْشَرَ النَّاسُ ضُحًى

(59. (Musa) said: “Your appointed meeting is the day of the festival, and let the people assemble when the sun has risen (forenoon).”)

Surah 20 Ta Ha Verse 57-59

Tafsir Ibn Kathir

Allah, the Exalted, informs of what Fir`awn said to Musa when he showed him the great proof. This great sign to Fir`awn was Musa casting down his stick which became a huge snake, and his pulling his hand out from under his arm while it was glowing white without any illness. At this, Fir`awn said, “This is magic that you have brought to us to bewitch us and conquer the people, so that they will follow you. Then you will outnumber us.” Fir`awn then said, “Your plan will not work. We have magic just like yours, so do not let yourself be deceived by that what you are doing.”

(so appoint a meeting between us and you,) Meaning, `a day that we can come together to present some of our magic to confront yours. It will be at a specified place and time.’ With this, Musa said to them,

(Your appointed meeting is the day of festival,) That was the day of their celebration and their New Year’s festivity. It was a holiday for them when they took vacation from their work and came together for a large gathering. This day was selected so that all of the people could witness the power of Allah to do whatever He wills. They would see the miracles of the prophets and the futility of magic to contest the supernatural prophetic powers. This is why Musa said,

(and let the people assemble) meaning all of them.

(when the sun has risen (forenoon).) meaning in the morning, just before noon. In this way the contest will be most visible, well lit, apparent and obvious in plain view. This is the way of the Prophets. Their work is always clear and apparent. It is never something hidden, or something for sale. This is why he did not say that the meeting should be at night, but rather, it was to be held during the bright part of the day. Ibn `Abbas said, “The day of their festivity was the day of `Ashura’.” As-Suddi, Qatadah and Ibn Zayd said, “It was the day of their great celebration.” Sa`id bin Jubayr said, “It was the day of their great bazzar.” These statements are not contradictory. I say that Allah destroyed Fir`awn and his armies on a day similar to this, just as is confirmed in the Sahih. `Abdur-Rahman bin Zayd bin Aslam said, “It was a flat place where all of the people were on the same level, having an equal view of the event. There was nothing there that would obstruct the view so that some people could see what others did not.”

Prophet Musa (Moses), peace be upon him, leaves the City of Egypt

 I take refuge with Allaah from the accursed devil.  

بِسْمِ اللَّهِ الرَّحْمَـنِ الرَّحِيمِ 

  Bismillah-ir-Rahman-ir-Raheem: In the name of Allah, the Compassionate, the Merciful.  

 Welcome to my blog and praise the Magnificent Lord as you enter: Allahu Akbar: Allah is the Greatest .

  May the Peace and Blessing of Allah Azza wa Jal, our Lord Glorified and Praised be He, be upon our beloved Prophet, his Family, and Companions.

Prophet Musa (Moses), Alaihi Salaam, leaves the City of Egypt.

وَلَمَّا بَلَغَ أَشُدَّهُ وَاسْتَوَى ءَاتَيْنَـهُ حُكْماً وَعِلْماً وَكَذَلِكَ نَجْزِى الْمُحْسِنِينَ

(14. And when he reached maturity, and was complete, We bestowed on him Hukm and knowledge. And thus do We reward the doers of good.)

وَدَخَلَ الْمَدِينَةَ عَلَى حِينِ غَفْلَةٍ مِّنْ أَهْلِهَا فَوَجَدَ فِيهَا رَجُلَيْنِ يَقْتَتِلاَنِ هَـذَا مِن شِيعَتِهِ وَهَـذَا مِنْ عَدُوِّهِ فَاسْتَغَـثَهُ الَّذِى مِن شِيعَتِهِ عَلَى الَّذِى مِنْ عَدُوِّهِ فَوَكَزَهُ مُوسَى فَقَضَى عَلَيْهِ قَالَ هَـذَا مِنْ عَمَلِ الشَّيْطَـنِ إِنَّهُ عَدُوٌّ مُّضِلٌّ مُّبِينٌ

(15. And he entered the city when its people were unaware: and he found there two men fighting, — one of his party, and the other of his foes. The man of his (own) party asked him for help against his foe, so Musa struck him with his fist and he died. He said: “This is of Shaytan’s doing, verily, he is a plain misleading enemy.”)

قَالَ رَب إِنِّى ظَلَمْتُ نَفْسِى فَاغْفِرْ لِى فَغَفَرَ لَهُ إِنَّهُ هُوَ الْغَفُورُ الرَّحِيمُ

(16. He said: “My Lord! Verily, I have wronged myself, so forgive me.” Then He forgave him. Verily, He is the Oft-Forgiving, the Most Merciful.)

