The ignorant people among the children of Israel

I take refuge with Allaah, the Exalted, from the accursed devil.

بِسْمِ اللَّهِ الرَّحْمَـنِ الرَّحِيمِ

Bismillah-ir-Rahman-ir-Raheem: In the name of Allah, the Compassionate, the Merciful.

Welcome to my blog and praise the Magnificent Lord as you enter: Allahu Akbar: Allah is the Greatest .

May the Peace and Blessings of Allah Azza wa Jal, our Lord Glorified and Praised be He, be upon our beloved  Prophet, his Family, and Companions.

The ignorant people among the children of Israel.

وَجَـوَزْنَا بِبَنِى إِسْرءِيلَ الْبَحْرَ فَأَتَوْاْ عَلَى قَوْمٍ يَعْكُفُونَ عَلَى أَصْنَامٍ لَّهُمْ قَالُواْ يَمُوسَى اجْعَلْ لَّنَآ إِلَـهًا كَمَا لَهُمْ ءَالِهَةٌ قَالَ إِنَّكُمْ قَوْمٌ تَجْهَلُونَ

(138. And We brought the Children of Israel (with safety) across the sea, and they came upon a people devoted to some of their idols (in worship). They said: “O Musa! Make for us a god as they have gods.” He said: “Verily, you are an ignorant people.”)

إِنَّ هَـؤُلاءِ مُتَبَّرٌ مَّا هُمْ فِيهِ وَبَـطِلٌ مَّا كَانُواْ يَعْمَلُونَ

(139. ﴿Musa added:﴾ “Verily, these people will be destroyed for that which they are engaged in (idols’ worship). And all that they are doing is in vain.”)

Surah 7 Al Araf Verse 138-139

Tafsir Ibn Kathir

Allah mentions the words that the ignorant ones among the Children of Israel uttered to Musa after they crossed the sea and witnessed Allah’s Ayat and great power.

(And they came upon a people devoted to some of their idols (in worship).) Some scholars of Tafsir said that the people mentioned here were from Canaan, or from the tribe of Lakhm. Ibn Jarir commented, “They were worshipping idols that they made in the shape of cows, and this influenced the Children of Israel later when they worshipped the calf. They said here,

(“O Musa! Make for us a god as they have gods.” He said: “Verily, you are an ignorant people.”) Musa replied, you are ignorant of Allah’s greatness and majesty and His purity from any partners or anything resembling Him.

(“Verily, these people will be destroyed for that which they are engaged in) they will perish,

(“and all that they are doing is in vain.”) Commenting on this Ayah, Imam Abu Ja`far bin Jarir reported from Abu Waqid Al-Laythi that they (the Companions) went out from Makkah with the Messenger of Allah for (the battle of) Hunayn. Abu Waqid said, “Some of the disbelievers had a lote tree whose vicinity they used to remain in, and upon which they would hang their weapons on. That tree was called `Dhat Al-Anwat’. So when we passed by a huge, green lote tree, we said, `O Messenger of Allah! Appoint for us a Dhat Al-Anwat as they have.’ He said,

(by He in Whose Hand is my soul! You said just as what the people of Musa said to him:

(“Make for us a god as they have gods.” He said: “Verily, you are an ignorant people. Verily, these people will be destroyed for that which they are engaged in, and all that they are doing is in vain.”))”

قَالَ أَغَيْرَ اللَّهِ أَبْغِيكُمْ إِلَـهًا وَهُوَ فَضَّلَكُمْ عَلَى الْعَـلَمِينَ

(140. He said: “Shall I seek for you an ilah (a god) other than Allah, while He has given you superiority over the nations.”)

وَإِذْ أَنْجَيْنَـكُمْ مِّنْ ءَالِ فِرْعَونَ يَسُومُونَكُمْ سُوءَ الْعَذَابِ يُقَتِّلُونَ أَبْنَآءَكُمْ وَيَسْتَحْيُونَ نِسَآءَكُمْ وَفِي ذَلِكُمْ بَلاءٌ مِّن رَّبِّكُمْ عَظِيمٌ

(141. And (remember) when We rescued you from Fir`awn’s people, who were afflicting you with the worst torment, killing your sons and letting your women live. And in that was a great trial from your Lord.)

Surah 7 Al Araf Verse 140-141

Tafsir Ibn Kathir

Reminding the Children of Israel of Allah’s Blessings for Them.

Musa reminded the Children of Israel of Allah’s blessings, such as saving them from Fir`awn, his tyranny and the humiliation and disgrace they suffered. He reminded them of the glory and revenge against their enemy, when they watched them suffering in disgrace, destroyed by drowning and meeting utter demise. We mentioned this subject in the Tafsir of Surat Al-Baqarah.

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The people of the Fir`awn (Pharoah) break all promises

I take refuge with Allaah, the Exalted, from the accursed devil.

بِسْمِ اللَّهِ الرَّحْمَـنِ الرَّحِيمِ

Bismillah-ir-Rahman-ir-Raheem: In the name of Allah, the Compassionate, the Merciful.

Welcome to my blog and praise the Magnificent Lord as you enter: Allahu Akbar: Allah is the Greatest .

May the Peace and Blessings of Allah Azza wa Jal, our Lord Glorified and Praised be He, be upon our beloved  Prophet, his Family, and Companions.

The people of the Fir`awn (Pharoah) break all promises.

وَقَالُواْ مَهْمَا تَأْتِنَا بِهِ مِن ءَايَةٍ لِّتَسْحَرَنَا بِهَا فَمَا نَحْنُ لَكَ بِمُؤْمِنِينَ

(132. They said (to Musa): “Whatever Ayat you may bring to us, to work therewith your sorcery on us, we shall never believe in you.”)

فَأَرْسَلْنَا عَلَيْهِمُ الطُّوفَانَ وَالْجَرَادَ وَالْقُمَّلَ وَالضَّفَادِعَ وَالدَّمَ ءَايَـتٍ مّفَصَّلاَتٍ فَاسْتَكْبَرُواْ وَكَانُواْ قَوْماً مُّجْرِمِينَ

(133. So We sent on them: the Tuwfan, the locusts, the Qummal, the frogs, and the blood (as a succession of) manifest signs, yet they remained arrogant, and they were of those people who were criminals.)

وَلَمَّا وَقَعَ عَلَيْهِمُ الرِّجْزُ قَالُواْ يَمُوسَى ادْعُ لَنَا رَبَّكَ بِمَا عَهِدَ عِندَكَ لَئِن كَشَفْتَ عَنَّا الرِّجْزَ لَنُؤْمِنَنَّ لَكَ وَلَنُرْسِلَنَّ مَعَكَ بَنِى إِسْرَءِيلَ

(134. And when the punishment struck them, they said: “O Musa! Invoke your Lord for us because of His promise to you. If you remove the punishment from us, we indeed shall believe in you, and we shall let the Children of Israel go with you.”)

فَلَمَّا كَشَفْنَا عَنْهُمُ الرِّجْزَ إِلَى أَجَلٍ هُم بَـلِغُوهُ إِذَا هُمْ يَنكُثُونَ

(135. But when We removed the punishment from them for a fixed term, which they had to reach, behold! They broke their word!)

Surah 7 Al-Araf Verse 132-135

Tafsir Ibn Kathir

Allah describes the rebellion, tyranny, defiance of the truth and insistence on falsehood of the people of Fir`awn, prompting them to proclaim,

(“Whatever Ayat you may bring to us, to work therewith your sorcery on us, we shall never believe in you.”) They said, `whatever miracle, proof and evidence you bring us, we will neither accept it from you nor believe in you or what you came with.’ Allah said,

(So We sent on them the Tufan) Ibn `Abbas commented; “It was a heavy rain that ruined the produce and fruits.” He is also reported to have said that Tuwfan refers to mass death. Mujahid said it is water that carries the plague every where. As for the locust, it is the well-known insect, which is permissible to eat. It is recorded in the Two Sahihs, that Abu Ya`fur said that he asked `Abdullah bin Abi Awfa about locust. He said, “We participated in seven battles with the Messenger of Allah , and we used to eat locusts.” Ash-Shafi`i, Ahmad bin Hanbal and Ibn Majah recorded from `Abdur-Rahman bin Zayd bin Aslam that his father narrated from Ibn `Umar that the Prophet said,

(We were allowed two dead animals and two (kinds of) blood: fish and locust, and kidney and spleen.) Ibn Abi Najih narrated from Mujahid about Allah’s statement,

(So We sent on them: the flood, the locusts …) “Eating the nails on their doors and leaving the wood.” As for the Qummal, Ibn `Abbas said that it is the grain bug, or, according to another view; small locusts that do not have wings. Similar was reported from Mujahid, `Ikrimah and Qatadah. Al-Hasan and Sa`id bin Jubayr said that `Qummal’ are small black insects. Abu Ja`far bin Jarir recorded that Sa`id bin Jubayr said, “When Musa came to Fir`awn, he demanded, `Release the Children of Israel to me.’ But, Fir`awn did not comply; and Allah sent the Tuwfan, and that is a rain which continued until they feared that it was a form of torment. They said to Musa, `Invoke your Lord to release us from this rain, and we will believe in you and send the Children of Israel with you.’ Musa invoked his Lord and He removed the affliction from them. However, they did not believe, nor did they send the Children of Israel with him. In that year, Allah allowed (the earth) to grow various types of produce, fruits and grass for them as never before. They said, `This is what we hoped for.’ So Allah sent the locusts, and the locusts started to feed on the grass. When they saw the effect the locusts had on the grass, they knew that no vegetation would be saved from devastation. They said, `O Musa! Invoke your Lord so that He will remove the locusts from us, and we will believe in you and release the Children of Israel to you.’ Musa invoked his Lord, and He removed the locusts. Still, they did not believe and did not send the Children of Israel with him.

