The Performance of Wudu

I take refuge with Allaah, the Exalted, from the accursed devil.

بِسْمِ اللَّهِ الرَّحْمَـنِ الرَّحِيمِ

Bismillah-ir-Rahman-ir-Raheem: In the name of Allah, the Compassionate, the Merciful.

Welcome to my blog and praise the Magnificent Lord as you enter: Allahu Akbar: Allah is the Greatest .

May the Peace and Blessings of Allah Azza wa Jal, our Lord Glorified and Praised be He, be upon our beloved  Prophet, his Family, and Companions.

The Performance of Wudu.

يَـأَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ ءَامَنُواْ إِذَا قُمْتُمْ إِلَى الصَّلوةِ فاغْسِلُواْ وُجُوهَكُمْ وَأَيْدِيَكُمْ إِلَى الْمَرَافِقِ وَامْسَحُواْ بِرُؤُوسِكُمْ وَأَرْجُلَكُمْ إِلَى الْكَعْبَينِ وَإِن كُنتُمْ جُنُباً فَاطَّهَّرُواْ وَإِن كُنتُم مَّرْضَى أَوْ عَلَى سَفَرٍ أَوْ جَآءَ أَحَدٌ مِّنْكُم مِّنَ الْغَائِطِ أَوْ لَـمَسْتُمُ النِّسَآءَ فَلَمْ تَجِدُواْ مَآءً فَتَيَمَّمُواْ صَعِيداً طَيِّباً فَامْسَحُواْ بِوُجُوهِكُمْ وَأَيْدِيكُمْ مِّنْهُ مَا يُرِيدُ اللَّهُ لِيَجْعَلَ عَلَيْكُم مِّنْ حَرَجٍ وَلَـكِن يُرِيدُ لِيُطَهِّرَكُمْ وَلِيُتِمَّ نِعْمَتَهُ عَلَيْكُمْ لَعَلَّكُمْ تَشْكُرُونَ

(6. O you who believe! When you stand (intend) to offer the Salah (the prayer), then wash your faces and your hands (forearms) up to the elbows, rub (by passing wet hands over) your heads, and (wash) your feet up to the ankles. If you are in a state of Janaba, purify yourselves (bathe your whole body). But if you are ill or on a journey or any of you comes from the Gha’it (toilet) or you have touched women and you find no water, then perform Tayammum with clean earth and rub therewith your faces and hands. Allah does not want to place you in difficulty, but He wants to purify you, and to complete His Favor to you that you may be thankful.)

Surah 5 Al Maeda Verse 6

Tafsir Ibn Kathir

Allah said,

(When you stand for (intend to offer) the Salah,) Allah commanded performing Wudu’ for the prayer. This is a command of obligation in the case of impurity, and in the case of purity, it is merely a recommendation. It was said that in the beginning of Islam, Muslims had to perform Wudu’ for every prayer, but later on, this ruling was abrogated. Imam Ahmad bin Hanbal recorded that Sulayman bin Buraydah said that his father said, “The Prophet used to perform Wudu’ before every prayer. On the Day of Victory, he performed Wudu’ and wiped on his Khuffs and prayed the five prayers with one Wudu’. `Umar said to him, `O Messenger of Allah! You did something new that you never did before.’ The Prophet said,

(`I did that intentionally O `Umar!)”’ Muslim and the collectors of the Sunan also recorded this Hadith. At-Tirmidhi said,”Hasan Sahih.” Ibn Jarir recorded that Al-Fadl bin Al-Mubashshir said, “I saw Jabir bin `Abdullah perform several prayers with only one Wudu’. When he would answer the call of nature, he performed Wudu’ and wiped the top of his Khuffs with his wet hand. I said, `O Abu `Abdullah! Do you do this according to your own opinion’ He said, `Rather, I saw the Prophet do the same thing. So, I do what I saw the Messenger of Allah doing.”’ Ibn Majah also recorded this Hadith. Ahmad recorded that `Ubaydullah bin `Abdullah bin `Umar was asked; “Did you see `Abdullah bin `Umar perform Wudu’ for every prayer, whether he was in a state of purity or not,” So he replied, “Asma’ bint Zayd bin Al-Khattab told him that `Abdullah bin Hanzalah bin Abi `Amir Al-Ghasil told her that the Messenger of Allah was earlier commanded to perform Wudu’ for every prayer, whether he needed it or not. When that became hard on him, he was commanded to use Siwak for every prayer, and to perform Wudu’ when Hadath (impurity) occurs. `Abdullah (Ibn `Umar) thought that he was able to do that (perform Wudu’ for every prayer) and he kept doing that until he died.” Abu Dawud also collected this narration. This practice by Ibn `Umar demonstrates that it is encouraged, not obligatory, to perform Wudu’ for every prayer, and this is also the opinion of the majority of scholars. Abu Dawud recorded that `Abdullah bin `Abbas said that when the Messenger of Allah once left the area where he answered the call of nature, he was brought something to eat. They said, “Should we bring you your water for Wudu” He said,

(I was commanded to perform Wudu’ when I stand up for prayer.) At-Tirmidhi and An-Nasa’i also recorded this Hadith and At-Tirmidhi said, “This Hadith is Hasan.” Muslim recorded that Ibn `Abbas said, “We were with the Prophet when he went to answer the call of nature and when he came back, he was brought some food. He was asked, `O Messenger of Allah! Do you want to perform Wudu” He said,

(`Why Am I about to pray so that I have to make Wudu’.)”’

The Intention and Mentioning Allah’s Name for Wudu.

Allah said;

(then wash your faces…) The obligation for the intention before Wudu’ is proven by this Ayah;

(When you stand (intend) to offer the Salah then wash your faces…) This is because it is just like the Arabs saying; “When you see the leader, then stand.” Meaning stand for him. And the Two Sahihs recorded the Hadith,

(Actions are judged by their intentions, and each person will earn what he intended.) It is also recommended before washing the face that one mentions Allah’s Name for the Wudu’. A Hadith that was narrated by several Companions states that the Prophet said,

(There is no Wudu’ for he who does not mention Allah’s Name over it.) It is also recommended that one washes his hands before he puts his hands in the vessel of water, especially after one wakes up from sleep, for the Two Sahihs recorded that Abu Hurayrah said that the Messenger of Allah said,

(If one of you wakes up from his sleep, let him not put his hand in the pot until he washes it thrice, for one of you does not know where his hand spent the night.) The face according to the scholars of Fiqh starts where the hair line on the head starts, regardless of one’s lack or abundance of hair, until the end of the cheeks and chin, and from ear to ear.

Passing the Fingers through the Beard While Performing Wudu.

Imam Ahmad recorded that Abu Wa’il said, “I saw `Uthman when he was performing Wudu’… When he washed his face, he passed his fingers through his beard three times. He said, `I saw the Messenger of Allah do what you saw me doing.”’ At-Tirmidhi and Ibn Majah also recorded this Hadith. At-Tirmidhi said “Hasan Sahih.” while Al-Bukhari graded it Hasan.

How to Perform Wudu.

Imam Ahmad recorded that Ibn `Abbas once performed Wudu’ and took a handful of water and rinsed his mouth and nose with it. He took another handful of water and joined both hands and washed his face. He took another handful of water and washed his right hand, and another handful and washed his left hand with it. He next wiped his head. Next, he took a handful of water and sprinkled it on his right foot and washed it and took another handful of water and washed his left foot. When he finished, he said, “This is how I saw the Messenger of Allah (performing Wudu’).” Al-Bukhari also recorded it. Allah said,

(and your hands (forearms) up to (Ila) the elbows…) meaning, including the elbows. Allah said in another Ayah (using Ila),

(And devour not their substance to (Ila) your substance (by adding or including it in your property). Surely, this is a great sin.) It is recommended that those who perform Wudu’ should wash a part of the upper arm with the elbow. Al-Bukhari and Muslim recorded that Abu Hurayrah said that the Messenger of Allah said,

(On the Day of Resurrection, my Ummah will be called “those with the radiant appendages” because of the traces of Wudu’. Therefore, whoever can increase the area of his radiance should do so.) Muslim recorded that Abu Hurayrah said, “I heard my intimate friend (the Messenger ) saying,

(The radiance of the believer reaches the areas that the water of (his) Wudu’ reaches.)” Allah said next,

(Rub your heads.) It is recorded in the Two Sahihs that Malik bin `Amr bin Yahya Al-Mazini said that his father said that a man said to `Abdullah bin Zayd bin `Asim, the grandfather of `Amr bin Yahya and one of the Companions of the Messenger , “Can you show me how the Messenger of Allah used to perform Wudu”’ `Abdullah bin Zayd said, “Yes.” He then asked for a pot of water. He poured from it on his hands and washed them twice, then he rinsed his mouth and washed his nose (with water) thrice (by putting water in it and blowing it out). He washed his face thrice and after that he washed his forearms up to the elbows twice. He then passed his wet hands over his head from its front to its back and vice versa, beginning from the front and taking them to the back of his head up to the nape of the neck and then brought them to the front again from where he had started. He next washed his feet. A similar description of the Wudu’ of the Messenger of Allah was performed by `Ali in the Hadith by `Abdu Khayr. Abu Dawud recorded that Mu`awiyah and Al-Miqdad bin Ma`dikarib narrated similar descriptions of the Wudu’ of the Messenger of Allah . These Hadiths indicate that it is necessary to wipe the entire head. `Abdur-Razzaq recorded that Humran bin Aban said, “I saw `Uthman bin `Affan performing Wudu’, and he poured water over his hands and washed them thrice, and then rinsed his mouth and washed his nose (by putting water in it, and then blowing it out). Then he washed his face thrice, and then his right forearm up to the elbows thrice, and washed the left forearm thrice. Then he passed his wet hands over his head, then he washed his right foot thrice, and next his left foot thrice. After that `Uthman said, `I saw the Prophet performing Wudu’ like this, and said,

(If anyone performs Wudu’ like that of mine and offers a two-Rak`ah prayer during which he does not think of anything else, then his past sins will be forgiven.)”’ Al-Bukhari and Muslim also recorded this Hadith in the Two Sahihs. In his Sunan, Abu Dawud also recorded it from `Uthman, under the description of Wudu’, and in it, that he wiped his head one time.

The Necessity of Washing the Feet.

Allah said,

(and your feet up to ankles.) Ibn Abi Hatim recorded that Ibn `Abbas stated that the Ayah refers to washing (the feet). `Abdullah bin Mas`ud, `Urwah, `Ata’, `Ikrimah, Al-Hasan, Mujahid, Ibrahim, Ad-Dahhak, As-Suddi, Muqatil bin Hayyan, Az-Zuhri and Ibrahim At-Taymi said similarly. This clearly indicates the necessity of washing the feet, just as the Salaf have said, and not only wiping over the top of the bare foot.

The Hadiths that Indicate the Necessity of Washing the Feet.

We mentioned the Hadiths by the two Leaders of the Faithful, `Uthman and `Ali, and also by Ibn `Abbas, Mu`awiyah, `Abdullah bin Zayd bin `Asim and Al-Miqdad bin Ma`dikarib, that the Messenger of Allah washed his feet for Wudu’, either once, twice or thrice. It is recorded in the Two Sahihs that `Abdullah bin `Amr said, “The Messenger of Allah was once late during a trip we were taking, and he caught up with us when the time remaining for the `Asr prayer was short. We were still performing Wudu’ (in a rush) and we were wiping our feet. He shouted at the top of his voice,

(Perform Wudu’ thoroughly. Save your heels from the Fire.)” The same narration was also collected in the Two Sahihs from Abu Hurayrah. Muslim recorded that `A’ishah said that the Prophet said,

(Perform Wudu’ thoroughly. Save your heels from the Fire.) `Abdullah bin Al-Harith bin Jaz’ said that he heard the Messenger of Allah saying,

(Save your heels and the bottom of the feet from the Fire. ) It was recorded by Al-Bayhaqi and Al-Hakim, and this chain is Sahih. Muslim recorded that `Umar bin Al-Khattab said that a man once performed Wudu’ and left a dry spot the size of a fingernail on his foot. The Prophet saw that and he said to him,

(Go back and perform proper Wudu’.) Al-Hafiz Abu Bakr Al-Bayhaqi also recorded that Anas bin Malik said that a man came to the Prophet , after he performed Wudu’ and left a dry spot the size of a fingernail on his foot. The Messenger of Allah said to him,

(Go back and perform proper Wudu’.) Imam Ahmad recorded that some of the wives of the Prophet said that the Prophet saw a man praying, but noticed a dry spot on his foot, the size of a Dirham. The Messenger of Allah ordered that man to perform Wudu’ again. This Hadith was also collected by Abu Dawud from Baqiyyah, who added in his narration, “And (the Prophet ordered him) to repeat the prayer.” This Hadith has a strong, reasonably good chain of narrators. Allah knows best.

The Necessity of Washing Between the Fingers.