قَالَ رَبِّ بِمَآ أَنْعَمْتَ عَلَىَّ فَلَنْ أَكُونَ ظَهِيراً لِّلْمُجْرِمِينَ

(17. He said: “My Lord! For that with which You have favored me, I will nevermore be a helper of the criminals!”)

Surah 28 Al Qasas Verse 14-17

Tafsir ibn Kathir

Having described Musa’s beginnings, Allah then tells us that when he reached maturity, and was complete in stature, Allah gave him Hukm and religious knowledge. Mujahid said that this means prophethood.

(And thus do We reward the doers of good.) Then Allah describes how Musa reached the status that was decreed for him, that of Prophethood and speaking to Allah, as a direct consequence of killing the Coptic, which was the reason why he left Egypt and went to Madyan. Allah says:

(And he entered the city when its people were unaware.) Ibn Jurayj narrated from `Ata’ Al-Khurasani, from Ibn `Abbas, “That was between Maghrib and `Isha’.” Ibn Al-Munkadir narrated from `Ata’ bin Yasar from Ibn `Abbas, “That was in the middle of the day.” This was also the view of Sa`id bin Jubayr, `Ikrimah, As-Suddi and Qatadah.

(and he found there two men fighting,) meaning, hitting one another and struggling with one another.

(one of his party, ) meaning, an Israelite,

(and the other of his foes.) meaning, a Coptic. This was the view of Ibn `Abbas, Qatadah, As-Suddi and Muhammad bin Ishaq. The Israelite man asked Musa, peace be upon him, for help, and Musa took advantage of the fact that people were not paying attention, so he went to the Coptic man and

(so Musa struck him with his fist and he died.) Mujahid said, “This means he punched him with his fist.” And then he died.

(He said) refers to Musa.

(“This is of Shaytan’s doing, verily, he is a plain misleading enemy.” He said: “My Lord! Verily, I have wronged myself, so forgive me.” Then He forgave him. Verily, He is the Oft-Forgiving, the Most Merciful. He said: “My Lord! For that with which You have favored me,) meaning, `what You have given me of prestige, power and blessings —

(I will nevermore be a helper of the criminals!) `those who disbelieve in You and go against Your commands.’

[فَأَصْبَحَ فِى الْمَدِينَةِ خَآئِفاً يَتَرَقَّبُ فَإِذَا الَّذِى اسْتَنْصَرَهُ بِالاٌّمْسِ يَسْتَصْرِخُهُ قَالَ لَهُ مُوسَى إِنَّكَ لَغَوِىٌّ مُّبِينٌ

(18. So he became afraid, looking about in the city, when behold, the man who had sought his help the day before, called for his help (again). Musa said to him: “Verily, you are a plain misleader!”)

فَلَمَّآ أَنْ أَرَادَ أَن يَبْطِشَ بِالَّذِى هُوَ عَدُوٌّ لَّهُمَا قَالَ يمُوسَى أَتُرِيدُ أَن تَقْتُلَنِى كَمَا قَتَلْتَ نَفْساً بِالاٌّمْسِ إِن تُرِيدُ إِلاَّ أَن تَكُونَ جَبَّاراً فِى الاٌّرْضِ وَمَا تُرِيدُ أَن تَكُونَ مِنَ الْمُصْلِحِينَ

 (19. Then when he decided to seize the man who was an enemy to both of them, the man said: “O Musa! Is it your intention to kill me as you killed a man yesterday Your aim is nothing but to become a tyrant in the land, and not to be one of those who do right.”)

Surah 28 Al Qasas verse 18-19

Tafsir Ibn Kathir

Allah tells us that when Musa killed that Coptic,

(he became afraid in the city) meaning, of the consequences of his action,

(looking about) means, turning around and watching out, waiting for the consequences of his action to befall him. He went out and about, and saw the man who sought his help the day before, fighting with another Coptic. When Musa passed by him, he called for his help again, against this other Coptic. Musa said to him:

(Verily, you are a plain misleader!) meaning, `you obviously lead people astray and are very evil.’ Then Musa intended to attack that Coptic, but the Israelite — because of his own cowardice and weakness — thought that Musa wanted to hit him because of what he had said, so he said, in self-defence —

(O Musa! Is it your intention to kill me as you killed a man yesterday) Nobody except him and Musa, peace be upon him, knew about it, but when the other Coptic heard this, he took the news to Fir`awn’s gate and told him about it. So Fir`awn came to know of it, and he became very angry and resolved to kill Musa, so he sent people after him to bring him to him.