They collected grains and kept them in their homes. They said, `We saved our crops.’ However, Allah sent the Qummal, grain bugs, and one of them would take ten bags of grains to the mill, but only reap three small bags of grain. They said, `O Musa! Ask your Lord to remove the Qummal (weevil) from us and we will believe in you and send the Children of Israel with you.’ Musa invoked his Lord, and Allah removed the Qummal from them. However, they did not send the Children of Israel with him. Once, when he was with Fir`awn, Musa heard the sound of a frog and said to Fir`awn, `What will you and your people suffer from this (the frogs)’ Fir`awn said, `What can frogs do’ Yet, by the time that night arrived a person would be sitting in a crowd of frogs that reached up to his chin and could not open his mouth to speak without a frog jumping in it. They said to Musa, `Invoke your Lord to remove these frogs from us, and we will believe in you and send the Children of Israel with you.’ Musa invoked his Lord, but they did not believe.

Allah then sent blood that filled the rivers, wells and the water containers they had. They complained to Fir`awn, saying, `We are inflicted with blood and do not have anything to drink.’ He said, `Musa has bewitched you.’ They said, `How could he do that when whenever we look for water in our containers we found that it has turned into blood’ They came to Musa and said, `Invoke your Lord to save us from this blood, and we will believe in you and send the Children of Israel with you.’ Musa invoked his Lord and the blood stopped, but they did not believe nor send the Children of Israel with him.” A similar account was attributed to Ibn `Abbas, As-Suddi, Qatadah and several others among the Salaf. Muhammad bin Ishaq bin Yasar said, “The enemy of Allah, Fir`awn, went back defeated and humiliated, after the sorcerers believed (in Musa). He insisted on remaining in disbelief and persisted in wickedness. Allah sent down the signs to him, and he (and his people) were first inflicted by famine. Allah then sent the flood, the locusts, the Qummal, the frogs then blood, as consecutive signs. When Allah sent the flood, it filled the surface of the earth with water. But the water level receded, and they could not make use of it to till the land or do anything else. They became hungry. This is when,

(They said: “O Musa! Invoke your Lord for us because of His promise to you. If you remove the punishment from us, we indeed shall believe in you, and we shall let the Children of Israel go with you.”) Musa invoked his Lord and He removed the affliction from them, but they did not keep their promises. So Allah sent locusts that ate the trees and consumed the nails on their doors, until the doors fell from their homes and residences. They again said what they said to Musa before, and he called on his Lord and He removed the affliction. Still, they did not keep their promises, and Allah sent the Qummal. Musa, peace be upon him, was commanded to go to a mound and strike it with his staff. So Musa went to a huge mound, struck it with his staff and the Qummal fell out of it in tremendous numbers, until they overwhelmed the houses and food reserves, ultimately depriving them of sleep and rest. When they suffered under this affliction, they said similar to what they said before, and Musa invoked his Lord and He removed the affliction. They did not keep their promise and Allah sent the frogs to them, and they filled the houses, foods and pots. One of them would not pick up a piece of clothing, or uncover some food, without finding frogs in it. When this affliction became hard on them, they made similar promises as before, Musa supplicated to his Lord and Allah removed the affliction. They did not keep any of the promises they made, and Allah sent the blood, and the waters of the people of Fir`awn turned to blood. Any water they collected from a well, a river, or a container, turned to blood.”

فَانتَقَمْنَا مِنْهُمْ فَأَغْرَقْنَـهُمْ فِي الْيَمِّ بِأَنَّهُمْ كَذَّبُواْ بِـَايَـتِنَا وَكَانُواْ عَنْهَا غَـفِلِينَ

(136. So We took retribution from them. We drowned them in the sea, because they belied Our Ayat and were heedless with them.)

وَأَوْرَثْنَا الْقَوْمَ الَّذِينَ كَانُواْ يُسْتَضْعَفُونَ مَشَـرِقَ الاٌّرْضِ وَمَغَـرِبَهَا الَّتِى بَارَكْنَا فِيهَا وَتَمَّتْ كَلِمَتُ رَبِّكَ الْحُسْنَى عَلَى بَنِى إِسْرءِيلَ بِمَا صَبَرُواْ وَدَمَّرْنَا مَا كَانَ يَصْنَعُ فِرْعَوْنُ وَقَوْمُهُ وَمَا كَانُواْ يَعْرِشُونَ

(137. And We made the people who were considered weak to inherit the eastern parts of the land and the western parts thereof which We have blessed. And the fair Word of your Lord was fulfilled for the Children of Israel, because of their endurance. And We destroyed what Fir`awn and his people produced, and what they erected.)

Surah 7 Al-Araf Verse 136-137

Tafsir Ibn Kathir

The People of Fir`awn drown in the Sea; the Children of Israel inherit the Holy Land .

Allah states that when the people of Fir`awn rebelled and transgressed, even though He inflicted them with consecutive signs, one after another, He took retribution from them by drowning them in the sea that Musa parted by Allah’s power, and he and the Children of Israel passed through. In their pursuit, Fir`awn and his soldiers went in the sea chasing Musa and his people. When they all had gone inside the water, the sea closed in on them and they all drowned, because they belied the Ayat of Allah and were heedless of them. Allah said that He has granted the people who were considered weak, the Children of Israel, to inherit the eastern and western parts of the land. Al-Hasan Al-Basri and Qatadah commented that Allah’s statement,

(…the eastern parts of the land and the western parts thereof which We have blessed.) refers to the Sham area (Greater Syria). Also, Mujahid and Ibn Jarir said that Allah’s statement,

(And the fair Word of your Lord was fulfilled for the Children of Israel, because of their endurance.) is explained by Allah’s other statement,

(And We wished to do a favor to those who were weak (and oppressed) in the land, and to make them rulers and to make them the inheritors. And to establish them in the land, and We let Fir`awn and Haman and their hosts receive from them that which they feared) (28:5-6). Further, Allah’s statement,

(And We destroyed what Fir`awn and his people produced,) meaning, We destroyed what Fir`awn and his people produced, such as agriculture and buildings.

(and what they erected.) Ibn `Abbas and Mujahid said that,

(they erected) means, they built.

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The nine signs of Prophet Musa (Moses), peace be upon him

I take refuge with Allaah, the Exalted, from the accursed devil.

بِسْمِ اللَّهِ الرَّحْمَـنِ الرَّحِيمِ

Bismillah-ir-Rahman-ir-Raheem: In the name of Allah, the Compassionate, the Merciful.

Welcome to my blog and praise the Magnificent Lord as you enter: Allahu Akbar: Allah is the Greatest .

May the Peace and Blessings of Allah Azza wa Jal, our Lord Glorified and Praised be He, be upon our beloved  Prophet, his Family, and Companions.

The nine signs of Prophet Musa (Moses), peace be upon him.

وَلَقَدْ ءَاتَيْنَا مُوسَى تِسْعَ ءَايَـتٍ بَيِّنَاتٍ فَاسْأَلْ بَنِى إِسْرَءِيلَ إِذْ جَآءَهُمْ فَقَالَ لَهُ فِرْعَونُ إِنِّى لأَظُنُّكَ يمُوسَى مَسْحُورًا

(101. And indeed We gave Musa nine clear signs. Ask then the Children of Israel, when he came to them, then Fir`awn said to him: “O Musa ! I think you are indeed bewitched.”)