In the Hadith that Humran narrated, `Uthman washed between his fingers when he was describing the Wudu’ of the Prophet . The collectors of the Sunan recorded that Laqit bin Sabrah said, “I said, `O Messenger of Allah! Tell me about Wudu’.’ The Messenger replied,

(Perform Wudu’ thoroughly, wash between the fingers and exaggerate in rinsing your nose, unless you are fasting.)”

Wiping Over the Khuffs is an Established Sunnah.

Imam Ahmad bin Hanbal recorded that Aws bin Abi Aws said, “I saw the Messenger of Allah perform Wudu’ and wipe over his Khuffs. He then stood up for prayer.” Abu Dawud recorded this Hadith by Aws bin Abi Aws, who said in this narration, “I saw the Messenger of Allah , after he answered the call of nature, perform Wudu’ and wipe over his Khuffs and feet.” Imam Ahmad recorded that Jarir bin `Abdullah Al-Bajali said, “I embraced Islam after Surat Al-Ma’idah was revealed and I saw the Messenger of Allah wipe after I became Muslim.” It is recorded in the Two Sahihs that Hammam said, “Jarir answered the call of nature and then performed Wudu’ and wiped over his Khuffs. He was asked, `Do you do this’ He said, `Yes. I saw the Messenger of Allah , after he answered the call of nature, perform Wudu’ and wipe on his Khuffs.”’ Al-A`mash commented that Ibrahim said, “They liked this Hadith because Jarir embraced Islam after Surat Al-Ma’idah was revealed.” This is the wording collected by Muslim. The subject of the Messenger of Allah wiping over his Khuffs, instead of washing the feet, if he had worn his Khuffs while having Wudu’, reaches the Mutawatir grade of narration, and they describe this practice by his words and actions.

Performing Tayammum with Clean earth When There is no Water and When One is Ill.

Allah said,

(But if you are ill or on a journey or any of you comes from the Gha’it (toilet), or you have touched women and you find no water, then perform Tayammum with clean earth and rub therewith your faces and hands.) We discussed all of this in Surat An-Nisa’, and thus we do not need to repeat it here. We also mentioned the reason behind revealing this Ayah. Yet, Al-Bukhari mentioned an honorable Hadith here specifically about the Tafsir of this noble Ayah. He recorded that `A’ishah said, “Upon returning to Al-Madinah, a necklace of mine was broken (and lost) in Al-Bayda’ area. Allah’s Messenger stayed there and went to sleep with his head on my lap. Abu Bakr (`A’ishah’s father) came and hit me on my flank with his hand saying, `You have detained the people because of a necklace’ So I wished I were dead because (I could not move) the Messenger was sleeping on my lap and because of the pain Abu Bakr caused me. Allah’s Messenger got up when dawn broke and there was no water. So Allah revealed,

(O you who believe! When you stand (intend) to offer As-Salah (the prayer), then wash your faces) until the end of the Ayah. Usayd bin Al-Hudayr said, `O the family of Abu Bakr! Allah has blessed the people because of you. Therefore, you are only a blessing for the people.” Allah said,

(Allah does not want to place you in difficulty,) This is why He made things easy and lenient for you. This is why He allowed you to use Tayammum when you are ill and when you do not find water, to make things comfortable for you and as mercy for you. Allah made Tayammum in place of Wudu’, and Allah made it the same as ablution with water for the one who it is legitimate for, except for certain things, as we mentioned before. For example; Tayammum only involves one strike with the hand on the sand and wiping the face and hands. Allah said,

(but He wants to purify you, and to complete His favor on you that you may be thankful.) for His bounties on you, such as His easy, kind, merciful, comfortable and lenient legislation.

Supplicating to Allah after Wudu.

The Sunnah encourages supplicating to Allah after Wudu’ and states that those who do so are among those who seek to purify themselves, as the Ayah above states. Imam Ahmad, Muslim and the collectors of Sunan narrated that `Uqbah bin `Amir said, “We were on watch, guarding camels, and when my turn to guard came, I took the camels back at night. I found that the Messenger of Allah was giving a speech to the people. I heard these words from that speech:

(Any Muslim who performs Wudu’ properly, then stands up and prays a two Rak’ah prayer with full attention in his heart and face, will earn Paradise.) I said, `What a good statement this is!’ A person who was close by said, `The statement he said before it is even better.’ When I looked, I found that it was `Umar, who said, `I saw that you just came. The Prophet said,

(When any of you performs Wudu’ properly and says, `I bear witness that there is no deity worthy of worship except Allah and that Muhammad is His servant and Messenger’, the eight doors of Paradise will be opened for him so that he can enter from any door he wishes.)” This is the wording collected by Muslim.

The Virtue of Wudu.

Malik recorded that Abu Hurayrah said that the Messenger of Allah said,

(When the Muslim or the believing servant performs Wudu’ and washes his face, every sin that he looked at with his eyes will depart from his face with the water, or with the last drop of water. When he washes his hands, every sin that his hands committed will depart from his hands with the water, or with the last drop of water. When he washes his feet, every sin to which his feet took him will depart with the water, or with the last drop of water. Until, he ends up sinless.) Muslim also recorded it. Muslim recorded that Abu Malik Al-Ash`ari said that the Messenger of Allah said,

(Purity is half of faith and Al-Hamdu Lillah (all the thanks are due to Allah) fills the Mizan (the Scale). And Subhan Allah and Allahu Akbar (all praise is due to Allah, and Allah is the Most Great) fills what is between the heaven and earth. As-Sawm (the fast) is a Junnah (a shield), Sabr (patience) is a light, Sadaqah (charity) is evidence (of faith) and the Qur’an is proof for, or against you. Every person goes out in the morning and ends up selling himself, he either frees his soul or destroys it.) Muslim recorded that Ibn `Umar said that the Messenger of Allah said,

(Allah does not accept charity from one who commits Ghulul, or prayer without purity.)

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Allah, Glorified and Praised Be He, permitted the slaughtered animals of the People of the Book

I take refuge with Allaah, the Exalted, from the accursed devil.

بِسْمِ اللَّهِ الرَّحْمَـنِ الرَّحِيمِ

Bismillah-ir-Rahman-ir-Raheem: In the name of Allah, the Compassionate, the Merciful.

Welcome to my blog and praise the Magnificent Lord as you enter: Allahu Akbar: Allah is the Greatest .

May the Peace and Blessings of Allah Azza wa Jal, our Lord Glorified and Praised be He, be upon our beloved  Prophet, his Family, and Companions.

Allah, Glorified and Praised Be He, permitted the slaughtered animals of the People of the Book.

الْيَوْمَ أُحِلَّ لَكُمُ الطَّيِّبَـتُ وَطَعَامُ الَّذِينَ أُوتُواْ الْكِتَـبَ حِلٌّ لَّكُمْ وَطَعَامُكُمْ حِلٌّ لَّهُمْ وَالْمُحْصَنَـتُ مِنَ الْمُؤْمِنَـتِ وَالْمُحْصَنَـتُ مِنَ الَّذِينَ أُوتُواْ الْكِتَـبَ مِن قَبْلِكُمْ إِذَآ ءَاتَيْتُمُوهُنَّ أُجُورَهُنَّ مُحْصِنِينَ غَيْرَ مُسَافِحِينَ وَلاَ مُتَّخِذِى أَخْدَانٍ وَمَن يَكْفُرْ بِالإِيمَـنِ فَقَدْ حَبِطَ عَمَلُهُ وَهُوَ فِى الاٌّخِرَةِ مِنَ الْخَـسِرِينَ

(5. Made lawful to you this day are At-Tayyibat. The food of the People of the Scripture is lawful to you, and your food is lawful to them. (Lawful to you in marriage) are chaste women from the believers and chaste women from those who were given the Scripture before your time when you have given them their due, desiring chastity, not illegal sexual intercourse, nor taking them as girlfriends (or lovers). And whosoever rejects faith, then fruitless is his work; and in the Hereafter he will be among the losers.)

Surah 5 Al Maeda Verse 5

Tafsir Ibn Kathir

After Allah mentioned the filthy things that He prohibited for His believing servants and the good things that He allowed for them, He said next,

(Made lawful to you this day are At-Tayyibat.) Allah then mentioned the ruling concerning the slaughtered animals of the People of the Book, the Jews and Christians,

(The food of the People of the Scripture is lawful to you..) meaning, their slaughtered animals, as Ibn `Abbas, Abu Umamah, Mujahid, Sa`id bin Jubayr, `Ikrimah, `Ata’, Al-Hasan, Makhul, Ibrahim An-Nakha`i, As-Suddi and Muqatil bin Hayyan stated. This ruling, that the slaughtered animals of the People of the Book are permissible for Muslims, is agreed on by the scholars, because the People of the Book believe that slaughtering for other than Allah is prohibited. They mention Allah’s Name upon slaughtering their animals, even though they have deviant beliefs about Allah that do not befit His majesty. It is recorded in the Sahih that `Abdullah bin Mughaffal said, “While we were attacking the fort of Khaybar, a person threw a leather bag containing fat, and I ran to take it and said, `I will not give anyone anything from this container today.’ But when I turned I saw the Prophet (standing behind) while smiling.” The scholars rely on this Hadith as evidence that we are allowed to eat what we need of foods from the booty before it is divided. The scholars of the Hanafi, the Shafi`i and the Hanbali Madhhabs rely on this Hadith to allow eating parts of the slaughtered animals of the Jews that they prohibit for themselves, such as the fat. They used this Hadith as evidence against the scholars of the Maliki Madhhab who disagreed with this ruling. A better proof is the Hadith recorded in the Sahih that the people of Khaybar gave the Prophet a gift of a roasted leg of sheep, which they poisoned. The Prophet used to like eating the leg of the sheep and he took a bite from it, but it told the Prophet that it was poisoned, so he discarded that bite. The bite that the Prophet took effected the palate of his mouth, while Bishr bin Al-Bara’ bin Ma`rur died from eating from that sheep. The Prophet had the Jewish woman, Zaynab, who poisoned the sheep, killed. Therefore, the Prophet and his Companions wanted to eat from that sheep and did not ask the Jews if they removed what the Jews believed was prohibited for them, such as its fat. Allah’s statement,

(and your food is lawful to them.) means, you are allowed to feed them from your slaughtered animals. Therefore, this part of the Ayah is not to inform the People of the Scriptures that they are allowed to eat our food — unless we consider it information for us about the ruling that they have — i. e, that they are allowed all types of foods over which Allah’s Name was mentioned, whether slaughtered according to their religion or otherwise. The first explanation is more plausible. So it means: you are allowed to feed them from your slaughtered animals just as you are allowed to eat from theirs, as equal compensation and fair treatment. The Prophet gave his robe to `Abdullah bin Ubayy bin Salul, who was wrapped with it when he died. They say that he did that because `Abdullah had given his robe to Al-`Abbas when Al-`Abbas came to Al-Madinah. As for the Hadith,

(Do not befriend but a believer, nor should other than a Taqi (pious person) eat your food.), This is to encourage such behavior, and Allah knows best.

The Permission to Marry Chaste Women From the People of the Scriptures.

Allah said,

((Lawful to you in marriage) are chaste women from the believers) The Ayah states: you are allowed to marry free, chaste believing women. This Ayah is talking about women who do not commit fornication, as evident by the word `chaste’. Allah said in another Ayah,

(Desiring chastity not committing illegal sexual intercourse, nor taking them as boyfriends (lovers).) (4:25) `Abdullah Ibn `Umar used to advise against marrying Christian women saying, “I do not know of a worse case of Shirk than her saying that `Isa is her lord, while Allah said,

(And do not marry idolatresses till they believe.)” Ibn Abi Hatim recorded that Abu Malik Al-Ghifari said that Ibn `Abbas said that when this Ayah was revealed,

(And do not marry idolatresses till they believe,) the people did not marry the pagan women. When the following Ayah was revealed,

((Lawful to you in marriage) are chaste women from the believers and chaste women from those who were given the Scripture before your time) they married women from the People of the Book. ” Some of the Companions married Christian women and did not see any problem in this, relying on the honorable Ayah,

((Lawful to you in marriage) are chaste women from those who were given the Scripture before your time) Therefore, they made this Ayah an exception to the Ayah in Surat Al-Baqarah,

(And do not marry the idolatresses till they believe,) considering the latter Ayah to include the People of the Book in its general meaning. Otherwise, there is no contradiction here, since the People of the Book were mentioned alone when mentioning the rest of the idolators. Allah said,

(Those who disbelieve from among the People of the Scripture and the idolators, were not going to leave (their disbelief) until there came to them clear evidence.) and,

(And say to those who were given the Scripture and to those who are illiterates: “Do you (also) submit yourselves” If they do, they are rightly guided.) Allah said next,

(When you have given them their due), This refers to the Mahr, so just as these women are chaste and honorable, then give them their Mahr with a good heart. We should mention here that Jabir bin `Abdullah, `Amir Ash-Sha`bi, Ibrahim An-Nakha`i and Al-Hasan Al-Basri stated that when a man marries a woman and she commits illegal sexual intercourse before the marriage is consummated, the marriage is annulled. In this case, she gives back the Mahr that he paid her. Allah said,

(Desiring chastity, not illegal sexual intercourse, nor taking them as girl-friends (or lovers).) And just as women must be chaste and avoid illegal sexual activity, such is the case with men, who must also be chaste and honorable. Therefore, Allah said,

(…not illegal sexual intercourse’) as adulterous people do, those who do not avoid sin, nor reject adultery with whomever offers it to them.