وَجَآءَ رَجُلٌ مِّنْ أَقْصَى الْمَدِينَةِ يَسْعَى قَالَ يمُوسَى إِنَّ الْمَلاّ يَأْتَمِرُونَ بِكَ لِيَقْتُلُوكَ فَاخْرُجْ إِنِّى لَكَ مِنَ النَّـصِحِينَ

(20. And there came a man running, from the farthest end of the city. He said: “O Musa! Verily, the chiefs are taking counsel together about you, to kill you, so escape. Truly, I am one of the good advisers to you.”) 

Surah 28 Al Qasas Verse 20

Tafsir ibn Kathir

(And there came a man) He is described as being a man because he had the courage to take a different route, a shorter route than those who were sent after Musa, so he reached Musa first and said to him: “O Musa,

(Verily, the chiefs are taking counsel together about you.),” meaning, `they are consulting with one another about you.’

(to kill you, so escape.) means, from this land.

(Truly, I am one of the good advisers to you.)

فَخَرَجَ مِنْهَا خَآئِفاً يَتَرَقَّبُ قَالَ رَبِّ نَجِّنِى مِنَ الْقَوْمِ الظَّـلِمِينَ

(21. So he escaped from there, looking about in a state of fear. He said: “My Lord! Save me from the people who are wrongdoers!”)

 وَلَمَّا تَوَجَّهَ تِلْقَآءَ مَدْيَنَ قَالَ عَسَى رَبِّى أَن يَهْدِيَنِى سَوَآءَ السَّبِيلِ

(22. And when he went towards Madyan, he said: “It may be that my Lord guides me to the right way.”)

وَلَمَّا وَرَدَ مَآءَ مَدْيَنَ وَجَدَ عَلَيْهِ أُمَّةً مِّنَ النَّاسِ يَسْقُونَ وَوَجَدَ مِن دُونِهِمُ امْرَأَتَينِ تَذُودَانِ قَالَ مَا خَطْبُكُمَا قَالَتَا لاَ نَسْقِى حَتَّى يُصْدِرَ الرِّعَآءُ وَأَبُونَا شَيْخٌ كَبِيرٌ

(23. And when he arrived at the water of Madyan, he found there a group of men watering, and besides them he found two women who were keeping back (their flocks). He said: “What is the matter with you” They said: “We cannot water (our flocks) until the shepherds take (their flocks). And our father is a very old man.”)

 فَسَقَى لَهُمَا ثُمَّ تَوَلَّى إِلَى الظِّلِّ فَقَالَ رَبِّ إِنِّى لِمَآ أَنزَلْتَ إِلَىَّ مِنْ خَيْرٍ فَقِيرٌ

 (24. So he watered (their flocks) for them, then he turned back to shade, and said: “My Lord! Truly, I am in need of whatever good that You bestow on me!”)

Surah 28 Al Qasas Verse 21- 24

Tafsir Ibn Kathir

When the man told Musa about how Fir`awn and his chiefs were conspiring against him, he left Egypt on his own. He was not used to being alone, because before that he had been living a life of luxury and ease, in a position of leadership.

(So he escaped from there, looking about in a state of fear.) meaning, turning around and watching.

(My Lord! Save me from the people who are wrongdoers!) means, from Fir`awn and his chiefs. It was mentioned that Allah sent to him an angel riding a horse, who showed him the way. And Allah knows best.

(And when he went towards (the land of) Madyan,) means, he took a smooth and easy route — and he rejoiced because of that.

(he said: “It may be that my Lord guides me to the right way.”) meaning, the most straight route. And Allah did indeed do that, for He guided him to the straight path in this world and the Hereafter, and caused him to be guided and to guide others.

(And when he arrived at the water (a well) of Madyan,) means, when he reached Madyan and went to drink from its water, for it had a well where shepherds used to water their flocks,

(he found there a group of men watering, and besides them he found two women who were keeping back.) means, they were stopping their sheep from drinking with the sheep of those shepherds, lest some harm come to them. When Musa, peace be upon him, saw them, he felt sorry for them and took pity on them.

(He said: “What is the matter with you”) meaning, `why do you not water your flocks with these people’

(They said: “We cannot water until the shepherds take…”) meaning, `we cannot water our flocks until they finish.’

(And our father is a very old man.) means, `this is what has driven us to what you see.’

(So he watered (their flocks) for them, )

(then he turned back to shade, and said: “My Lord! Truly, I am in need of whatever good that You bestow on me!”)

(to shade,) Ibn `Abbas, Ibn Mas`ud and As-Suddi said: “He sat beneath a tree.” `Ata’ bin As-Sa’ib said: “When Musa said:

(“My Lord! Truly, I am in need of whatever good that You bestow on me!”) the women heard him.”

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