قَالَ لَقَدْ عَلِمْتَ مَآ أَنزَلَ هَـؤُلاءِ إِلاَّ رَبُّ السَّمَـوَتِ وَالاٌّرْضِ بَصَآئِرَ وَإِنِّى لأَظُنُّكَ يفِرْعَونُ مَثْبُورًا

(102. He said: “Verily, you know that these signs have been sent down by none but the Lord of the heavens and the earth. And I think you are indeed, O Fir`awn, doomed to destruction!”)

فَأَرَادَ أَن يَسْتَفِزَّهُم مِّنَ الاٌّرْضِ فَأَغْرَقْنَاهُ وَمَن مَّعَهُ جَمِيعًا

(103. So he resolved to turn them out of the land. But We drowned him and all who were with him.)

وَقُلْنَا مِن بَعْدِهِ لِبَنِى إِسْرَءِيلَ اسْكُنُواْ الاٌّرْضَ فَإِذَا جَآءَ وَعْدُ الاٌّخِرَةِ جِئْنَا بِكُمْ لَفِيفًا

(104. And We said to the Children of Israel after him: “Dwell in the land, then, when the final and the last promise comes near, We shall bring you altogether as mixed crowd.”)

Surah 17 Al Isra Verse 101-104

Tafsir Ibn Kathir

The Nine Signs of Musa.

Allah tells us that He sent Musa with nine clear signs, which provided definitive proof that his prophethood was real and that what he was conveying from the One Who had sent him to Fira`wn was true. These clear signs were: his staff, his hand, the years of famine, the sea, the flood, the locusts, the lice, the frogs and the blood. This was the view of Ibn `Abbas. Muhammad bin Ka`b said, “They were his hand and his staff, the five signs mentioned in Al-A`raf, and destruction of wealth and the rock.” Ibn `Abbas, Mujahid, `Ikrimah, Ash-Sha`bi and Qatadah said: “They are his hand, his staff, the years of famine, the failure of the crops, the flood, the locusts, the lice, the frogs and the blood.”

(Yet they remained arrogant, and they were of those people who were criminals,) (7:133) meaning, despite all these signs and their witnessing of them, they disbelieved them and belied them wrongfully and arrogantly, although they were themselves were convinced of them, so they did not have any effect on them. By the same token, (Allah tells His Messenger here,) `if We were to respond to what these people are asking you for, who have said that they will not believe in you until you cause springs to gush forth throughout the land for them, they would not respond or believe except if Allah willed.’ As Fira`wn said to Musa, even though he had witnessed the signs which he brought,

(“O Musa! I think you are indeed bewitched. ”) It was said that this meant he thought he was a sorcerer, but Allah knows best. These nine signs which were mentioned by the Imams (scholars) quoted above are what is referred to here, and in the Ayah :

(“And throw down your stick!” But when he saw it moving as if it were a snake, he turned in flight, and did not look back. (It was said:) “O Musa ! Fear not.”) until His saying,

(among the nine signs (you will take) to Fir`awn and his people. Verily, they are a people who are rebellious.) (27:10-12) These Ayat include mention of the stick and the hand, and the rest of the nine signs are mentioned in detail in Surat Al-A`raf. Musa was also given many other signs, such as striking the rock with his staff and water flowing from it, their being shaded with clouds, manna and quails, and other signs which were bestowed upon the Children of Israel after they had left the land of Egypt. But here Allah mentions the nine signs which were witnessed by his people in Egypt. These became evidence against them, because they stubbornly rejected them out of disbelief. So Musa said to Fira`wn:

(“Verily, you know that these signs have been sent down by none but the Lord of the heavens and the earth. ) meaning, as proof and evidence of the truth of what I have brought to you.

(And I think you are indeed, O Fir`awn, doomed to destruction!) i.e., bound to be destroyed. This was the view of Mujahid and Qatadah. Ibn `Abbas said: “It means cursed.” Ibn `Abbas and Ad-Dahhak said:

(doomed to destruction.) means defeated. As Mujahid said, “doomed” includes all of these meanings.

The Destruction of Fir`awn and His People.

(So he resolved to turn them out of the land.) means, he wanted to expel them and drive them out.

(But We drowned him and all who were with him. And We said to the Children of Israel after him: “Dwell in the land…”) This is good news for Muhammad , a foretelling of the conquest of Makkah, even though this Surah was revealed in Makkah before the Hijrah. Similarly, the people of Makkah wanted to expel the Prophet from the city, as Allah says in two Ayat:

(And verily, they were about to frighten you so much as to drive you out from the land…) (17:76-77) Hence Allah caused His Messenger to inherit Makkah, so he entered it by force, according to the better-known of the two opinions, and he defeated its people then out of kindness and generosity, he let them go, just as Allah caused the Children of Israel, who had been oppressed, to inherit the land, east and west, and to inherit the land of Fir`awn’s people, with its farmland, crops and treasures. As Allah said,

(thus We caused the Children of Israel to inherit them. ) (26:59). Here Allah says:

(And We said to the Children of Israel after him: “Dwell in the land, then, when the final and the last promise comes near, We shall bring you altogether as mixed crowd.”) meaning, all of you, you and your enemies. Ibn `Abbas, Qatadah and Ad-Dahhak said, “It means all together.”

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The children of Israel after the death of Prophet Musa (Moses), peace be upon him

I take refuge with Allaah, the Exalted, from the accursed devil.

بِسْمِ اللَّهِ الرَّحْمَـنِ الرَّحِيمِ

Bismillah-ir-Rahman-ir-Raheem: In the name of Allah, the Compassionate, the Merciful.

Welcome to my blog and praise the Magnificent Lord as you enter: Allahu Akbar: Allah is the Greatest .

May the Peace and Blessings of Allah Azza wa Jal, our Lord Glorified and Praised be He, be upon our beloved  Prophet, his Family, and Companions.

The children of Israel after the death of Prophet Musa (Moses), peace be upon him.

وَقَطَّعْنَـهُمْ فِي الاٌّرْضِ أُمَمًا مِّنْهُمُ الصَّـلِحُونَ وَمِنْهُمْ دُونَ ذَلِكَ وَبَلَوْنَـهُمْ بِالْحَسَنَـتِ وَالسَّيِّئَاتِ لَعَلَّهُمْ يَرْجِعُونَ

(168. And We have broken them (the Jews) up into various separate groups on the earth: some of them are righteous and some are away from that. And We tried them with good (blessings) and evil (calamities) in order that they might turn (to Allah).)

فَخَلَفَ مِن بَعْدِهِمْ خَلْفٌ وَرِثُواْ الْكِتَـبَ يَأْخُذُونَ عَرَضَ هَـذَا الاٌّدْنَى وَيَقُولُونَ سَيُغْفَرُ لَنَا وَإِن يَأْتِهِمْ عَرَضٌ مِّثْلُهُ يَأْخُذُوهُ أَلَمْ يُؤْخَذْ عَلَيْهِم مِّيثَاقُ الْكِتَـبِ أَن لاَّ يِقُولُواْ عَلَى اللَّهِ إِلاَّ الْحَقَّ وَدَرَسُواْ مَا فِيهِ وَالدَّارُ الاٌّخِرَةُ خَيْرٌ لِّلَّذِينَ يَتَّقُونَ أَفَلاَ تَعْقِلُونَ

(169. Then after them succeeded an (evil) generation, which inherited the Book, but they chose (for themselves) the goods of this low life saying: “(Everything) will be forgiven to us.” And if (again) the offer of the like (evil pleasures of this world) came their way, they would (again) seize them (would commit those sins). Was not the covenant of the Book taken from them that they would not say about Allah anything but the truth And they have studied what is in it (the Book). And the home in the Hereafter is better for those who have Taqwa. Do not you then understand)

وَالَّذِينَ يُمَسِّكُونَ بِالْكِتَـبِ وَأَقَامُواْ الصَّلَوةَ إِنَّا لاَ نُضِيعُ أَجْرَ الْمُصْلِحِينَ

(170. And as to those who hold fast to the Book (act on its teachings) and perform the Salah, certainly We shall never waste the reward of those who do righteous deeds.)