(nor taking them as girl-friends (or lovers),) meaning those who have mistresses and girlfriends who commit illegal sexual intercourse with them, as we mentioned in the explanation of Surat An-Nisa’.

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Clarifying the lawful in the killing of game.

I take refuge with Allaah, the Exalted, from the accursed devil.

بِسْمِ اللَّهِ الرَّحْمَـنِ الرَّحِيمِ

Bismillah-ir-Rahman-ir-Raheem: In the name of Allah, the Compassionate, the Merciful.

Welcome to my blog and praise the Magnificent Lord as you enter: Allahu Akbar: Allah is the Greatest .

May the Peace and Blessings of Allah Azza wa Jal, our Lord Glorified and Praised be He, be upon our beloved  Prophet, his Family, and Companions.

Clarifying the lawful in the killing of game,

يَسْأَلُونَكَ مَاذَآ أُحِلَّ لَهُمْ قُلْ أُحِلَّ لَكُمُ الطَّيِّبَـتُ وَمَا عَلَّمْتُمْ مِّنَ الْجَوَارِحِ مُكَلِّبِينَ تُعَلِّمُونَهُنَّ مِمَّا عَلَّمَكُمُ اللَّهُ فَكُلُواْ مِمَّآ أَمْسَكْنَ عَلَيْكُمْ وَاذْكُرُواْ اسْمَ اللَّهِ عَلَيْهِ وَاتَّقُواْ اللَّهَ إِنَّ اللَّهَ سَرِيعُ الْحِسَابِ

(4. They ask you what is lawful for them. Say: “Lawful unto you are At-Tayyibat (the good things). And those Jawarih (beasts and birds of prey) which you have trained as hounds, training and teaching them (to catch) in the manner as directed to you by Allah; so eat of what they catch for you, but pronounce the Name of Allah over it, and have Taqwa of Allah. Verily, Allah is swift in reckoning.”)

Surah 5 Al Maeda Verse 4

Tafsir Ibn Kathir

In the previous Ayah Allah mentioned the prohibited types of food, the impure and unclean things, harmful for those who eat them, either to their bodies, religion or both, except out of necessity,

(while He has explained to you in detail what is forbidden to you, except under compulsion of necessity) After that, Allah said,

(They ask you what is lawful for them. Say, “Lawful unto you are At-Tayyibat…”) In Surat Al-A`raf Allah describes Muhammad allowing the good things and prohibiting the filthy things. Muqatil said, “At-Tayyibat includes everything Muslims are allowed and the various types of legally earned provision.” Az-Zuhri was once asked about drinking urine for medicinal purposes and he said that it is not a type of Tayyibat.” Ibn Abi Hatim also narrated this statement. Using Jawarih to Hunt Game is Permissible Allah said,

(And those Jawarih (beasts and birds of prey) which you have trained as hounds…) That is, lawful for you are the animals slaughtered in Allah’s Name, and the good things for sustenance. (The game you catch) with the Jawarih are also lawful for you. This refers to trained dogs and falcons, as is the opinion of the majority of the Companions, their followers, and the Imams. `Ali bin Abi Talhah reported that Ibn `Abbas said that,

(And those Jawarih (beasts and birds of prey) which you have trained as hounds…) refers to trained hunting dogs, falcons and all types of birds and beasts that are trained to hunt, including dogs, wild cats, falcons, and so forth. Ibn Abi Hatim collected this and said, “Similar was reported from Khaythamah, Tawus, Mujahid, Makhul and Yahya bin Abi Kathir.” Ibn Jarir recorded that Ibn `Umar said, “You are permitted the animal that the trained birds, such as falcons, hunt for you if you catch it (before it eats from it). Otherwise, do not eat from it.” I say, the majority of scholars say that hunting with trained birds is just like hunting with trained dogs, because bird’s of prey catch the game with their claws, just like dogs. Therefore, there is no difference between the two. Ibn Jarir recorded that `Adi bin Hatim said that he asked the Messenger of Allah about the game that the falcon hunts and the Messenger said,

(Whatever it catches for you, eat from it.) These carnivores that are trained to catch game are called Jawarih in Arabic, a word that is derived from Jarh, meaning, what one earns. The Arabs would say, “So-and-so has Jaraha something good for his family,” meaning, he has earned them something good. The Arabs would say, “So-and-so does not have a Jarih for him,” meaning, a caretaker. Allah also said,

(And He knows what you have done during the day…) meaning, the good or evil you have earned or committed. Allah’s statement,

(trained as hounds,) those Jawarih that have been trained to hunt as hounds with their claws or talons. Therefore, if the game is killed by the weight of its blow, not with its claws, then we are not allowed to eat from the game. Allah said,

(training them in the manner as directed to you by Allah, ) as when the beast is sent, it goes after the game, and when it catches it, it keeps it until its owner arrives and does not catch it to eat it itself. This is why Allah said here,

(so eat of what they catch for you, but pronounce the Name of Allah over it,) When the beast is trained, and it catches the game for its owner who mentioned Allah’s Name when he sent the beast after the game, then this game is allowed according to the consensus of scholars, even if it was killed. There are Hadiths in the Sunnah that support this statement. The Two Sahihs recorded that `Adi bin Hatim said, “I said, `O Allah’s Messenger! I send hunting dogs and mention Allah’s Name.’ He replied,

(If, with mentioning Allah’s Name, you let loose your tamed dog after a game and it catches it, you may eat what it catches.) I said, `Even if it kills the game’ He replied,

(Even if it kills the game, unless another dog joins the hunt, for you mentioned Allah’s Name when sending your dog, but not the other dog.) I said, `I also use the Mi`rad and catch game with it.’ He replied,

(If the game is hit by its sharp edge, eat it, but if it is hit by its broad side, do not eat it, for it has been beaten to death.) In another narration, the Prophet said,

(If you send your hunting dog, then mention Allah’s Name and whatever it catches for you and you find alive, slaughter it. If you catch the game dead and the dog did not eat from it, then eat from it, for the dog has caused its slaughter to be fulfilled.) In yet another narration of two Sahihs, the Prophet said,

(If the dog eats from the game, do not eat from it for I fear that it has caught it as prey for itself.)

Mention Allah’s Name Upon Sending the Predators to Catch the Game.

Allah said,

(so eat of what they catch for you, but pronounce the Name of Allah over it,) meaning, upon sending it. The Prophet said to `Adi bin Hatim,

(When you send your trained dog and mention Allah’s Name, eat from what it catches for you.) It is recorded in the Two Sahihs that Abu Tha`labah related that the Prophet said,

(If you send your hunting dog, mention Allah’s Name over it. If you shoot an arrow, mention Allah’s Name over it.) `Ali bin Abi Talhah reported that Ibn `Abbas commented,

(but pronounce the Name of Allah over it,) “When you send a beast of prey, say, `In the Name of Allah!’ If you forget, then there is no harm.” It was also reported that this Ayah commands mentioning Allah’s Name upon eating. It is recorded in the Two Sahihs that the Messenger of Allah taught his stepson `Umar bin Abu Salamah saying,

(Mention Allah’s Name, eat with your right hand and eat from the part of the plate that is in front of you.) Al-Bukhari recorded that `A’ishah said, “They asked, `O Allah’s Messenger! Some people, – recently converted from disbelief – bring us some meats that we do not know if Allah’s Name was mentioned over or not.’ He replied,

(Mention Allah’s Name on it and eat from it.)”

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This day, I have perfected your religion for you

I take refuge with Allaah, the Exalted, from the accursed devil.

بِسْمِ اللَّهِ الرَّحْمَـنِ الرَّحِيمِ

Bismillah-ir-Rahman-ir-Raheem: In the name of Allah, the Compassionate, the Merciful.

Welcome to my blog and praise the Magnificent Lord as you enter: Allahu Akbar: Allah is the Greatest .

May the Peace and Blessings of Allah Azza wa Jal, our Lord Glorified and Praised be He, be upon our beloved  Prophet, his Family, and Companions.

This day, I have perfected your religion for you.

حُرِّمَتْ عَلَيْكُمُ الْمَيْتَةُ وَالْدَّمُ وَلَحْمُ الْخِنْزِيرِ وَمَآ أُهِلَّ لِغَيْرِ اللَّهِ بِهِ وَالْمُنْخَنِقَةُ وَالْمَوْقُوذَةُ وَالْمُتَرَدِّيَةُ وَالنَّطِيحَةُ وَمَآ أَكَلَ السَّبُعُ إِلاَّ مَا ذَكَّيْتُمْ وَمَا ذُبِحَ عَلَى النُّصُبِ وَأَنْ تَسْتَقْسِمُواْ بِالاٌّزْلاَمِ ذَلِكُمْ فِسْقٌ الْيَوْمَ يَئِسَ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُواْ مِن دِينِكُمْ فَلاَ تَخْشَوْهُمْ وَاخْشَوْنِ الْيَوْمَ أَكْمَلْتُ لَكُمْ دِينَكُمْ وَأَتْمَمْتُ عَلَيْكُمْ نِعْمَتِى وَرَضِيتُ لَكُمُ الأِسْلاَمَ دِيناً فَمَنِ اضْطُرَّ فِى مَخْمَصَةٍ غَيْرَ مُتَجَانِفٍ لإِثْمٍ فَإِنَّ اللَّهَ غَفُورٌ رَّحِيمٌ

(3. Forbidden to you (for food) are: Al-Maytah (the dead animals), blood, the flesh of swine, and that which has been slaughtered as a sacrifice for other than Allah, and that which has been killed by strangling, or by a violent blow, or by a headlong fall, or by the goring of horns ـand that which has been (partly) eaten by a wild animal ـunless you are able to slaughter it (before its death) – and that which is sacrificed (slaughtered) on An-Nusub (stone altars). (Forbidden) also is to make decisions with Al-Azlam (arrows) (all) that is Fisq (disobedience and sin). This day, those who disbelieved have given up all hope of your religion; so fear them not, but fear Me. This day, I have perfected your religion for you, completed My favor upon you, and have chosen for you Islam as your religion. But as for him who is forced by severe hunger, with no inclination to sin (such can eat these above mentioned animals), then surely, Allah is Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful.)

Surah 5 Al Maeda Verse 3

Tafsir Ibn Kathir

Allah informs His servants that He forbids consuming the mentioned types of foods, such as the Maytah, which is the animal that dies before being properly slaughtered or hunted. Allah forbids this type of food due to the harm it causes, because of the blood that becomes clogged in the veins of the dead animal. Therefore, the Maytah is harmful, religiously and physically, and this is why Allah has prohibited it. The only exception to this ruling is fish, for fish is allowed, even when dead, by slaughtering or otherwise. Malik in his Muwatta, also Abu Dawud, At-Tirmidhi, An-Nasa’i and Ibn Majah in their Sunan, Ibn Khuzaymah and Ibn Hibban in their Sahihs, all recorded that Abu Hurayrah said that the Messenger of Allah was asked about seawater. He said,

(Its water is pure and its dead are permissible.) The same ruling applies to locusts, as proven in a Hadith that we will mention later. Allah’s statement,

(blood…) This refers to flowing blood, according to Ibn `Abbas and Sa`id bin Jubayr, and it is similar to Allah’s other statement,

(Blood poured forth…) Ibn Abi Hatim recorded that Ibn `Abbas was asked about the spleen and he said, “Eat it.” They said, “It is blood.” He said, “You are only prohibited blood that was poured forth.” Abu `Abdullah, Muhammad bin Idris Ash-Shafi`i recorded that Ibn `Umar said that the Messenger of Allah said,

(We were allowed two dead animals and two (kinds of) blood. As for the two dead animals, they are fish and locust. As for the two bloods, they are liver and spleen.) Imam Ahmad bin Hanbal, Ibn Majah, Ad-Daraqutni and Al-Bayhaqi also recorded this Hadith through `Abdur-Rahman bin Zayd bin Aslam, who is a weak narrator. Allah’s statement,

(the flesh of swine…) includes domesticated and wild swine, and also refers to the whole animal, including its fat, for this is what the Arabs mean by Lahm or `flesh’. Muslim recorded that Buraydah bin Al-Husayb Al-Aslami said that the Messenger of Allah said,

(He who plays Nardshir (a game with dice that involves gambling) is just like the one who puts his hand in the flesh and blood of swine.) If this is the case with merely touching the flesh and blood of swine, so what about eating and feeding on it This Hadith is a proof that Lahm means the entire body of the animal, including its fat. In is recorded in the Two Sahihs that the Messenger of Allah said,

(Allah made the trade of alcohol, dead animals, pigs and idols illegal.) The people asked, “O Allah’s Messenger! What about the fat of dead animals, for it was used for greasing the boats and the hides; and people use it for lanterns” He said,

(No, it is illegal.) In the Sahih of Al-Bukhari, Abu Sufyan narrated that he said to Heraclius, Emperor of Rome, “He (Muhammad) prohibited us from eating dead animals and blood.” Allah said,

(And that which has been slaughtered as a sacrifice for other than Allah.) Therefore, the animals on which a name other than Allah was mentioned upon slaughtering it, is impermissible, because Allah made it necessary to mention His Glorious Name upon slaughtering the animals, which He created. Whoever does not do so, mentioning other than Allah’s Name, such as the name of an idol, a false deity or a monument, when slaughtering, he makes this meat unlawful, according to the consensus. Allah’s statement,

(and that which has been killed by strangling…) either intentionally or by mistake, such as when an animal moves while restrained and dies by strangulation because of its struggling, this animal is also unlawful to eat.