Surah 7 Al Araf Verse 168-170

Tafsir Ibn Kathir

Allah states that He divided the Jews into various nations, sects and groups,

(And We said to the Children of Israel after him (after Musa died): “Dwell in the land, then, when the final and the last promise comes near, We shall bring you altogether as a mixed crowd (gathered out of various nations).”)(17:104)

(some of them are righteous and some are away from that), some of them are led aright and some are not righteous, just as the Jinns declared,

(“There are among us some that are righteous, and some the contrary; we are groups having different ways (religious sects).”) (72:11) Allah said here,

(And We tried them), and tested them,

(with good and evil), with times of ease, difficulty, eagerness, fear, well-being and affliction,

(in order that they might turn (to Allah)) Allah said next,

(Then after them succeeded an (evil) generation, which inherited the Book, but they chose (for themselves) the goods of this low life) This Ayah means, after the generation made up of righteous and unrighteous people, another generation came that did not have goodness in them, and they inherited the Tawrah and studied it. Mujahid commented on Allah’s statement,

(They chose (for themselves) the goods of this low life) “They will consume anything they can consume in this life, whether legally or illegally. Yet, they wish for forgiveness,

(Saying: “(Everything) will be forgiven for us.” And if (again) the offer of the like came their way, they would (again) seize them.)” Qatadah commented on Allah’s statement,

(they chose (for themselves) the goods of this low life) “This, by Allah, is an evil generation,

(which inherited the Book) after their Prophets and Messengers, for they were entrusted with this job by Allah’s command to them. Allah said in another Ayah,

(Then, there has succeeded them a posterity who neglect the Salah (the prayers).) (19:59)Allah said next,

(They chose the goods of this low life saying: “(Everything) will be forgiven to us.”) They wish and hope from Allah, while deceiving themselves,

(And if (again) the offer of the like came their way, they would (again) seize them.) Nothing stops them from this behavior, for whenever they are given an opportunity in this life, they will consume regardless of it being allowed or not.” As-Suddi said about Allah’s statement,

(Then after them succeeded an (evil) generation) until,

(and they have studied what is in it (the Book).) “Every time the Children of Israel appointed a judge, he used to take bribes. The best ones among them held a counsel and took covenants from each that they would not take bribes. However, when one of them would take bribes in return for judgment and was asked, `What is the matter with you; you take a bribe to grant judgment’, he replied, `I will be forgiven.’ So the rest of his people would admonish him for what he did. But when he died, or was replaced, the one who replaced him would take bribes too. Therefore, Allah says, if the others (who admonished him) would have a chance to loot this world, they will take it.”’ Allah said,

(Was not the covenant of the Book taken from them that they would not say about Allah anything but the truth) thus, admonishing them for this behavior. Allah took a pledge from them that they would declare the truth to people and not hide it. Allah said in another Ayah,

((And remember) when Allah took a covenant from those who were given the Scripture to make it known and clear to mankind, and not to hide it, but they threw it away behind their backs, and purchased with it some miserable gain! And indeed worst is that which they bought) (3:187). Ibn Jurayj said that Ibn `Abbas said about the Ayah,

(Was not the covenant of the Book taken from them that they would not say about Allah anything but the truth), “Their claim that Allah will forgive the sins they keep committing without repenting from them.” Allah said,

(And the home in the Hereafter is better for those who have Taqwa Do not you then understand) Encouraging them to seek Allah’s tremendous reward and warning them against His severe torment. Allah says here, `My reward and what I have are better for those who avoid prohibitions, abandon lusts and become active in the obedience of their Lord.’

(Do not you then understand) Allah says’ Do not these people, who preferred this life instead of what is with Me, have any sense to prohibit them from their foolish and extravagant ways’ Allah then praises those who adhere to His Book, which directs them to follow His Messenger Muhammad ,

(And as to those who hold fast to the Book) adhere to it, implement its commands and refrain from its prohibitions,

(and perform the Salah, certainly We shall never waste the reward of those who do righteous deeds.)

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The sabbath and the severe torment.

I take refuge with Allaah, the Exalted, from the accursed devil.

بِسْمِ اللَّهِ الرَّحْمَـنِ الرَّحِيمِ

Bismillah-ir-Rahman-ir-Raheem: In the name of Allah, the Compassionate, the Merciful.

Welcome to my blog and praise the Magnificent Lord as you enter: Allahu Akbar: Allah is the Greatest .

May the Peace and Blessings of Allah Azza wa Jal, our Lord Glorified and Praised be He, be upon our beloved  Prophet, his Family, and Companions.

The sabbath and the severe torment

وَإِذْ قَالَتْ أُمَّةٌ مِّنْهُمْ لِمَ تَعِظُونَ قَوْمًا اللَّهُ مُهْلِكُهُمْ أَوْ مُعَذِّبُهُمْ عَذَاباً شَدِيدًا قَالُواْ مَعْذِرَةً إِلَى رَبِّكُمْ وَلَعَلَّهُمْ يَتَّقُونَ

(164. And when a community among them said: “Why do you preach to a people whom Allah is about to destroy or to punish with a severe torment” (The preachers) said: “In order to be free from guilt before your Lord (Allah), and perhaps they may fear Allah.”)

فَلَمَّا نَسُواْ مَا ذُكِّرُواْ بِهِ أَنجَيْنَا الَّذِينَ يَنْهَوْنَ عَنِ السُّوءِ وَأَخَذْنَا الَّذِينَ ظَلَمُواْ بِعَذَابٍ بَئِيسٍ بِمَا كَانُواْ يَفْسُقُونَ

(165. So when they forgot the reminder that had been given to them, We rescued those who forbade evil, but with a severe torment We seized those who did wrong, because they used to rebel against Allah’s command.)

فَلَمَّا عَتَوْاْ عَن مَّا نُهُواْ عَنْهُ قُلْنَا لَهُمْ كُونُواْ قِرَدَةً خَـسِئِينَ

(166. So when they exceeded the limits of what they were prohibited, We said to them: “Be you monkeys, despised.”)

Surah 7 Al Araf Verse 164-166

Tafsir Ibn Kathir

Allah said that the people of this village were divided into three groups, a group that committed the prohibition, catching fish on the Sabbath, as we described in the Tafsir of Surat Al-Baqarah. Another group prohibited them from transgression and avoided them. A third group neither prohibited them, nor participated in their action. The third group said to the preachers,

(“Why do you preach to a people whom Allah is about to destroy or to punish with a severe torment”). They said, `why do you forbid these people from evil, when you know that they are destroyed and have earned Allah’s punishment’ Therefore, they said, there is no benefit in forbidding them. The preachers replied,

(“In order to be free from guilt before your Lord (Allah),”) `for we were commanded to enjoin righteousness and forbid evil,’

(“and perhaps they may fear Allah”) for on account of our advice, they might stop this evil and repent to Allah. Certainly, if they repent to Allah, Allah will accept their repentance and grant them His mercy.’ Allah said,

(So when they forgot the reminder that had been given to them, ) when the evil doers refused the advice,

(We rescued those who forbade evil, but We seized who did wrong,) who committed the transgression,

(with a severe torment). Allah stated that those who enjoined good were saved, while those who committed the transgression were destroyed, but He did not mention the end of those who were passive (the third group), for the compensation is comparable to the deed. This type did not do what would warrant praise, nor commit wrong so that they are admonished. `Ikrimah said, “Ibn `Abbas said about the Ayah: `I do not know whether or not the people were saved who said;

(“Why do you preach to a people whom Allah is about to destroy…”) So I continued discussing it with him until I convinced him that they were. Then he gave me ﴿the gift of﴾ a garment.” Allah said,

(and We seized those who did wrong with a Ba’is torment) indicating that those who remained were saved. As for `Ba’is’, it means `severe’, according to Mujahid, or `painful’, according to Qatadah. These meanings are synonymous, and Allah knows best. Allah said next,

(despised), humiliated, disgraced and rejected.

وَإِذْ تَأَذَّنَ رَبُّكَ لَيَبْعَثَنَّ عَلَيْهِمْ إِلَى يَوْمِ الْقِيَـمَةِ مَن يَسُومُهُمْ سُوءَ الْعَذَابِ إِنَّ رَبَّكَ لَسَرِيعُ الْعِقَابِ وَإِنَّهُ لَغَفُورٌ رَّحِيم

(167. And (remember) when your Lord declared that He would certainly keep on sending against them, till the Day of Resurrection, those who would afflict them with a humiliating torment. Verily, your Lord is quick in retribution and certainly He is Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful.)

Surah 7 Al Araf Verse 167

Tafsir Ibn Kathir

(Ta’dhdhana) means `declared’, according to Mujahid, or `ordained’, according to others. This part of the Ayah indicates a vow,

(that He will keep on sending against them) against the Jews,

(till the Day of Resurrection, those who would afflict them with a humiliating torment.) on account of their disobedience, defying Allah’s orders and Law and using tricks to transgress the prohibitions. It was reported that Musa required the Jews to pay the production tax for seven or thirteen years, and he was the first to do so. Also, the Jews fell under the humiliating rule of the Greek Kushdanin, Chaldeans and later on the Christians, who subjugated and disgraced them, and required them to pay the Jizyah (tribute tax). When Islam came and Muhammad was sent, they became under his power and had to pay the Jizyah, as well. Therefore, the humiliating torment mentioned here includes disgrace and paying the Jizyah, as Al-`Awfi narrated from Ibn `Abbas. In the future, the Jews will support the Dajjal (False Messiah); and the Muslims, along with `Isa, son of Mary, will kill the Jews. This will occur just before the end of this world. Allah said next,

(Verily, your Lord is quick in retribution), with those who disobey Him and defy His Law,

(and certainly He is Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful.) for those who repent and go back to Him. This Ayah mentions both the mercy, as well as, the punishment, so that no despair is felt. Allah often mentions encouragement and warning together, so that hearts always have a sense of hope and fear.

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The twelve tribes of the people of Prophet Musa (Moses), peace be upon him

I take refuge with Allaah, the Exalted, from the accursed devil.

بِسْمِ اللَّهِ الرَّحْمَـنِ الرَّحِيمِ

Bismillah-ir-Rahman-ir-Raheem: In the name of Allah, the Compassionate, the Merciful.

Welcome to my blog and praise the Magnificent Lord as you enter: Allahu Akbar: Allah is the Greatest .

May the Peace and Blessings of Allah Azza wa Jal, our Lord Glorified and Praised be He, be upon our beloved  Prophet, his Family, and Companions.

The twelve tribes of the people of Prophet Musa (Moses), peace be upon him.

وَقَطَّعْنَـهُمُ اثْنَتَىْ عَشْرَةَ أَسْبَاطًا أُمَمًا وَأَوْحَيْنَآ إِلَى مُوسَى إِذِ اسْتَسْقَـهُ قَوْمُهُ أَنِ اضْرِب بِّعَصَاكَ الْحَجَرَ فَانبَجَسَتْ مِنْهُ اثْنَتَا عَشْرَةَ عَيْنًا قَدْ عَلِمَ كُلُّ أُنَاسٍ مَّشْرَبَهُمْ وَظَلَّلْنَا عَلَيْهِمُ الْغَمَـمَ وَأَنزَلْنَا عَلَيْهِمُ الْمَنَّ وَالسَّلْوَى كُلُواْ مِن طَيِّبَـتِ مَا رَزَقْنَـكُمْ وَمَا ظَلَمُونَا وَلَـكِن كَانُواْ أَنفُسَهُمْ يَظْلِمُونَ

(160. And We divided them into twelve tribes (as distinct) nations. We revealed to Musa when his people asked him for water (saying): “Strike the stone with your stick,” and there gushed forth out of it twelve springs, each group knew its own place for water. We shaded them with the clouds and sent down upon them the manna and the quail (saying): “Eat of the good things with which We have provided you.” They harmed Us not but they used to harm themselves.)

وَإِذْ قِيلَ لَهُمُ اسْكُنُواْ هَـذِهِ الْقَرْيَةَ وَكُلُواْ مِنْهَا حَيْثُ شِئْتُمْ وَقُولُواْ حِطَّةٌ وَادْخُلُواْ الْبَابَ سُجَّدًا نَّغْفِرْ لَكُمْ خَطِيئَـتِكُمْ سَنَزِيدُ الْمُحْسِنِينَ

(161. And (remember) when it was said to them: “Dwell in this town (Jerusalem) and eat therefrom wherever you wish, and say, `(O Allah) forgive our sins’; and enter the gate prostrating (bowing with humility). We shall forgive you your wrongdoings. We shall increase (the reward) for the good-doers.”)

فَبَدَّلَ الَّذِينَ ظَلَمُواْ مِنْهُمْ قَوْلاً غَيْرَ الَّذِى قِيلَ لَهُمْ فَأَرْسَلْنَا عَلَيْهِمْ رِجْزًا مِّنَ السَّمَآءِ بِمَا كَانُواْ يَظْلِمُونَ

(162. But those among them who did wrong, changed the word that had been told to them. So We sent on them a torment from the heaven in return for their wrongdoings.)

Surah 7 Al Araf Verse 160-162

Tafsir Ibn Kathir

We discussed these Ayat in Surat Al-Baqarah, which was revealed in Al-Madinah, while these Ayat were revealed in Makkah. We also mentioned the difference between the two narrations, and thus we do not need to repeat it here, all thanks are due to Allah and all the favors are from Him.

وَسْئَلْهُمْ عَنِ الْقَرْيَةِ الَّتِى كَانَتْ حَاضِرَةَ الْبَحْرِ إِذْ يَعْدُونَ فِى السَّبْتِ إِذْ تَأْتِيهِمْ حِيتَانُهُمْ يَوْمَ سَبْتِهِمْ شُرَّعًا وَيَوْمَ لاَ يَسْبِتُونَ لاَ تَأْتِيهِمْ كَذَلِكَ نَبْلُوهُم بِمَا كَانُوا يَفْسُقُونَ

(163. And ask them about the town that was by the sea; when they transgressed in the matter of the Sabbath: when their fish came to them openly on the Sabbath day, and did not come to them on the day they had no Sabbath. Thus We made a trial for them, for they used to rebel against Allah’s command.)

Surah 7 Al Araf Verse 163

Tafsir Ibn Kathir

The Jews transgress the Sanctity of the Sabbath.

This Ayah explains Allah’s statement,

(And indeed you knew those among you who transgressed in the matter of the Sabbath..) (2:65) Allah says to His Prophet here,

(And ask them) ask the Jews who are with you, about the story of their fellow Jews who defied Allah’s command, so that His punishment overtook them all of a sudden for their evil actions, transgression and defiance by way of deceit. Also, warn the Jews (O Muhammad) against hiding your description that they find in their books, so that they do not suffer what their forefathers suffered. The village mentioned here is Aylah, on the shore of the Qulzum (Red) Sea. Muhammad bin Ishaq recorded from Dawud bin Al-Husayn from `Ikrimah that Ibn `Abbas commented on Allah’s statement,

(And ask them about the town that was by the sea…) “A village called Aylah between Madyan and At-Tur (which is in Sinai). `Ikrimah, Mujahid, Qatadah and As-Suddi said similarly. Allah’s statement,

(when they transgressed in the matter of the Sabbath;) means, they transgressed in the Sabbath and defied Allah’s command to them to keep it sanctified,

(when their fish came to them openly on the Sabbath day,) visible on top of the water, according to Ad-Dahhak who reported it from Ibn `Abbas. Ibn Jarir said, “Allah’s statement,

(and did not come to them on the day they had no Sabbath. Thus We made a trial of them,) means, this is how We tested them by making the fish swim close to the surface of the water , on the day which they were prohibited to fish. The fish would be hidden from them on the day when they were allowed to fish,

(Thus We made a trial for them,) so that We test them,

(for they used to rebel against Allah’s command) by defying His obedience and rebelling against it.” Therefore, these were a people who used a trick to violate Allah’s prohibitions, taking an action that seemed legal on the surface. However, in reality, this action was meant to transgress the prohibition. Imam and scholar Abu `Abdullah Ibn Battah reported that Abu Hurayrah said that the Messenger of Allah said,

(Do not repeat what the Jews committed, and violate Allah’s prohibitions using deceitful tricks.) This Hadith has a reasonable chain.

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The believing community of Prophet Musa, peace be upon him

I take refuge with Allaah, the Exalted, from the accursed devil.

بِسْمِ اللَّهِ الرَّحْمَـنِ الرَّحِيمِ

Bismillah-ir-Rahman-ir-Raheem: In the name of Allah, the Compassionate, the Merciful.

Welcome to my blog and praise the Magnificent Lord as you enter: Allahu Akbar: Allah is the Greatest .

May the Peace and Blessings of Allah Azza wa Jal, our Lord Glorified and Praised be He, be upon our beloved  Prophet, his Family, and Companions.

The believing community of Prophet Musa, peace be upon him.

وَمِن قَوْمِ مُوسَى أُمَّةٌ يَهْدُونَ بِالْحَقِّ وَبِهِ يَعْدِلُونَ

(159. And of the people of Musa there is a community who lead (the men) with truth and establish justice therewith.)