(or by a violent blow…) This refers to the animal that is hit with a heavy object until it dies. Ibn `Abbas and several others said it is the animal that is hit with a staff until it dies. Qatadah said, “The people of Jahiliyyah used to strike the animal with sticks and when it died, they would eat it.” It is recorded in the Sahih that `Adi bin Hatim said, “I asked, `O Allah’s Messenger! I use the Mi`rad for hunting and catch game with it.’ He replied,

(If the game is hit by its sharp edge, eat it. But, if it is hit by its broad side, do not eat it, for it has been beaten to death.) Therefore, the Prophet made a distinction between killing the animal with the sharp edge of an arrow or a hunting stick, and rendered it lawful, and what is killed by the broad side of an object, and rendered it unlawful because it was beaten to death. There is a consensus among the scholars of Fiqh on this subject. As for the animal that falls headlong from a high place and dies as a result, it is also prohibited. `Ali bin Abi Talhah reported that Ibn `Abbas said that an animal that dies by a headlong fall, “Is that which falls from a mountain.” Qatadah said that it is the animal that falls in a well. As-Suddi said that it is the animal that falls from a mountain or in a well. As for the animal that dies by being gorged by another animal, it is also prohibited, even if the horn opens a flesh wound and it bleeds to death from its neck. Allah’s statement,

(and that which has been (partly) eaten by a wild animal,) refers to the animal that was attacked by a lion, leopard, tiger, wolf or dog, then the wild beast eats a part of it and it dies because of that. This type is also prohibited, even if the animal bled to death from its neck. There is also a consensus on this ruling. During the time of Jahiliyyah, the people used to eat the sheep, camel, or cow that were partly eaten by a wild animal. Allah prohibited this practice for the believers. Allah’s statement,

(unless you are able to slaughter it,) before it dies, due to the causes mentioned above. This part of the Ayah is connected to,

(and that which has been killed by strangling, or by a violent blow, or by a headlong fall, or by the goring of horns – and that which has been (partly) eaten by a wild animal.) `Ali bin Abi Talhah reported that Ibn `Abbas commented on Allah’s statement,

(unless you are able to slaughter it, ) “Unless you are able to slaughter the animal in the cases mentioned in the Ayah while it is still alive, then eat it, for it was properly slaughtered.” Similar was reported from Sa`id bin Jubayr, Al-Hasan Al-Basri and As-Suddi. Ibn Jarir recorded that `Ali, may Allah be pleased with him, said, “If you are able to slaughter the animal that has been hit by a violent blow, or by a headlong fall, or by the gorging of horns while it still moves a foot or a leg, then eat from its meat.” Similar was reported from Tawus, Al-Hasan, Qatadah, `Ubayd bin `Umayr, Ad-Dahhak and several others, that if the animal that is being slaughtered still moves, thus demonstrating that it is still alive while slaughtering, then it is lawful. The Two Sahihs recorded that Rafi` bin Khadij said, “I asked, `O Allah’s Messenger! We fear that we may meet our enemy tomorrow and we have no knives, could we slaughter the animals with reeds’ The Prophet said,

(You can use what makes blood flow and you can eat what is slaughtered with the Name of Allah. But do not use teeth or claws (in slaughtering). I will tell you why, as for teeth, they are bones, and claws are used by Ethiopians for slaughtering.)” Allah said next,

(and that which is sacrificed on An-Nusub. ) Nusub were stone altars that were erected around the Ka`bah, as Mujahid and Ibn Jurayj stated. Ibn Jurayj said, “There were three hundred and sixty Nusub (around the Ka`bah) that the Arabs used to slaughter in front of, during the time of Jahiliyyah. They used to sprinkle the animals that came to the Ka`bah with the blood of slaughtered animals, whose meat they cut to pieces and placed on the altars.” Allah forbade this practice for the believers. He also forbade them from eating the meat of animals that were slaughtered in the vicinity of the Nusub, even if Allah’s Name was mentioned on these animals when they were slaughtered, because it is a type of Shirk that Allah and His Messenger have forbidden.

The Prohibition of Using Al-Azlam for Decision Making.

Allah said,

((Forbidden) also is to make decisions with Al-Azlam) The Ayah commands, “O believers! You are forbidden to use Al-Azlam (arrows) for decision making,” which was a practice of the Arabs during the time of Jahiliyyah. They would use three arrows, one with the word `Do’ written on it, another that says `Do not’, while the third does not say anything. Some of them would write on the first arrow, `My Lord commanded me,’ and, `My Lord forbade me,’ on the second arrow and they would not write anything on the third arrow. If the blank arrow was picked, the person would keep trying until the arrow that says do or do not was picked, and the person would implement the command that he picked. Ibn `Abbas said that the Azlam were arrows that they used to seek decisions through. Muhammad bin Ishaq and others said that the major idol of the tribe of Quraysh was Hubal, which was erected on the tip of a well inside the Ka`bah, where gifts were presented and where the treasure of the Ka`bah was kept. There, they also had seven arrows that they would use to seek a decision concerning matters of dispute. Whatever the chosen arrow would tell them, they would abide by it! Al-Bukhari recorded that when the Prophet entered Al-Ka`bah (after Makkah was conquered), he found pictures of Ibrahim and Isma`il in it holding the Azlam in their hands. The Prophet commented,

(May Allah fight them (the idolaters)! They know that they never used the Azlam to make decisions. ) Mujahid commented on Allah’s statement,

((Forbidden) also is to make decisions with Al-Azlam,) “These were arrows that the Arabs used, and dice that the Persians and Romans used in gambling.” This statement by Mujahid, that these arrows were used in gambling, is doubtful unless we say that they used the arrows for gambling sometimes and for decisions other times, and Allah knows best. We should also state that Allah mentioned Azlam and gambling in His statement before the end of the Surah (5:90, 91),

(O you who believe! Intoxicants (all kinds of alcoholic drinks), and gambling, and Al-Ansab, and Al-Azlam are an abomination of Shaytan’s handiwork. So avoid that in order that you may be successful. Shaytan wants only to excite enmity and hatred between you with intoxicants (alcoholic drinks) and gambling, and hinder you from the remembrance of Allah and from the Salah (the prayer). So, will you not then abstain) In this Ayah, Allah said,

((Forbidden) also is to make decisions with Al-Azlam, (all) that is Fisq.) meaning, all these practices constitute disobedience, sin, misguidance, ignorance and, above all, Shirk. Allah has commanded the believers to seek decisions from Him when they want to do something, by first worshipping Him and then asking Him for the best decision concerning the matter they seek. Imam Ahmad, Al-Bukhari and the collectors of Sunan recorded that Jabir bin `Abdullah said, “The Prophet used to teach us how to make Istikharah (asking Allah to guide one to the right action), in all matters, as he taught us the Surahs of the Qur’an. He said,

(If anyone of you thinks of doing any matter, he should offer a two Rak’ah prayer, other than the compulsory, and say (after the prayer) `O Allah! I ask guidance from Your knowledge, from Your ability and I ask for Your great bounty, for You are capable and I am not, You know and I do not, and You know the Unseen. O Allah! If You know that this matter (and one should mention the matter or deed here) is good for my religion, my livelihood and the Hereafter (or he said, `for my present and later needs’) then ordain it for me, make it easy for me to have, and then bless it for me. O Allah! And if You know that this is harmful to me in my religion and livelihood and for the Hereafter then keep it away from me and let me be away from it. And ordain whatever is good for me, and make me satisfied with it.’) This is the wording collected by Ahmad, and At-Tirmidhi said, “Hasan Sahih Gharib.”

Shaytan and the Disbelievers Do Not Hope that Muslims Will Ever Follow Them.

Allah said,

(This day, those who disbelieved have given up all hope of your religion;) `Ali bin Abi Talhah reported that Ibn `Abbas said that the Ayah means, “They gave up hope that Muslims would revert to their religion.” This is similar to the saying of `Ata’ bin Abi Rabah, As-Suddi and Muqatil bin Hayyan. This meaning is supported by a Hadith recorded in the Sahih that states,

(Verily, Shaytan has given up hope that those who pray in the Arabian Peninsula, will worship him. But he will still stir trouble among them.) It is also possible that the Ayah negates the possibility that the disbelievers and Shaytan will ever be like Muslims, since Muslims have various qualities that contradict Shirk and its people. This is why Allah commanded His believing servants to observe patience, to be steadfast in defying and contradicting the disbelievers, and to fear none but Allah. Allah said,

(So fear them not, but fear Me.) meaning, `do not fear them when you contradict them. Rather, fear Me and I will give you victory over them, I will eradicate them, and make you prevail over them, I will please your hearts and raise you above them in this life and the Hereafter.’

Islam Has Been Perfected For Muslims

Allah said,

(This day, I have perfected your religion for you, completed My favor upon you, and have chosen for you Islam as your religion.) This, indeed, is the biggest favor from Allah to this Ummah, for He has completed their religion for them, and they, thus, do not need any other religion or any other Prophet except Muhammad . This is why Allah made Muhammad the Final Prophet and sent him to all humans and Jinn. Therefore, the permissible is what he allows, the impermissible is what he prohibits, the Law is what he legislates and everything that he conveys is true and authentic and does not contain lies or contradictions. Allah said;

(And the Word of your Lord has been fulfilled in truth and in justice,) meaning, it is true in what it conveys and just in what it commands and forbids. When Allah completed the religion for Muslims, His favor became complete for them as well. Allah said,

(This day, I have perfected your religion for you, completed My favor upon you, and have chosen for you Islam as your religion.) meaning, accept Islam for yourselves, for it is the religion that Allah likes and which He chose for you, and it is that with which He sent the best of the honorable Messengers and the most glorious of His Books. Ibn Jarir recorded that Harun bin `Antarah said that his father said, “When the Ayah,

(This day, I have perfected your religion for you…) was revealed, during the great day of Hajj (the Day of `Arafah, the ninth day of Dhul-Hijjah) `Umar cried. The Prophet said, `What makes you cry’ He said, `What made me cry is that our religion is being perfected for us. Now it is perfect, nothing is perfect, but it is bound to deteriorate.’ The Prophet said,

(You have said the truth.)” What supports the meaning of this Hadith is the authentic Hadith,

(Islam was strange in its beginning and will return strange once more. Therefore, Tuba for the strangers.) Imam Ahmad recorded that Tariq bin Shihab said, “A Jewish man said to `Umar bin Al-Khattab, `O Leader of the Believers! There is a verse in your Book, which is read by all of you (Muslims), and had it been revealed to us, we would have taken that day (on which it was revealed) as a day of celebration.’ `Umar bin Al-Khattab asked, `Which is that verse’ The Jew replied,

(This day, I have perfected your religion for you, completed My favor upon you…) `Umar replied, `By Allah! I know when and where this verse was revealed to Allah’s Messenger . It was the evening on the Day of `Arafah on a Friday.”’ Al-Bukhari recorded this Hadith through Al-Hasan bin As-Sabbah from Ja`far bin `Awn. Muslim, At-Tirmidhi and An-Nasa’i also recorded this Hadith. In the narration collected by Al-Bukhari in the book of Tafsir, through Tariq, he said, “The Jews said to `Umar, `By Allah! There is a verse that is read by all of you (Muslims), and had it been revealed to us, we would have taken that day (on which it was revealed) as a day of celebration.’ `Umar said, `By Allah! I know when and where this verse was revealed and where the Messenger of Allah was at that time. It was the day of `Arafah, and I was at `Arafah, by Allah.” Sufyan (one of the narrators) doubted if Friday was mentioned in this narration. Sufyan’s confusion was either because he was unsure if his teacher included this statement in the Hadith or not. Otherwise, if it was because he doubted that the particular day during the Farewell Hajj was a Friday, it would be a mistake that could not and should not have come from someone like Sufyan Ath-Thawri. The fact that it was a Friday, is agreed on by the scholars of Sirah and Fiqh. There are numerous Hadiths that support this fact that are definitely authentic and of the Mutawatir type. This Hadith was also reported from `Umar through various chains of narration.

Permitting the Dead Animals in Conditions of Necessity.