Surah 7 Al Araf verse 159

Tafsir Ibn Kathir

Allah stated that of the Children of Israel there are some who follow the truth and judge by it, just as He said in another Ayah,

(A party of the people of the Scripture stand for the right, they recite the verses of Allah during the hours of the night, prostrating themselves in prayer) (3:113),

(And there are, certainly, among the People of the Scripture, those who believe in Allah and in that which has been revealed to you, and in that which has been revealed to them, humbling themselves before Allah. They do not sell the verses of Allah for a small price, for them is a reward with their Lord. Surely, Allah is Swift in account.) (3:199)

(Those to whom We gave the Scripture before it, they believe in it (the Qur’an). And when it is recited to them, they say: “We believe in it. Verily, it is the truth from our Lord. Indeed even before it we have been from those who submit themselves. These will be given their reward twice over, because they are patient.)(28:52-54), and,

(Verily, those who were given knowledge before it, when it (this Qur’an) is recited to them, fall down on their faces in humble prostration. And they say: “Glory be to our Lord! Truly, the promise of our Lord must be fulfilled.” And they fall down on their faces weeping and it increases their humility.)(17:107-109)

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The reward for those who believe from among the People of the Scripture

I take refuge with Allaah, the Exalted, from the accursed devil.

بِسْمِ اللَّهِ الرَّحْمَـنِ الرَّحِيمِ

Bismillah-ir-Rahman-ir-Raheem: In the name of Allah, the Compassionate, the Merciful.

Welcome to my blog and praise the Magnificent Lord as you enter: Allahu Akbar: Allah is the Greatest .

May the Peace and Blessings of Allah Azza wa Jal, our Lord Glorified and Praised be He, be upon our beloved  Prophet, his Family, and Companions.

The reward for those who believe from among the People of the Scripture.

وَإِنَّ مِنْ أَهْلِ الْكِتَـبِ لَمَن يُؤْمِنُ بِاللَّهِ وَمَآ أُنزِلَ إِلَيْكُمْ وَمَآ أُنزِلَ إِلَيْهِمْ خَـشِعِينَ للَّهِ لاَ يَشْتَرُونَ بِـَايَـتِ اللَّهِ ثَمَناً قَلِيلاً أُوْلـئِكَ لَهُمْ أَجْرُهُمْ عِندَ رَبِّهِمْ إِنَّ اللَّهَ سَرِيعُ الْحِسَابِ

(199. And there are, certainly, among the People of the Scripture (Jews and Christians), those who believe in Allah and in that which has been revealed to you, and in that which has been revealed to them, humbling themselves before Allah. They do not sell the verses of Allah for a small price, for them is a reward with their Lord. Surely, Allah is swift in account.)

يَـأَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ ءَامَنُواْ اصْبِرُواْ وَصَابِرُواْ وَرَابِطُواْ وَاتَّقُواْ اللَّهَ لَعَلَّكُمْ تُفْلِحُونَ

(200. O you who believe! Endure and be more patient, and Rabitu, and have Taqwa of Allah, so that you may be successful.)

Surah 3 Ala Imran Verse 199-200

Allah states that some of the People of the Book truly believe in Him and in what was sent down to Muhammad , along with believing in the previously revealed Books, and they are obedient to Him and humble themselves before Allah.

(They do not sell the verses of Allah for a small price) (3:199)                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  , for they do not hide what they know of the glad tidings about the description of Muhammad , his Prophethood, and the description of his Ummah. Indeed, these are the best people among the People of the Book, whether they were Jews or Christians. Allah said in Surat Al-Qasas,

(Those to whom We gave the Scripture before it, they believe in it (the Qur’an). And when it is recited to them, they say: “We believe in it. Verily, it is the truth from our Lord. Indeed even before it we were Muslims. These will be given their reward twice over, because they are patient,) (28:52-54). Allah said,

(Those to whom We gave the Book, recite it (follow it) as it should be recited (i.e. followed), they are the ones who believe therein.) (2:121),

(And of the people of Musa there is a community who lead with truth and establish justice therewith.) (7:159),

(Not all of them are alike; a party of the people of the Scripture stand for the right, they recite the verses of Allah during the hours of the night, prostrating themselves in prayer.) (3:113), and,

(Say: “Believe in it (the Qur’an) or do not believe (in it). Verily, those who were given knowledge before it, when it is recited to them, fall down on their faces in humble prostration.” And they say: “Glory be to our Lord! Truly, the promise of our Lord must be fulfillled.” And they fall down on their faces weeping and it increases their humility.) (17:107- 109).

These qualities exist in some of the Jews, but only a few of them. For instance, less than ten Jewish rabbis embraced the Islamic faith, such as `Abdullah bin Salam. Many among the Christians, on the other hand, embraced the Islamic faith. Allah said,

(Verily, you will find the strongest among men in enmity to the believers the Jews and those who commit Shirk, and you will find the nearest in love to the believers those who say: “We are Christians.”) (5:82), until,

(So because of what they said, Allah rewarded them Gardens under which rivers flow (in Paradise), they will abide therein forever) (5:85). In this Ayah,

Allah said,

(for them is a reward with their Lord) (3:199).

When Ja`far bin Abi Talib recited Surah Maryam (chapter 19) to An-Najashi, King of Ethiopia, in the presence of Christian priests and patriarchs, he and they cried until their beards became wet from crying. The Two Sahihs record that when An-Najashi died, the Prophet conveyed the news to his Companions and said,

(A brother of yours from Ethiopia has passed, come to offer the funeral prayer.) He went out with the Companions to the Musalla lined them up in rows, and after that led the prayer.

Ibn Abi Najih narrated that Mujahid said that,

(And there are, certainly, among the People of the Scripture), refers to those among them who embraced Islam. `Abbad bin Mansur said that he asked Al-Hasan Al-Basri about Allah’s statement,

(And there are, certainly, among the People of the Scripture, those who believe in Allah).

Al-Hasan said, “They are the People of the Book, before Muhammad was sent, who believed in Muhammad and recognized Islam. Allah gave them a double reward, for the faith that they had before Muhammad , and for believing in Muhammad (after he was sent as Prophet).” Ibn Abi Hatim recorded both of these statements. The Two Sahihs record that Abu Musa said that the Messenger of Allah said,

(Three persons will acquire a double reward. )

He mentioned among them,

(A person from among the People of the Book who believed in his Prophet and in me.)

Allah’s statement,

(They do not sell the verses of Allah for a small price), means, they do not hide the knowledge that they have, as the cursed ones among them have done. Rather, they share the knowledge without a price, and this is why Allah said,

(for them is a reward with their Lord. surely, Allah is Swift in account.)

Mujahid commented on the verse,

((Surely, Allah is) swift in account), “He is swift in reckoning,” as Ibn Abi Hatim and others have recorded from him.

The Command for Patience and Ribat.

Allah said,

(O you who believe! Endure and be more patient, and Rabitu) (3:200).

Al-Hasan Al-Basri said, “The believers are commanded to be patient in the religion that Allah chose for them, Islam. They are not allowed to abandon it in times of comfort or hardship, ease or calamity, until they die as Muslims. They are also commanded to endure against their enemies, those who hid the truth about their religion.” Similar explanation given by several other scholars among the Salaf.

As for Murabatah, it is to endure in acts of worship and perseverence. It also means to await prayer after prayer, as Ibn `Abbas, Sahl bin Hanif and Muhammad bin Ka`b Al-Qurazi stated. Ibn Abi Hatim collected a Hadith that was also collected by Muslim and An-Nasa’i from Abu Hurayrah that the Prophet said,

(Should I tell you about actions with which Allah forgives sins and raises the grade Performing perfect ablution in unfavorable conditions, the many steps one takes to the Masajid, and awaiting prayer after the prayer, for this is the Ribat, this is the Ribat, this is the Ribat.)

They also say that the Murabatah in the above Ayah refers to battles against the enemy, and manning Muslim outposts to protect them from enemy incursions inside Muslim territory. There are several Hadiths that encourage Murabatah and mention its rewards. Al-Bukhari recorded that Sahl bin Sa`d As-Sa`idi said that the Messenger of Allah said,

(A Day of Ribat in the cause of Allah is better than this life and all that is in it.)

Muslim recorded that Salman Al-Farisi said that the Messenger of Allah said,

(Ribat for a day and a night is better than fasting the days of a month and its Qiyam (voluntary prayer at night). If one dies in Ribat, his regular righteous deeds that he used to perform will keep being added to his account, and he will receive his provision, and will be saved from the trials of the grave.)

Imam Ahmad recorded that Fadalah bin `Ubayd said that he heard the Messenger of Allah saying,

(Every dead person will have his record of deeds sealed, except for whoever dies while in Ribat in the cause of Allah, for his work will keep increasing until the Day of Resurrection, and he will be safe from the trial of the grave.)

This is the same narration collected by Abu Dawud and At-Tirmidhi, who said, “Hasan Sahih”. Ibn Hibban also collected this Hadith in his Sahih. fAt-Tirmidhi recorded that Ibn `Abbas said that he heard the Messenger of Allah saying,

(Two eyes shall not be touched by the Fire: an eye that cried for fear from Allah and an eye that spent the night guarding in Allah’s cause.)