Allah said,

(But as for him who is forced by severe hunger, with no inclination to sin (such can eat these above mentioned animals), then surely, Allah is Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful.) Therefore, when one is forced to take any of the impermissible things that Allah mentioned to meet a necessity, he is allowed and Allah is Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful with him. Allah is well aware of His servant’s needs during dire straits, and He will forgive and pardon His servant in this case. In the Musnad and the Sahih of Ibn Hibban, it is recorded that Ibn `Umar said that Messenger of Allah said,

(Allah likes that His Rukhsah (allowance) be used, just as He dislikes that disobedience to Him is committed.) We should mention here that it is not necessary for one to wait three days before eating the meat of dead animals, as many unlettered Muslims mistakenly think. Rather, one can eat such meat when the dire need arises. Imam Ahmad recorded that Abu Waqid Al-Laythi said that the Companions asked, “O Messenger of Allah! We live in a land where famine often strikes us. Therefore, when are we allowed to eat the meat of dead animals” The Prophet replied,

(When you neither find food for lunch and dinner nor have any produce to eat, then eat from it.) Only Imam Ahmad collected this narration and its chain meets the criteria of the Two Sahihs. Allah said,

(with no inclination to sin,) meaning, one does not incline to commit what Allah has prohibited. Allah has allowed one when necessity arises to eat from what He otherwise prohibits, under the condition that his heart does not incline to eat what Allah prohibited. Allah said in Surat Al-Baqarah,(But if one is forced by necessity without willful disobedience nor transgressing due limits, then there is no sin on him. Truly, Allah is Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful.) Some scholars used this Ayah as evidence that those who travel for the purpose of committing an act of disobedience are not allowed to use any of the legal concessions of travel, because these concessions are not earned through sin, and Allah knows best.

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The Believers are commanded to fulfill their obligations

I take refuge with Allaah, the Exalted, from the accursed devil.

بِسْمِ اللَّهِ الرَّحْمَـنِ الرَّحِيمِ

Bismillah-ir-Rahman-ir-Raheem: In the name of Allah, the Compassionate, the Merciful.

Welcome to my blog and praise the Magnificent Lord as you enter: Allahu Akbar: Allah is the Greatest .

May the Peace and Blessings of Allah Azza wa Jal, our Lord Glorified and Praised be He, be upon our beloved  Prophet, his Family, and Companions.

The Believers are commanded to fulfill their obligations.

يَـأَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ ءَامَنُواْ أَوْفُواْ بِالْعُقُودِ أُحِلَّتْ لَكُمْ بَهِيمَةُ الاٌّنْعَامِ إِلاَّ مَا يُتْلَى عَلَيْكُمْ غَيْرَ مُحِلِّى الصَّيْدِ وَأَنتُمْ حُرُمٌ إِنَّ اللَّهَ يَحْكُمُ مَا يُرِيدُ

(1. O you who believe! Fulfill (your) obligations. Lawful to you (for food) are all the beasts of cattle except that which will be announced to you (herein), game (also) being unlawful when you assume Ihram. Verily, Allah commands that which He wills.)

يَـأَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ ءَامَنُواْ لاَ تُحِلُّواْ شَعَآئِرَ اللَّهِ وَلاَ الشَّهْرَ الْحَرَامَ وَلاَ الْهَدْىَ وَلاَ الْقَلَـئِدَ وَلا ءَامِّينَ الْبَيْتَ الْحَرَامَ يَبْتَغُونَ فَضْلاً مِّن رَّبِّهِمْ وَرِضْوَناً وَإِذَا حَلَلْتُمْ فَاصْطَـدُواْ وَلاَ يَجْرِمَنَّكُمْ شَنَآنُ قَوْمٍ أَن صَدُّوكُمْ عَنِ الْمَسْجِدِ الْحَرَامِ أَن تَعْتَدُواْ وَتَعَاوَنُواْ عَلَى الْبرِّ وَالتَّقْوَى وَلاَ تَعَاوَنُواْ عَلَى الإِثْمِ وَالْعُدْوَانِ وَاتَّقُواْ اللَّهَ إِنَّ اللَّهَ شَدِيدُ آلْعِقَابِ

(2. O you who believe! Violate not the sanctity of the symbols of Allah, nor of the Sacred Month, nor of the Hady brought for sacrifice, nor the garlands, nor the people coming to the Sacred House (Makkah), seeking the bounty and good pleasure of their Lord. But when you finish the Ihram, then hunt, and let not the hatred of some people in (once) stopping you from Al-Masjid Al-Haram (at Makkah) lead you to transgression. Help you one another in Al-Birr and At-Taqwa, but do not help one another in sin and transgression. And have Taqwa of Allah. Verily, Allah is severe in punishment.)

Surah Al Maeda Verse 1-2

Ibn Abi Hatim recorded that a man came to `Abdullah bin Mas`ud and said to him, “Advise me.” He said, “When you hear Allah’s statement,

(O you who believe!) then pay full attention, for it is a righteous matter that He is ordaining or an evil thing that He is forbidding.” Khaythamah said, “Everything in the Qur’an that reads,

(O you who believe!) reads in the Tawrah, `O you who are in need.”’ Allah said,

(Fulfill (your) obligations.) Ibn `Abbas, Mujahid and others said that `obligations’ here means treaties. Ibn Jarir mentioned that there is a consensus for this view. Ibn Jarir also said that it means treaties, such as the alliances that they used to conduct. `Ali bin Abi Talhah reported that Ibn `Abbas commented:

(O you who believe! Fulfill (your) obligations.) “Refers to the covenants, meaning, what Allah permitted, prohibited, ordained and set limits for in the Qur’an. Therefore, do not commit treachery or break the covenants. Allah emphasized this command when He said,

(And those who break the covenant of Allah, after its ratification, and sever that which Allah has commanded to be joined,) until,

(unhappy (evil) home (i.e. Hell).)” Ad-Dahhak said that,

(Fulfill your obligations.) “Refers to what Allah has permitted and what He has prohibited. Allah has taken the covenant from those who proclaim their faith in the Prophet and the Book to fulfill the obligations that He has ordered for them in the permissible and the impermissible.”

Explaining the Lawful and the Unlawful Beasts.

Allah said,

(Lawful to you (for food) are all the beasts of cattle) camels, cows and sheep, as Al-Hasan, Qatadah and several others stated. Ibn Jarir said that this Tafsir conforms to the meaning of (`beasts of cattle’) that the Arabs had. We should mention that Ibn `Umar, Ibn `Abbas and others relied on this Ayah as evidence to allow eating the meat of the fetus if it is found dead in the belly of its slaughtered mother. There is a Hadith to the same effect collected in the Sunan of Abu Dawud, At-Tirmidhi and Ibn Majah and narrated by Abu Sa`id who said, “We asked, `O Messenger of Allah! When we slaughter a camel, cow or sheep, we sometimes find a fetus in its belly, should we discard it or eat its meat’ He said,

(Eat it if you want, because its slaughter was fulfilled when its mother was slaughtered.)” At-Tirmidhi said, “This Hadith is Hasan.” Abu Dawud recorded that Jabir bin `Abdullah said that the Messenger of Allah said,

(Proper slaughter of the fetus is fulfilled with the slaughter of its mother.) Only Abu Dawud collected this narration. Allah’s statement,

(except that which will be announced to you (herein), ) `Ali bin Abi Talhah reported that Ibn `Abbas said that it refers to, “The flesh of dead animals, blood and the meat of swine.” Qatadah said, “The meat of dead animals and animals slaughtered without Allah’s Name being pronounced at the time of slaughtering.” It appears, and Allah knows best, that the Ayah refers to Allah’s other statement,

(Forbidden to you (for food) are: Al-Maytah (the dead animals), blood, the flesh of swine, and what has been slaughtered as a sacrifice for others than Allah, and that which has been killed by strangling, or by a violent blow, or by a headlong fall, or by the goring of horns – and that which has been (partly) eaten by a wild animal.)(5:3), for although the animals mentioned in this Ayah are types of permissible cattle (except for swine), they become impermissible under the circumstances that the Ayah (5:3) specifies. This is why Allah said afterwards,

(Unless you are able to slaughter it (before its death) and that which is sacrificed (slaughtered) on An-Nusub (stone altars)) as the latter type is not permissible, because it can no longer be slaughtered properly. Hence, Allah’s statement,

(Lawful to you are all the beasts of cattle except that which will be announced to you, ) means, except the specific circumstances that prohibit some of these which will be announced to you. Allah said,

(game (also) being unlawful when you assume Ihram.) Some scholars said that the general meaning of `cattle’ includes domesticated cattle, such as camels, cows and sheep, and wild cattle, such as gazzelle, wild cattle and wild donkeys. Allah made the exceptions mentioned above (dead animals blood, flesh of swine etc.), and prohibited hunting wild beasts while in the state of Ihram. It was also reported that the meaning here is, “We have allowed for you all types of cattle in all circumstances, except what We excluded herewith for the one hunting game while in the state of Ihram.” Allah said,

(But if one is forced by necessity, without willful disobedience, and not transgressing, then, Allah is Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful.) This Ayah means, “We allowed eating the meat of dead animals, when one is forced by necessity, under the condition that one is not transgressing the limits or overstepping them.” Here, Allah states, “Just as We allowed the meat of cattle in all conditions and circumstances, then do not hunt game when in the state of Ihram, for this is the decision of Allah, Who is the Most Wise in all that He commands and forbids.” So Allah said;

(Verily, Allah commands that which He wills.)

The Necessity of Observing the Sanctity of the Sacred Area and the Sacred Months.

Allah continues,

(O you who believe! Violate not the sanctity of Sha’a’ir Allah (the symbols of Allah),) Ibn `Abbas said, “Sha`a’ir Allah means the rituals of Hajj.” Mujahid said, “As-Safa and Al-Marwah, and the sacrificial animal are the symbols of Allah.” It was also stated that Sha`a’ir Allah is what He prohibited. Therefore, it means, do not violate what Allah prohibited. Allah said afterwards,

(nor of the Sacred Month,) for you are required to respect and honor the Sacred Month and to refrain from what Allah forbade during it, such as fighting. This also lays emphasis on avoiding sins during that time. As Allah said;

(They ask you concerning fighting in the Sacred Month. Say, “Fighting therein is a great (transgression).”) and,

(Verily, the number of months with Allah is twelve months (in a year). ) Al-Bukhari recorded in his Sahih that Abu Bakrah said that the Messenger of Allah said during the Farewell Hajj,

(The division of time has returned as it was when Allah created the Heavens and the earth. The year is twelve months, four of which are sacred: Three are in succession, (they are:) Dhul-Qa’dah, Dhul-Hijjah and Muharram, and (the fourth is) Rajab of (the tribe of) Mudar which comes between Jumada (Ath-Thaniyah) and Sha’ban.) This Hadith testifies to the continued sanctity of these months until the end of time.

Allah’s statement,

(nor of the Hady brought for sacrifice, nor the garlands,) means, do not abandon the practice of bringing the Hady (sacrificial animals) to the Sacred House, as this ritual is a form of honoring the symbols of Allah. Do not abandon the practice of garlanding these animals on their necks, so that they are distinguished from other cattle. This way, it will be known that these animals are intended to be offered as Hady at the Ka`bah, and thus those who might intend some harm to them would refrain from doing so. Those who see the Hady might be encouraged to imitate this ritual, and indeed, he who calls to a type of guidance, will earn rewards equal to the rewards of those who follow his lead, without decrease in their own rewards. When the Messenger of Allah intended to perform Hajj, he spent the night at Dhul-Hulayfah, which is also called Wadi Al-`Aqiq. In the morning, the Prophet made rounds with his wives, who were nine at that time, performed Ghusl (bath), applied some perfume and performed a two Rak`ah prayer. He then garlanded the Hady and announced aloud his intention to perform Hajj and `Umrah. The Prophet’s Hady at the time consisted of plenty of camels, more than sixty, and they were among the best animals, the healthiest and most physically acceptable, just as Allah’s statement proclaims,

(Thus it is, and whosoever honors the symbols of Allah, then it is truly, from the piety of the hearts.) Muqatil bin Hayyan said that Allah’s statement,

(nor the garlands) means, “Do not breach their sanctity.” During the time of Jahiliyyah, the people used to garland themselves with animal hair and pelts when they left their areas in months other than the Sacred Months. The idolators of the Sacred House Area used to garland themselves with the tree-stems of the Sacred Area, so that they were granted safe passage.” This statement was collected by Ibn Abi Hatim, who also recorded that Ibn `Abbas said, “There are two Ayat in this Surah (Al-Ma’idah) that were abrogated, the Ayah about the garlands (5:2), and

(So if they come to you (O Muhammad ), either judge between them, or turn away from them.)”

The Necessity of Preserving the Sanctity and Safety of those who Intend to Travel to the Sacred House.