Al-Bukhari recorded in his Sahih that Abu Hurayrah said that the Messenger of Allah said,

(Let the servant of the Dinar, the servant of the Dirham and the servant of the Khamisah (of clothes) perish, as he is pleased if these things are given to him, and if not, he is displeased. Let such a person perish and be humiliated, and if he is pierced with a thorn, let him not find anyone to take it out for him. (Paradise is for him who holds the reins of his horse, striving in Allah’s cause, with his hair unkempt and feet covered with dust: if he is appointed to the vanguard, he is perfectly satisfied with his post of guarding, and if he is appointed in the rearguard, he accepts his post with satisfaction;) if he asks for permission he is not permitted, and if he intercedes, his intercession is not accepted.

Ibn Jarir recorded that Zayd bin Aslam said, “Abu `Ubaydah wrote to `Umar bin Al-Khattab and mentioned to him that the Romans were mobilizing their forces. `Umar wrote back, `Allah will soon turn whatever hardship a believing servant suffers, to ease, and no hardship shall ever overcome two types of ease. Allah says in His Book,

(O you who believe! Endure and be more patient, and Rabitu, and have Taqwa of Allah, so that you may be successful)’ (3:200).”

Al-Hafiz Ibn `Asakir mentioned in the biography of `Abdullah bin Al-Mubarak, that Muhammad bin Ibrahim bin Abi Sakinah said, “While in the area of Tarsus, `Abdullah bin Al-Mubarak dictated this poem to me when I was greeting him goodbye. He sent the poem with me to Al-Fudayl bin `Iyad in the year one hundred and seventy, `O he who worships in the vicinity of the Two Holy Masjids! If you but see us, you will realize that you are only jesting in worship. He who brings wetness to his cheek with his tears, should know that our necks are being wet by our blood. He who tires his horses without purpose, know that our horses are getting tired in battle. Scent of perfume is yours, while our scent is the glimmer of spears and the stench of dust (in battle). We were narrated about in the speech of our Prophet, an authentic statement that never lies. That the dust that erupts by Allah’s horses and which fills the nostrils of a man shall never be combined with the smoke of a raging Fire. This, the Book of Allah speaks among us that the martyr is not dead, and the truth in Allah’s Book cannot be denied.’ I met Al-Fudayl Ibn `Iyad in the Sacred Masjid and gave him the letter. When he read it, his eyes became tearful and he said, `Abu `Abdur-Rahman (`Abdullah bin Al-Mubarak) has said the truth and offered sincere advice to me.’ He then asked me, `Do you write the Hadith’ I said, `Yes.’ He said, `Write this Hadith as reward for delivering the letter of Abu `Abdur-Rahman to me. He then dictated, `Mansur bin Al-Mu`tamir narrated to us that Abu Salih narrated from Abu Hurayrah that a man asked, `O Messenger of Allah! Teach me a good deed that will earn me the reward of the Mujahidin in Allah’s cause.’ The Prophet said,

(Are you able to pray continuously and fast without breaking the fast) The man said, `O Messenger of Allah! I cannot bear it.’ The Prophet said,

(By He in Whose Hand is my soul! Even if you were able to do it, you will not achieve the grade of the Mujahidin in Allah’s cause. Did you not know that the horse of the Mujahid earns rewards for him as long as it lives.)

Allah said next,

(and have Taqwa of Allah), concerning all your affairs and situations. For instance, the Prophet said to Mu`adh when he sent him to Yemen,

(Have Taqwa of Allah wherever you may be, follow the evil deed with a good deed and it will erase it, and deal with people in a good manner.)

Allah said next,

(so that you may be successful.), in this life and the Hereafter. Ibn Jarir recorded that Muhammad bin Ka`b Al-Qurazi said that, Allah’s statement,

(and have Taqwa of Allah, so that you may be successful.) means, “Fear Me concerning what is between you and Me, so that you may acquire success when you meet Me tomorrow.”

The Tafsir of Surah Al `Imran ends here, all praise is due to Allah, and we ask Him that we die while on the path of the Qur’an and Sunnah, Amin.

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The nearest to the believers

I take refuge with Allaah, the Exalted, from the accursed devil.

بِسْمِ اللَّهِ الرَّحْمَـنِ الرَّحِيمِ

Bismillah-ir-Rahman-ir-Raheem: In the name of Allah, the Compassionate, the Merciful.

Welcome to my blog and praise the Magnificent Lord as you enter: Allahu Akbar: Allah is the Greatest .

May the Peace and Blessings of Allah Azza wa Jal, our Lord Glorified and Praised be He, be upon our beloved  Prophet, his Family, and Companions.

The nearest to the believers.

لَتَجِدَنَّ أَشَدَّ النَّاسِ عَدَاوَةً لِّلَّذِينَ ءَامَنُواْ الْيَهُودَ وَالَّذِينَ أَشْرَكُواْ وَلَتَجِدَنَّ أَقْرَبَهُمْ مَّوَدَّةً لِّلَّذِينَ ءَامَنُواْ الَّذِينَ قَالُواْ إِنَّا نَصَارَى ذلِكَ بِأَنَّ مِنْهُمْ قِسِّيسِينَ وَرُهْبَاناً وَأَنَّهُمْ لاَ يَسْتَكْبِرُونَ

(82. Verily, you will find the strongest among men in enmity to the believers the Jews and those who commit Shirk, and you will find the nearest in love to the believers those who say: “We are Christians.” That is because among them are priests and monks, and they are not proud.)

وَإِذَا سَمِعُواْ مَآ أُنزِلَ إِلَى الرَّسُولِ تَرَى أَعْيُنَهُمْ تَفِيضُ مِنَ الدَّمْعِ مِمَّا عَرَفُواْ مِنَ الْحَقِّ يَقُولُونَ رَبَّنَآ ءَامَنَّا فَاكْتُبْنَا مَعَ الشَّـهِدِينَ

(83. And when they listen to what has been sent down to the Messenger, you see their eyes overflowing with tears because of the truth they have recognized. They say: “Our Lord! We believe; so write us down among the witnesses.”)

وَمَا لَنَا لاَ نُؤْمِنُ بِاللَّهِ وَمَا جَآءَنَا مِنَ الْحَقِّ وَنَطْمَعُ أَن يُدْخِلَنَا رَبُّنَا مَعَ الْقَوْمِ الصَّـلِحِينَ

(84. “And why should we not believe in Allah and in that which has come to us of the truth And we wish that our Lord will admit us along with the righteous people.”)

فَأَثَابَهُمُ اللَّهُ بِمَا قَالُواْ جَنَّـتٍ تَجْرِى مِن تَحْتِهَا الاٌّنْهَـرُ خَـلِدِينَ فِيهَا وَذَلِكَ جَزَآءُ الْمُحْسِنِينَ

(85. So because of what they said, Allah awarded them with Gardens under which rivers flow, they will abide therein forever. Such is the reward of good-doers.)

وَالَّذِينَ كَفَرُواْ وَكَذَّبُواْ بِـَايَـتِنَآ أُوْلَـئِكَ أَصْحَـبُ الْجَحِيمِ

(86. But those who disbelieved and belied Our Ayat, they shall be the dwellers of Hell.)

Surah 5 Al Maida Verse 82-86

Tafsir Ibn Kathir

The Reason Behind Revealing these Ayat.

Sa`id bin Jubayr, As-Suddi and others said that these Ayat were revealed concerning a delegation that An-Najashi (King of Ethiopia) sent to the Prophet in order to hear his words and observe his qualities. When the delegation met with the Prophet and he recited the Qur’an to them, they embraced Islam, cried and were humbled. Then they returned to An-Najashi and told him what happened. `Ata’ bin Abi Rabah commented, “They were Ethiopians who embraced Islam when the Muslims who migrated to Ethiopia resided among them.” Qatadah said, “They were some followers of the religion of `Isa, son of Maryam, who when they saw Muslims and heard the Qur’an, they became Muslims without hesitation.” Ibn Jarir said that these Ayat were revealed concerning some people who fit this description, whether they were from Ethiopia or otherwise. Allah said,

(Verily, you will find the strongest among men in enmity to the believers the Jews and those who commit Shirk,) This describes the Jews, since their disbelief is that of rebellion, defiance, opposing the truth, belittling other, people and degrading the scholars. This is why the Jews – may Allah’s continued curses descend on them until the Day of Resurrection – killed many of their Prophets and tried to kill the Messenger of Allah several times, as well as, performing magic spells against him and poisoning him. They also incited their likes among the polytheists against the Prophet . Allah’s statement,

(and you will find the nearest in love to the believers those who say: “We are Christians.”) refers to those who call themselves Christians, who follow the religion of the Messiah and the teachings of his Injil. These people are generally more tolerant of Islam and its people, because of the mercy and kindness that their hearts acquired through part of the Messiah’s religion. In another Ayah, Allah said;

(And We ordained in the hearts of those who followed him, compassion, mercy, and monasticism…) (57:27). In their book is the saying; “He who strikes you on the right cheek, then turn the left cheek for him.” And fighting was prohibited in their creed, and this is why Allah said,

(That is because among them are Qissisin (priests) and Ruhban (monks), and they are not proud.) This means that among them are Qissisin (priests). The word Ruhban refers to one dedicated to worship. Allah said,

(That is because among them are priests and monks, and they are not proud.) This describes them with knowledge, worship and humbleness, along with following the truth and fairness.