Allah said,

(nor the people coming to the Sacred House (Makkah), seeking the bounty and good pleasure of their Lord.) The Ayah commands: Do not fight people who are heading towards the Sacred House of Allah, which if anyone enters it, he must be granted safe refuge. Likewise, those who are heading towards the Sacred House seeking the bounty and good pleasure of Allah, must not be stopped, prevented, or frightened away from entering the Sacred House. Mujahid, `Ata’, Abu Al-`Aliyah, Mutarrif bin `Abdullah, `Abdullah bin `Ubayd bin `Umayr, Ar-Rabi` bin Anas, Muqatil bin Hayyan, Qatadah and several others said that,

(seeking the bounty of their Lord.) refers to trading. A similar discussion preceded concerning the Ayah;

(There is no sin on you if you seek the bounty of your Lord (during pilgrimage by trading).) Allah said;

(and pleasure. ) Ibn `Abbas said that the word `pleasure’ in the Ayah refers to, “seeking Allah’s pleasure by their Hajj.” `Ikrimah, As-Suddi and Ibn Jarir mentioned that this Ayah was revealed concerning Al-Hutam bin Hind Al-Bakri, who had raided the cattle belonging to the people of Al-Madinah. The following year, he wanted to perform `Umrah to the House of Allah and some of the Companions wanted to attack him on his way to the House. Allah revealed,

(nor the people coming to the Sacred House (Makkah), seeking the bounty and good pleasure of their Lord.)

Hunting Game is Permissible After Ihram Ends.

Allah said,

(But when you finish the Ihram, then hunt,) When you end your Ihram, it is permitted for you to hunt game, which was prohibited for you during Ihram. Although this Ayah contains a command that takes effect after the end of a state of prohibition (during Ihram in this case), the Ayah, in fact, brings back the ruling that was previously in effect. If the previous ruling was an obligation, the new command will uphold that obligation, and such is the case with recommended and permissible matters. There are many Ayat that deny that the ruling in such cases is always an obligation. Such is also the case against those who say that it is always merely allowed. What we mentioned here is the correct opinion that employs the available evidence, and Allah knows best.

Justice is Always Necessary.

Allah said,

(and let not the hatred of some people in (once) stopping you from Al-Masjid Al-Haram (at Makkah) lead you to transgression (and hostility on your part).) The meaning of this Ayah is apparent, as it commands: Let not the hatred for some people, who prevented you from reaching the Sacred House in the year of Hudaybiyyah, make you transgress Allah’s Law and commit injustice against them in retaliation. Rather, rule as Allah has commanded you, being just with every one. We will explain a similar Ayah later on,

(And let not the enmity and hatred of others make you avoid justice. Be just: that is nearer to piety,) which commands: do not be driven by your hatred for some people into abandoning justice, for justice is ordained for everyone, in all situations. Ibn Abi Hatim recorded that Zayd bin Aslam said, “The Messenger of Allah and his Companions were in the area of Al-Hudaybiyyah when the idolators prevented them from visiting the House, and that was especially hard on them. Later on, some idolators passed by them from the east intending to perform `Umrah. So the Companions of the Prophet said, `Let us prevent those (from `Umrah) just as their fellow idolators prevented us.’ Thereafter, Allah sent down this Ayah.” Ibn Abbas and others said that “Shana’an” refers to enmity and hate. Allah said next,

(Help you one another in Al-Birr and At-Taqwa; but do not help one another in sin and transgression.) Allah commands His believing servants to help one another perform righteous, good deeds, which is the meaning of `Al-Birr’, and to avoid sins, which is the meaning of `At-Taqwa’. Allah forbids His servants from helping one another in sin, `Ithm’ and committing the prohibitions. Ibn Jarir said that, “Ithm means abandoning what Allah has ordained, while transgression means overstepping the limits that Allah set in your religion, along with overstepping what Allah has ordered concerning yourselves and others.” Imam Ahmad recorded that Anas bin Malik said that the Messenger of Allah said,

(Support your brother whether he was unjust or the victim of injustice.) He was asked, “O Messenger of Allah! We know about helping him when he suffers injustice, so what about helping him when he commits injustice” He said,

(Prevent and stop him from committing injustice, and this represents giving support to him.) Al-Bukhari recorded this Hadith through Hushaym. Ahmad recorded that one of the Companions of the Prophet narrated the Hadith,

(The believer who mingles with people and is patient with their annoyance, earns more reward than the believer who does not mingle with people and does not observe patience with their annoyance.) Muslim recorded a Hadith that states,

(He who calls to a guidance, will earn a reward similar to the rewards of those who accept his call, until the Day of Resurrection, without decreasing their rewards. Whoever calls to a heresy, will carry a burden similar to the burdens of those who accept his call, until the Day of Resurrection, without decreasing their own burdens.)

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The believers are commanded not to take the disbelievers as protecting friends

I take refuge with Allaah, the Exalted, from the accursed devil.

بِسْمِ اللَّهِ الرَّحْمَـنِ الرَّحِيمِ

Bismillah-ir-Rahman-ir-Raheem: In the name of Allah, the Compassionate, the Merciful.

Welcome to my blog and praise the Magnificent Lord as you enter: Allahu Akbar: Allah is the Greatest .

May the Peace and Blessings of Allah Azza wa Jal, our Lord Glorified and Praised be He, be upon our beloved  Prophet, his Family, and Companions.

The believers are commanded not to take the disbelievers as protecting friends.

يأَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ ءَامَنُواْ لاَ تَتَوَلَّوْاْ قوْماً غَضِبَ اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِمْ قَدْ يَئِسُواْ مِنَ الاٌّخِرَةِ كَمَا يَئِسَ الْكُفَّـرُ مِنْ أَصْحَـبِ الْقُبُورِ

(13. O you who believe! Take not as friends the people who incurred the wrath of Allah. Surely, they have despaired of the Hereafter, just as the disbelievers have despaired of those (buried) in graves.)

Surah 60 Al Mumtahanah Verse 13

Just like in the beginning of the Surah, Allah the Exalted forbids taking the disbelievers as protecting friends at the end of the Surah, saying,

(O you who believe! Take not as friends the people who incurred the wrath of Allah.) referring to the Jews, Christians and the rest of the disbelievers whom Allah became angry with and cursed. Those who deserved being rejected and banished by Him. (Allah says here), `how can you become their allies, friends and companions, after Allah decided that they earn the despair of receiving any good or delights in the Hereafter’ Allah’s statement,

(just as the disbelievers have despaired of those (buried) in graves.) This has two possible meanings. First, the disbelievers despair of ever again meeting their relatives buried in graves, because they do not believe in Resurrection or being brought back to life. Therefore, they have no hope that they will meet them again, according to their creed. Secondly, just as the disbelievers who are buried in graves have lost hope in receiving any kind of goodness (i.e., after seeing the punishment and knowing that Resurrection is true). Al-A`mash reported from Abu Ad-Duha from Masruq that Ibn Mas`ud said,

(just as the disbelievers have despaired of those (buried) in graves.) “Just as the disbeliever despairs when he dies and realizes and knows his (evil) recompense.” This is the saying of Mujahid, `Ikrimah, Muqatil, Ibn Zayd, Al-Kalbi and Mansur; Ibn Jarir preferred this explanation. This is the end of the Tafsir of Surat Al-Mumtahanah, all praise and thanks be to Allah.

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The pledge of the believing women

I take refuge with Allaah, the Exalted, from the accursed devil.

بِسْمِ اللَّهِ الرَّحْمَـنِ الرَّحِيمِ

Bismillah-ir-Rahman-ir-Raheem: In the name of Allah, the Compassionate, the Merciful.

Welcome to my blog and praise the Magnificent Lord as you enter: Allahu Akbar: Allah is the Greatest .

May the Peace and Blessings of Allah Azza wa Jal, our Lord Glorified and Praised be He, be upon our beloved  Prophet, his Family, and Companions.

The pledge of the believing women.

يأَيُّهَا النَّبِىُّ إِذَا جَآءَكَ الْمُؤْمِنَـتُ يُبَايِعْنَكَ عَلَى أَن لاَّ يُشْرِكْنَ بِاللَّهِ شَيْئاً وَلاَ يَسْرِقْنَ وَلاَ يَزْنِينَ وَلاَ يَقْتُلْنَ أَوْلْـدَهُنَّ وَلاَ يَأْتِينَ بِبُهُتَـنٍ يَفْتَرِينَهُ بَيْنَ أَيْدِيهِنَّ وَأَرْجُلِهِنَّ وَلاَ يَعْصِينَكَ فِى مَعْرُوفٍ فَبَايِعْهُنَّ وَاسْتَغْفِرْ لَهُنَّ اللَّهَ إِنَّ اللَّهَ غَفُورٌ رَّحِيمٌ

(12. O Prophet! When the believing women come to you pledging to you that they will not associate anything with Allah, and that they will not steal, and that they will not commit Zina, and that they will not kill their children, and that they will not utter slander, fabricating from between their hands and their feet, and that they will not disobey you in Ma`ruf (good), then accept their pledge and ask forgiveness for them (from) Allah, Indeed Allah is oft Forgiving Most Mericful. )

Surah 60 Al Mumtahanah Verse 12

Tafsir Ibn Kathir

Allah said to the faithful believers,

(And if any of your wives have gone from you to the disbelievers — then you succeeded (gained victory) over them; then pay those whose wives have gone, the equivalent of what they had spent. And have Taqwa of Allah, the One in Whom your are believers.) Therefore, if a Muslim woman reverts to the idolators, the believers should give back the dowery her Muslim husband paid her, from whatever money is left with them from the dowery of women who migrated to the Muslims. They were supposed to return this wealth to the idolator husbands of these emigrant women. If they still have anything they owed the idolators, then they should return it to them.”

The Matters the Women pledged to.

Al-Bukhari recorded that `A’ishah the wife of the Prophet said, “Allah’s Messenger used to examine women who migrated to his side according to this Ayah,

(O Prophet! When believing women come to you pledging to you…) until,

(Verily, Allah is Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful.)” `Urwah said, “`A’ishah said, `When any believing woman agreed to these conditions, Allah’s Messenger would say to her,

(I have accepted your pledge.) but, by Allah, he never touched the hand of any women at all while taking the pledge from them. He only took their pledge of allegiance by saying,

(I have accepted your pledge.)” This is the wording of Al-Bukhari. Imam Ahmad recorded that Umaymah bint Ruqayqah said, “I came to Allah’s Messenger with some women to give him our pledge and he took the pledge from us that is mentioned in the Qur’an, that we associate none with Allah, etc; as in the Ayah. Then he said,

(As much as you can bear to implement.) We said, `Surely, Allah and His Messenger are more merciful with us than we are with ourselves.’ We then said, `O Allah’s Messenger, should you not shake hands with us’ He said,

(I do not shake hands with women, for my statement to one woman is as sufficient as my statement to a hundred women.)” This Hadith has an authentic chain of narration; At-Tirmidhi, An-Nasa’i and Ibn Majah collected it. Al-Bukhari also recorded that Umm `Atiyah said, “The Messenger of Allah took our pledge and recited to us the Ayah,

(…that they will not associate anything with Allah,) and forbade us to wail for the dead. Thereupon, a lady withdrew her hand saying, `But such and such lady shared with me in lamenting (over one of my relatives), so I must reward hers.’ The Prophet did not object to that, so she went there and returned to the Prophet and he accepted her pledge of allegiance.” Muslim also collected this Hadith. Imam Ahmad recorded that `Ubadah bin As-Samit said, “While we were with the Prophet , he said,

(Pledge to me in that you will not associate any with Allah, nor steal, nor commit Zina, nor kill your children.) Then he recited the Ayah that begins;

(when the believing women come to you. ..) and took the pledge of allegiance from the women. He then added,

(Those among you who fulfill this pledge, will receive their reward from Allah. Those who deviate from any of it and receive the legal punishment (in this life), the punishment will be expiation for that sin. Whoever deviates from any of it and Allah screens him, then it is up to Allah to punish or forgive if He wills.) The Two Sahihs recorded this Hadith. Allah’s statement,

(O Prophet! When the believing women come to you pledging to you) means, `if any woman comes to you to give you the pledge and she accepts these conditions, then accept the pledge from her,’

(that they will not associate anything with Allah, that they will not steal,) meaning, the property of other people. In the case where a husband is not fulfilling his duty of spending on his wife, then she is allowed to use a part of his wealth, what is reasonable, to spend on herself. This is the case regardless of whether the husband knows about his wife’s actions or not, because of the Hadith in which Hind bint `Utbah said, “O Allah’s Messenger! Abu Sufyan is a miser! He does not give me sufficient money for the living expense of our family and myself. Am I allowed to secretly take from his money without his knowledge” Allah’s Messenger said to her,

(You may take from what is reasonable and appropriate for you and your children) This Hadith was recorded in the two Sahihs. Allah’s statement,

(they will not commit Zina,) is similar to His other statement,

(And come not near to Az-Zina. Verily, it is a Fahishah (immoral act) and an evil way.) (17:32) A Hadith collected from Samurah mentions that for the adulterers and fornicators there is a painful torment in the fire of Hell. Imam Ahmad recorded that `A’ishah said, “Fatimah bint `Utbah came to give her pledge to Allah’s Messenger , who took the pledge from her,

(that they will not associate anything with Allah, they will not steal, that they will not commit Zina (fornication and adultery),) Fatimah bashfully placed her hand on her head in shyness. The Prophet liked what she did. `A’ishah said, `O woman! Accept the pledge, because by Allah, we all gave the pledge to the same.’ She said, `Yes then,’ and she gave her pledge to the same things mentioned in the Ayah.”’ Allah’s statement,

(that they will not kill their children,) includes killing children after they are born. The people of Jahiliyyah used to kill their children because they feared poverty. The Ayah includes killing the fetus, just as some ignorant women do for various evil reasons. Allah’s statement,

(and that they will not utter slander, fabricating from between their hands and their feet,) Ibn `Abbas said, “It means that they not to attribute to their husbands other than their legitimate children.” Muqatil said similarly. Allah’s statement,

(and that they will not disobey you in Ma`ruf (good),) means, `that they will obey you when you order them to do good and forbid them from evil.’ Al-Bukhari recorded that Ibn `Abbas said about Allah’s statement,

(and that they will not disobey you in any Ma`ruf (good), ) “This was one of the conditions which Allah imposed on the women.” Maymun bin Mihran said, “Allah did not order obedience to His Prophet for other than Ma`ruf, and Ma`ruf is itself obedience.” Ibn Zayd said, “Allah commanded that His Messenger, the best of His creation, be obeyed in that which is Ma`ruf.” Ibn Jarir recorded that Umm `Atiyah Al-Ansariyah said, “Among the conditions included in our pledge to Allah’s Messenger to good was not to wail. A woman said, `So-and-so family brought comfort to me (by wailing over my dead relative), so I will first pay them back.’ So she went and paid them back in the same (wailed for their dead), and then came and gave her pledge. Only she and Umm Sulaym bint Milhan, the mother of Anas bin Malik, did so.” Al-Bukhari collected this Hadith from the way of Hafsah bint Sirin from Umm `Atiyah Nusaybah Al-Ansariyah, may Allah be pleased with her. Ibn Abi Hatim recorded that Asid bin Abi Asid Al-Barrad said that one of the women who gave the pledge to Allah’s Messenger said, “Among the conditions included in the pledge that the Messenger took from us, is that we do not disobey any act of Ma`ruf (good) that he ordains. We should neither scratch our faces, pull our hair (in grief), tear our clothes nor wail.”

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Allah, the Exalted, the Praised, prohibits the believers from sending the believing women back to the disbelievers

I take refuge with Allaah, the Exalted, from the accursed devil.

بِسْمِ اللَّهِ الرَّحْمَـنِ الرَّحِيمِ

Bismillah-ir-Rahman-ir-Raheem: In the name of Allah, the Compassionate, the Merciful.

Welcome to my blog and praise the Magnificent Lord as you enter: Allahu Akbar: Allah is the Greatest .

May the Peace and Blessings of Allah Azza wa Jal, our Lord Glorified and Praised be He, be upon our beloved  Prophet, his Family, and Companions.

Allah, the Exalted, the Praised, prohibits the believers from sending the believing women back to the disbelievers.

يأَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ ءَامَنُواْ إِذَا جَآءَكُمُ الْمُؤْمِنَـتُ مُهَـجِرَتٍ فَامْتَحِنُوهُنَّ اللَّهُ أَعْلَمُ بِإِيمَـنِهِنَّ فَإِنْ عَلِمْتُمُوهُنَّ مُؤْمِنَـتٍ فَلاَ تَرْجِعُوهُنَّ إِلَى الْكُفَّارِ لاَ هُنَّ حِلٌّ لَّهُمْ وَلاَ هُمْ يَحِلُّونَ لَهُنَّ وَءَاتُوهُم مَّآ أَنفَقُواْ وَلاَ جُنَاحَ عَلَيْكُمْ أَن تَنكِحُوهُنَّ إِذَآ ءَاتَيْتُمُوهُنَّ أُجُورَهُنَّ وَلاَ تُمْسِكُواْ بِعِصَمِ الْكَوَافِرِ وَاسْـَلُواْ مَآ أَنفَقْتُمْ وَلْيَسْـَلُواْ مَآ أَنفَقُواْ ذَلِكُمْ حُكْمُ اللَّهِ يَحْكُمُ بَيْنَكُمْ وَاللَّهُ عَلِيمٌ حَكِيمٌ

(10. O you who believe! When believing women come to you as emigrants, examine them; Allah knows best as to their faith, then if you ascertain that they are true believers, send them not back to the disbelievers. They are not lawful for the disbelievers nor are the disbelievers lawful for them. But give them (disbelievers) that which they have spent (on their dowery). And there will be no sin on you to marry them if you have paid their due to them. Likewise do not keep the disbelieving women, and ask for that which you have spent (on their dowery) and let them (the disbelievers) ask for that which they have spent. That is the judgement of Allah, He judges between you. And Allah is All-Knowing, All-Wise.)

– وَإِن فَاتَكُمْ شَىْءٌ مِّنْ أَزْوَجِكُمْ إِلَى الْكُفَّـرِ فَعَـقَبْتُمْ فَآتُواْ الَّذِينَ ذَهَبَتْ أَزْوَجُهُمْ مِّثْلَ مَآ أَنفَقُواْ وَاتَّقُواْ اللَّهَ الَّذِى أَنتُمْ بِهِ مُؤْمِنُونَ

(11. And if any of your wives have gone from you to the disbelievers then you succeed over them (gain victory); then pay those whose wives have gone, the equivalent of what they had spent. And have Taqwa of Allah, the One in Whom you are believers.)

Surah 60 Al Mumtahina Verse 10-11

Tafsir Ibn Kathir

In Surat Al-Fath, we related the story of the treaty at Al-Hudaybiyyah that was conducted between the Messenger of Allah and the disbelievers of Quraysh. In that treaty, there were these words, “Everyman (in another narration, every person) who reverts from our side to your side, should be returned to us, even if he is a follower of your religion.” This was said by `Urwah, Ad-Dahhak, `Abdur-Rahman bin Zayd, Az-Zuhri, Muqatil bin Hayyan and As-Suddi. So according to this narration, this Ayah specifies and explains the Sunnah. And this is the best case of understanding. Yet according to another view of some of the Salaf, it abrogates it. Allah the Exalted and Most High ordered His faithful servants to test the faith of women who emigrate to them. When they are sure that they are faithful, they should not send them back to the disbelievers, for the disbelievers are not allowed for them and they are not allowed for the disbelievers. In the biography of `Abdullah bin Abi Ahmad bin Jahsh in Al-Musnad Al-Kabir, we also mentioned that `Abdullah bin Abi Ahmad said, “Umm Kulthum bint `Uqbah bin Abi Mu`ayt emigrated and her brothers, `Umarah and Al-Walid, went after her. They came to Allah’s Messenger and talked to him about Umm Kulthum and asked that she be returned to them. Allah abolished the part of the treaty between the Prophet and the idolators about the women particularly. So He forbade returning Muslim women to the idolators and revealed the Ayah about testing them.” Al-`Awfi reported from Ibn `Abbas, about Allah’s saying:

(O you who believe! When believing women come to you as emigrants, examine them;) “Their examination was asking them to testify to La ilaha illallah, and that Muhammad is Allah’s servant and His Messenger.” Mujahid explained the Ayah,

(examine them) by saying, “Ask them why they migrated. If they came because they were angry with their husbands, or for any other reason, and you realized that they did not embrace the faith, then send them back to their husbands.” Allah’s statement,

(then if you ascertain that they are true believers, send them not back to the disbelievers.) This Ayah indicates that faith can be recognized and affirmed.

Allah’s statement,

(They are not lawful for the disbelievers nor are the disbelievers lawful for them.) This Ayah forbids Muslim women for idolators, which was a lawful marriage in the beginning of Islam. Abu Al-`As bin Ar-Rabi` was married to Zaynab, the Prophet’s daughter. She was a Muslim, while Abu Al-`As was still an idolator like his people. When he was captured during the battle of Badr, his wife, Zaynab, sent his ransom, a necklace that belonged to the Prophet’s first wife Khadijah. The Prophet became very emotional when he saw the necklace and said to the Companions,

(If you decide to set free the prisoner who belongs to her, then do so.) They did, and Allah’s Messenger set him free. His ransom was that he send his wife to Allah’s Messenger . Abu Al-`As fulfilled his promise and sent Zaynab to Allah’s Messenger along with Zayd bin Harithah. Zaynab remained in Al-Madinah after the battle of Badr, which took place in the second year of Hijrah, until her husband Abu Al-`As bin Ar-Rahi` embraced Islam in the eighth year after the Hijrah. She returned to their marriage without renewing the dowery. Allah’s statement,

(But give them that which they have spent. ) meaning, the husbands of the emigrant women who came from the idolators, return the dowery that they gave to their wives. This was said by Ibn `Abbas, Mujahid, Qatadah, Az-Zuhri and several others. Allah’s statement,

(And there will be no sin on you to marry them if you have paid their due to them.) means, when you wish to marry them, then give them their dowery. That is, marry them under the condition that their `Iddah (waiting period) is finished and they have a legal guardian for their marriage etc. Allah said,

(Likewise do not keep disbelieving women,) thus forbidding His faithful servants from marrying idolator women or remaining married to them. In the Sahih, it is recorded that Al-Miswar and Marwan bin Al-Hakam said that after the Messenger of Allah conducted the treaty with the Quraysh idolators at Al-Hudaybiyyah, some Muslim women emigrated to him and Allah the Exalted sent down this Ayah about them,

(O you who believe! When believing women come to you as emigrants) until,

(Likewise do not keep disbelieving women,) Then `Umar bin Al-Khattab divorced two of his wives, who were idolatresses, and one of them got married to Mu`awiyah bin Abi Sufyan, while the other got married to Safwan bin Umayyah. Ibn Thawr narrated that Ma`mar said that Az-Zuhri said, “This Ayah was revealed to Allah’s Messenger while he was in the area of Al-Hudaybiyyah, after making peace. He agreed that whoever comes from the Quraysh to his side, will be returned to Makkah. When some women came, this Ayah was revealed. Allah commanded that the dowery that was paid to these women be returned to their husbands. Allah also ordered that if some Muslim women revert to the side of the idolators, the idolators should return their dowery to their Muslim husbands. Allah said,

(Likewise do not keep disbelieving women).” Allah’s statement,

(and ask for that which you have spent and let them ask for that which they have spent.) means, ask them for what you have paid to your wives who reverted to the side of the idolators, and they are entitled to get back the dowery that they gave their wives who emigrated to the Muslims. Allah’s statement,

(That is the judgement of Allah, He judges between you.) means, this judgement about the treaty and excluding women from its clauses, is a decision that Allah made for His creatures,

(And Allah is All-Knowing, All-Wise.) meaning, He knows what benefits His servants and is the Most Wise about that. Allah the Exalted said,

(And if any of your wives have gone from you to the disbelievers — then you succeeded (gained victory) over them; then pay those whose wives have gone, the equivalent of what they had spent.) Mujahid and Qatadah explained this Ayah, by saying, “This is about the disbelievers who did not have a treaty of peace. If a woman flees to the disbelievers and they do not give back what that her husband spent on her, then if a women comes to them (the Muslims) they are not to return to her husband anything until they pay the Muslim whose wife went to them the equivalent of what he spent. ” Ibn Jarir recorded that Az-Zuhri said, “The believers abided by Allah’s decree and paid what they owed the idolators to compensate for the dowery the idolators gave to the women (who emigrated). However, the idolators refused to accept Allah’s judgement for what they owed the Muslims. Allah said to the faithful believers,

(And if any of your wives have gone from you to the disbelievers — then you succeeded (gained victory) over them; then pay those whose wives have gone, the equivalent of what they had spent. And have Taqwa of Allah, the One in Whom your are believers.) Therefore, if a Muslim woman reverts to the idolators, the believers should give back the dowery her Muslim husband paid her, from whatever money is left with them from the dowery of women who migrated to the Muslims. They were supposed to return this wealth to the idolator husbands of these emigrant women. If they still have anything they owed the idolators, then they should return it to them.”

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Allah, the Exalted, the Praised, loves those who deal with equity

I take refuge with Allaah, the Exalted, from the accursed devil.

بِسْمِ اللَّهِ الرَّحْمَـنِ الرَّحِيمِ

Bismillah-ir-Rahman-ir-Raheem: In the name of Allah, the Compassionate, the Merciful.

Welcome to my blog and praise the Magnificent Lord as you enter: Allahu Akbar: Allah is the Greatest .

May the Peace and Blessings of Allah Azza wa Jal, our Lord Glorified and Praised be He, be upon our beloved  Prophet, his Family, and Companions.

Allah, the Exalted, the Praised, loves those who deal with equity.

عَسَى اللَّهُ أَن يَجْعَلَ بَيْنَكُمْ وَبَيْنَ الَّذِينَ عَادَيْتُم مِّنْهُم مَّوَدَّةً وَاللَّهُ قَدِيرٌ وَاللَّهُ غَفُورٌ رَّحِيمٌ

7) Perhaps Allah will make friendship between you and those whom you hold as enemies. And Allah has power (over all things), and Allah is Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful.)