(And when they listen to what has been sent down to the Messenger, you see their eyes overflowing with tears because of the truth they have recognized.) This refers to the good news that they have about the advent of Muhammad ,

(They say: “Our Lord! We believe; so write us down among the witnesses.”) who testify to the truth and believe in it.

(“And why should we not believe in Allah and in that which has come to us of the truth And We wish that our Lord will admit us (in Paradise) along with the righteous people.”) Such sect of Christians are those mentioned in Allah’s statement,

(And there are, certainly, among the People of the Scripture, those who believe in Allah and in that which has been revealed to you, and in that which has been revealed to them, humbling themselves before Allah.)(3:199) and,

(Those to whom We gave the Scripture before it, they believe in it (the Qur’an). And when it is recited to them, they say, “We believe in it. Verily, it is the truth from our Lord. Indeed even before it we were Muslims”)(28:52-53), until,

(“We seek not the ignorant.”)(28:55) This is why Allah said here,

(So because of what they said, Allah awarded them…) rewarding them for embracing the faith and recognizing and believing in the truth,

(Gardens under which rivers flow (in Paradise), they will abide therein forever.) and they will never be removed from it, for they will dwell and remain in it forever and ever,

(Such is the reward of good-doers) who follow the truth and obey it wherever, whenever and with whomever they find it. Allah then describes the condition of the miserable.

(But those who disbelieved and belied Our Ayat,) defied and opposed them,

(they shall be the dwellers of the (Hell) Fire.) For they are the people of the Fire who will enter and reside in it (eternally).

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The disbelievers of the Children of Israel

I take refuge with Allaah, the Exalted, from the accursed devil.

بِسْمِ اللَّهِ الرَّحْمَـنِ الرَّحِيمِ

Bismillah-ir-Rahman-ir-Raheem: In the name of Allah, the Compassionate, the Merciful.

Welcome to my blog and praise the Magnificent Lord as you enter: Allahu Akbar: Allah is the Greatest .

May the Peace and Blessings of Allah Azza wa Jal, our Lord Glorified and Praised be He, be upon our beloved  Prophet, his Family, and Companions.

The disbelievers of the Children of Israel.

لُعِنَ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُواْ مِن بَنِى إِسْرَءِيلَ عَلَى لِسَانِ دَاوُودَ وَعِيسَى ابْنِ مَرْيَمَ ذلِكَ بِمَا عَصَوْا وَّكَانُواْ يَعْتَدُونَ

(78. Those among the Children of Israel who disbelieved were cursed by the tongue of Dawud and `Isa, son of Maryam. That was because they disobeyed (Allah and the Messengers) and were ever transgressing (beyond the bounds).)

كَانُواْ لاَ يَتَنَـهَوْنَ عَن مُّنكَرٍ فَعَلُوهُ لَبِئْسَ مَا كَانُواْ يَفْعَلُونَ

(79. They used not to forbid one another from the evil they committed. Vile indeed was what they used to do.)

تَرَى كَثِيراً مِّنْهُمْ يَتَوَلَّوْنَ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُواْ لَبِئْسَ مَا قَدَّمَتْ لَهُمْ أَنفُسُهُمْ أَن سَخِطَ اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِمْ وَفِى الْعَذَابِ هُمْ خَـلِدُونَ

(80. You see many of them taking the disbelievers as their friends. Evil indeed is that which they have sent forward before themselves; for that (reason) Allah is wrath with them, and in torment they will abide.)

– وَلَوْ كَانُوا يُؤْمِنُونَ بِالْلهِ والنَّبِىِّ وَمَا أُنْزِلَ إِلَيْهِ مَا اتَّخَذُوهُمْ أَوْلِيَآءَ وَلَـكِنَّ كَثِيراً مِّنْهُمْ فَـسِقُونَ

(81. And had they believed in Allah, and in the Prophet and in what has been revealed to him, never would they have taken them as friends; but many of them are rebellious.)

Surah 5 Al Maida Verse 78-81

Tafsir Ibn Kathir

Allah states that He has cursed the disbelievers among the Children of Israel long ago, and revealed this fact to His Prophets Dawud and `Isa, son of Maryam. He cursed them because they disobeyed Allah and transgressed against His creatures. Al-`Awfi reported that Ibn `Abbas said, “They were cursed in the Tawrah, the Injil, the Zabur (Psalms) and the Furqan (Qur’an).” Allah then states that during their time, their habit was that,

(They used not to forbid one another from the evil they committed.) They did not forbid each other from committing sins and the prohibitions. Allah chastised them for this behavior, so that their behavior would not be imitated. Allah said,

(Vile indeed was what they used to do.)

Hadiths that Order Enjoining Righteousness and Forbidding Evil.

There are many Hadiths that order enjoining righteousness and forbidding evil. Imam Ahmad recorded that Hudhayfah bin Al-Yaman said that the Prophet said,

(By He in Whose Hand is my soul! You will enjoin righteousness and forbid evil, or Allah will send a punishment on you from Him. Then, you will supplicate to Him, but He will not accept your supplication.) At-Tirmidhi also recorded it and said, “This Hadith is Hasan.” Muslim recorded that Abu Sa`id Al-Khudri said that the Messenger of Allah said,

(He among you who witnesses an evil, let him change it with his hand, if he cannot do that, then by his tongue, if he cannot do even that, then with his heart, and this is the weakest faith.) Abu Dawud said that Al-`Urs, meaning Ibn `Amirah, said that the Prophet said,

(When sin is committed on the earth, then whoever witnesses it and hates – (once he said): forbids it, will be like those who did not witness it. Whoever was absent from it, but agreed with it, will be like those who witness it.) Only Abu Dawud recorded this Hadith. Abu Dawud recorded that one of the Companions said that the Prophet said,

(The people will not perish until they do not leave -or- have any excuse for themselves.) Ibn Majah recorded that Abu Sa`id Al-Khudri said that the Messenger of Allah gave a speech once and said,

(Behold! Fear from people should not prevent one from saying the truth if he knows it.) Abu Sa`id then cried and said, “By Allah! We have seen some errors, but we feared (the people).” Another Hadith that Abu Sa`id narrated states that the Messenger of Allah said,

(The best Jihad is a word of truth proclaimed before an unjust ruler.) Recorded by Abu Dawud, At-Tirmidhi, and Ibn Majah. At-Tirmidhi said, “Hasan Gharib from this route of narration.” Imam Ahmad recorded that Hudhayfah said that the Prophet said,

(It is not required of the Muslim that he humiliate himself.) They said, `How does one humiliate himself” he said;

(He takes on trials that he is not capable of enduring. ) This was recorded by At-Tirmidhi and Ibn Majah, and At-Tirmidhi said, “This Hadith is Hasan Sahih Gharib.”

Censuring the Hypocrites.

Allah said,

(You see many of them taking the disbelievers as their friends.) Mujahid said that this Ayah refers to the hypocrites. Allah’s statement,

(Evil indeed is that which they have sent forward before themselves;) by giving their loyalty and support to the disbelievers, instead of the believers. This evil act caused them to have hypocrisy in their hearts and brought them the anger of Allah, that will remain with them until the Day of Return. Allah said;

(for that (reason) Allah is wrath with them) because of what they did. Allah next said that,

(in torment they will abide) on the Day of Resurrection. Allah’s statement,

(And had they believed in Allah, and in the Prophet and in what has been revealed to him, never would they have taken them as friends.) meaning, had they sincerely believed in Allah, His Messenger and the Qur’an, they would not have committed the evil act of supporting the disbelievers in secret and being enemies with those who believe in Allah, the Prophet and what was revealed to him,

(but many of them are rebellious). disobedient to Allah and His Messenger and defiant of the Ayat of His revelation that He sent down.

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