لاَّ يَنْهَـكُمُ اللَّهُ عَنِ الَّذِينَ لَمْ يُقَـتِلُوكُمْ فِى الدِّينِ وَلَمْ يُخْرِجُوكُمْ مِّن دِيَـرِكُمْ أَن تَبَرُّوهُمْ وَتُقْسِطُواْ إِلَيْهِمْ إِنَّ اللَّهَ يُحِبُّ الْمُقْسِطِينَ

(8. Allah does not forbid you to deal justly and kindly with those who fought not against you on account of religion nor drove you out of your homes. Verily, Allah loves those who deal with equity.

إِنَّمَا يَنْهَـكُمُ اللَّهُ عَنِ الَّذِينَ قَـتَلُوكُمْ فِى الدِّينِ وَأَخْرَجُوكُم مِّن دِيَـرِكُمْ وَظَـهَرُواْ عَلَى إِخْرَجِكُمْ أَن تَوَلَّوْهُمْ وَمَن يَتَوَلَّهُمْ فَأُوْلَـئِكَ هُمُ الظَّـلِمُونَ

(9. It is only as regards those who fought against you on account of religion, and have driven you out of your homes, and helped to drive you out, that Allah forbids you to befriend them. And whosoever will befriend them, then such are the wrongdoers.)

Surah 60 Al Mumtahina Verse 7-9

Tafsir Ibn Kathir

Allah said to His faithful servants, after ordering them to be enemies with the disbelievers,

(Perhaps Allah will make friendship between you and those, whom you hold as enemies.) meaning affection after animosity, tenderness after coldness and coming together after parting from each other,

(And Allah has power (over all things),) Allah is able to gather opposites and bring together hearts, after feeling hostility and hardness. In this case, the hearts will come together in agreement, just as Allah said when He mentioned His favor on the Ansar,

(And remember Allah’s favor on you, for you were enemies one to another but He joined your hearts together, so that, by His grace, you became brethren and were on the brink of a pit of Fire, and He saved you from it.) (3:103) Also the Prophet said to them,

(Did I not find you misguided, and Allah guided you through me; and divided, and Allah united (your hearts) through me) Allah the Exalted said,

(He it is Who has supported you with His help and with the believers. And He has united their hearts. If you had spent all that is in the earth, you could not have united their hearts, but Allah has united them. Certainly He is Almighty, All-Wise.) (8:62,63) And in the Hadith:

(Love your loved one moderately, because one day, he might become your enemy. Hate your hated one moderately, because one day, he might become your loved one.) Allah’s statement,

(And Allah is Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful.) means, Allah forgives the disbelief of the disbelievers if they repent from it, returned to their Lord and surrendered to Him in Islam. Surely, He is the Oft-Forgiving, the Most-Merciful to those who repent to Him from their sins, no matter what type of the sin it is.

The Permissibility of being Kind to Disbelievers who do not fight against the Religion.

(Allah does not forbid you with those who fought not against you on account of religion nor drove you out of your homes,) means, those who did not have a role in your expulsion. Therefore, Allah does not forbid you from being kind to the disbelievers who do not fight you because of the religion, such as women and weak disbelievers,

(to deal kindly) to be gentle with them,

(and justly with those) to be fair with them

(Verily, Allah loves those who deal with equity.) Imam Ahmad recorded that Asma’ bint Abu Bakr said, “My mother, who was an idolatress at the time, came to me during the Treaty of Peace, the Prophet conducted with the Quraysh. I came to the Prophet and said, `O Allah’s Messenger! My mother came visiting, desiring something from me, should I treat her with good relations’ The Prophet said,

(Yes. Keep good relation with your mother.)” The Two Sahihs recorded this Hadith. Imam Ahmad recorded that `Abdullah bin Zubayr said, “Qutaylah came visiting her daughter, Asma’ bint Abi Bakr, with some gifts, such as Dibab, cheese and clarified (cooking) butter, and she was an idolatress at that time. Asma’ refused to accept her mother’s gifts and did not let her enter her house. `A’ishah asked the Prophet about his verdict and Allah sent down the Ayah,

(Allah does not forbid you with those who fought not against you on account of religion) until the end of the Ayah. Allah’s Messenger ordered Asma’ to accept her mother’s gifts and to let her enter her house.” Allah’s statement,

(Allah loves those who deal with equity.) was duly explained in the Tafsir of Surat Al-Hujurat. We also mentioned the authentic Hadith,

(The just, who are fair in their decisions, families and those under their authority, will be on podiums made of light, to the right of the Throne.)

The Prohibition of being Kind towards Combatant Disbelievers.

Allah’s statement,

(It is only as regards those who fought against you on account of religion, and have driven you out of your homes, and helped to drive you out that Allah forbids you to befriend them.) (60:9) means, `Allah forbids you from being kind and befriending with the disbelievers who are openly hostile to you, those who fought against you, expelled you and helped to expel you. Allah the Exalted forbids you from being their friends and orders you to be their enemy.’ Then Allah stresses His threat against being friends with them, by saying,

(And whosoever will befriend them, then such are the wrongdoers.) As He said;

(O you who believe! Take not the Jews and the Christians as protecting friends, they are but protecting friends of each other. And if any among you takes them (as protecting friends), then surely, he is one of them. Verily, Allah guides not those people who are the wrongdoers) (5:51)

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Prophet Ibrahim, peace and blessings be upon him: An excellent example to follow

I take refuge with Allaah, the Exalted, from the accursed devil.

بِسْمِ اللَّهِ الرَّحْمَـنِ الرَّحِيمِ

Bismillah-ir-Rahman-ir-Raheem: In the name of Allah, the Compassionate, the Merciful.

Welcome to my blog and praise the Magnificent Lord as you enter: Allahu Akbar: Allah is the Greatest .

May the Peace and Blessings of Allah Azza wa Jal, our Lord Glorified and Praised be He, be upon our beloved  Prophet, his Family, and Companions.

Prophet Ibrahim, peace and blessings be upon him: An excellent example to follow.

قَدْ كَانَتْ لَكُمْ أُسْوَةٌ حَسَنَةٌ فِى إِبْرَهِيمَ وَالَّذِينَ مَعَهُ إِذْ قَالُواْ لِقَوْمِهِمْ إِنَّا بُرَءآؤاْ مِّنْكُمْ وَمِمَّا تَعْبُدُونَ مِن دُونِ اللَّهِ كَفَرْنَا بِكُمْ وَبَدَا بَيْنَنَا وَبَيْنَكُمُ الْعَدَاوَةُ وَالْبَغْضَآءُ أَبَداً حَتَّى تُؤْمِنُواْ بِاللَّهِ وَحْدَهُ إِلاَّ قَوْلَ إِبْرَهِيمَ لاًّبِيهِ لاّسْتَغْفِرَنَّ لَكَ وَمَآ أَمْلِكُ لَكَ مِنَ اللَّهِ مِن شَىْءٍ رَّبَّنَا عَلَيْكَ تَوَكَّلْنَا وَإِلَيْكَ أَنَبْنَا وَإِلَيْكَ الْمَصِيرُ

(4. Indeed there has been an excellent example for you in Ibrahim and those with him, when they said to their people: “Verily, we are free from you and whatever you worship besides Allah, we have rejected you, and there has started between us and you, hostility and hatred forever until you believe in Allah alone,” — except the saying of Ibrahim to his father: “Verily, I will ask forgiveness for you, but I have no power to do anything for you before Allah.” “Our Lord! In You we put our trust, and to You we turn in repentance, and to You is the final Return.”)

رَبَّنَا لاَ تَجْعَلْنَا فِتْنَةً لِّلَّذِينَ كَفَرُواْ وَاغْفِرْ لَنَا رَبَّنَآ إِنَّكَ أَنتَ الْعَزِيزُ الْحَكِيمُ

(5. “Our Lord! Make us not a trial for the disbelievers, and forgive us, Our Lord! Verily, You, only You, are the Almighty, the All-Wise.”)

لَقَدْ كَانَ لَكُمْ فِيهِمْ أُسْوَةٌ حَسَنَةٌ لِّمَن كَانَ يَرْجُو اللَّهَ وَالْيَوْمَ الاٌّخِرَ وَمَن يَتَوَلَّ فَإِنَّ اللَّهَ هُوَ الْغَنِىُّ الْحَمِيدُ

(6. Certainly, there has been in them an excellent example for you to follow – for those who look forward to (the meeting with) Allah and the Last Day. And whosoever turns away, then verily, Allah is Al-Ghani, Al-Hamid.)

Surah 60 Al Mumtahina Verse 4-6

Tafsir Ibn Kathir

Allah the Exalted says to His faithful servants, whom He commanded to disown the disbelievers, to be enemies with them, and to distant themselves and separate from them:

(Indeed there has been an excellent example for you in Ibrahim and those with him,) meaning, his followers who believed in him,

(when they said to their people: “Verily we are free from you…”) meaning, `we disown you,’

(and whatever you worship besides Allah: we rejected you,) meaning, `we disbelieve in your religion and way,’

(and there has started between us and you, hostility and hatred forever) meaning, `Animosity and enmity have appeared between us and you from now and as long as you remain on your disbelief; we will always disown you and hate you,’

(until you believe in Allah alone,) meaning, `unless, and until, you worship Allah alone without partners and disbelieve in the idols and rivals that you worship besides Him.’ Allah’s statement,

(except the saying of Ibrahim to his father: “Verily, I will ask forgiveness (from Allah) for you…”) means, `you have a good example in Ibrahim and his people; as for Ibrahim’s prayers for Allah his father, it was a promise that he made for his father.’ When Ibrahim became sure that his father was an enemy of Allah, he declared himself innocent of him. Some of the believers used to invoke Allah for their parents who died as disbelievers, begging Him to forgive them. They did so claiming that Ibrahim used to invoke Allah to forgive his father. Allah the Exalted said in reply,

(It is not for the Prophet and those who believe to ask Allah’s forgiveness for the idolators, even though they be of kin, after it has become clear to them that they are the dwellers of the Fire (because they died in a state of disbelief). And Ibrahim’s request for his father’s forgiveness was only because of a promise he made to him .But when it became clear to him that he was an enemy of Allah, he dissociated himself from him. Verily, Ibrahim was Awwah and was forbearing.) (9:113-114) Allah said here,

(Indeed there has been an excellent example for you in Ibrahim and those with him, when they said to their people: “Verily, we are free from you…”) until,

(… except the saying of Ibrahim to his father: “Verily, I will ask forgiveness for you, but I have no power to do anything for you before Allah.”) meaning, `You cannot follow Ibrahim’s example as proof in the case mentioned here, as being allowed to ask Allah to forgive those who died on Shirk.’ This is the saying of Ibn `Abbas, Mujahid, Qatadah, Muqatil bin Hayyan, Ad-Dahhak and several others. Allah the Exalted said that Ibrahim and his companions, who parted with their people and disowned their way, said afterwards, while invoking Allah in humility and submission,

(Our Lord! In You we put our trust, and to You we turn in repentance, and to You is the final Return.) meaning, `we trust in You for all matters, we surrender all of our affairs to You, and to You is the final Return in the Hereafter,’

(Our Lord! Make us not a trial for the disbelievers,) Mujahid said, “It means, `Do not punish us by their hands, nor with a punishment from You.’ Or they will say, `Had these people been following the truth, the torment would not have struck them’.” Ad-Dahhak said something similar. Qatadah said, “Do not give the disbelievers victory over us, thus subjecting us to trials by their hands. Surely, if You do so, they would then think that they were given victory over us because they are on the truth.” This is the meaning that Ibn Jarir preferred. `Ali bin Abi Talhah reported from Ibn `Abbas: “Do not give them dominance over us, lest we suffer trials by their hands.” Allah’s statement,

(and forgive us, Our Lord! Verily, You, only You, are the Almighty, the All-Wise.) means, `cover our mistakes from being exposed to other than You, and forgive us for what (sin) is between us and You.’

(Verily, You, only You, are the Almighty,) `and those who seek refuge in Your majesty are never dealt with unjustly,’

(the All-Wise.) `in Your statements, actions, legislation and decrees.’ Allah the Exalted said,

(Certainly, there has been in them an excellent example for you to follow — for those who look forward to (the meeting with) Allah and the Last Day.) asserting what He has said before with the exemption mentioned, i.e., the good example that Allah mentioned before,

(for those who look forward to Allah and the Last Day.) thus encouraging the believers who believe in Allah and the Return to Him. Allah said,

(And whosoever turns away) meaning, from what Allah has ordained,

(verily, Allah is Al-Ghani, Al-Hamid.) Allah said in another Ayah,

(If you disbelieve, you and all on the earth together, then verily! Allah is Ghani, Hamid.) (14:8) `Ali bin Talhah reported from Ibn `Abbas,

“(Ghani) is the One Who is perfectly rich.” That is Allah. This is Allah’s attribute that He alone is worthy of being described by; surely, He has no equal, none like unto Him. All praise is due to Allah, the One, the Irresistible.

(Hamid) means, the praiseworthy, in all His statements and actions, there is no (true) God except Him alone.

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