The Land Of Saba’ ( Sheba)

I take refuge with Allaah from the accursed devil.  

بِسْمِ اللَّهِ الرَّحْمَـنِ الرَّحِيمِ 

 Bismillah-ir-Rahman-ir-Raheem: In the name of Allah, the Compassionate, the Merciful.  

Welcome to my blog and praise the Magnificent Lord as you enter: Allahu Akbar: Allah is the Greatest .

 May the Peace and Blessing of Allah Azza wa Jal, our Lord Glorified and Praised be He, be upon our beloved Prophet, his Family, and Companions.  

The Land Of Saba’ ( Sheba).

لَقَدْ كَانَ لِسَبَإٍ فِى مَسْكَنِهِمْ ءَايَةٌ جَنَّتَانِ عَن يَمِينٍ وَشِمَالٍ كُلُواْ مِن رِّزْقِ رَبِّكُمْ وَاشْكُرُواْ لَهُ بَلْدَةٌ طَيِّبَةٌ وَرَبٌّ غَفُورٌ

(15. Indeed there was for Saba’ a sign in their dwelling place — two gardens on the right and on the left; (and it was said to them:) “Eat of the provision of your Lord, and be grateful to Him.” A fair land and an Oft-Forgiving Lord!)

فَأَعْرَضُواْ فَأَرْسَلْنَا عَلَيْهِمْ سَيْلَ الْعَرِمِ وَبَدَّلْنَـهُمْ بِجَنَّـتِهِمْ جَنَّتَيْنِ ذَوَاتَىْ أُكُلٍ خَمْطٍ وَأَثْلٍ وَشَىْءٍ مِّن سِدْرٍ قَلِيلٍ

(16. But they turned away, so We sent against them flood released from the dam, and We converted their two gardens into gardens producing bitter bad fruit, and Athl, and some few lote trees.)

 ذَلِكَ جَزَيْنَـهُمْ بِمَا كَفَرُواْ وَهَلْ نُجْزِى إِلاَّ الْكَفُورَ

(17. Like this We requited them because they were ungrateful disbelievers. And never do We requite in such a way except those who are ungrateful (disbelievers).)

Surah 34 Saba, Verse 15-17

Tafsir Ibn Kathir

Saba’ refers to the kings and people of the Yemen. At-Tababa`ah (Tubba`) [surname of the ancient kings of Yemen] were part of them, and Bilqis, the queen who met Sulayman, peace be upon him, was also one of them. They lived a life of enviable luxury in their land with plentiful provision, crops and fruits. Allah sent them messengers telling them to eat of His provision and give thanks to Him by worshipping Him alone, and they followed that for as long as Allah willed, then they turned away from that which they had been commanded to do. So they were punished with a flood which scattered them throughout the lands around Saba’ in all directions, as we will see in detail below, if Allah wills. In Him we put our trust. Ibn Jarir recorded that Farwah bin Musayk Al-Ghutayfi, may Allah be pleased with him, said, “A man said, `O Messenger of Allah! Tell me about Saba’ — what was it, a land or a woman’ He said:

(It was neither a land nor a woman. It was a man who had ten children, six of whom went Yemen and four of whom went Ash-Sham. Those who went Ash-Sham were Lakhm, Judham, `Amilah and Ghassan. Those who went south were Kindah, Al-Ash`ariyyun, Al-Azd, Madhhij, Himyar and Anmar.) A man asked, `Who are Anmar’ He said:

(Those among whom are Khath`am and Bajilah. )” This was recorded by At-Tirmidhi in his Jami` [Sunan] in more detail than this; then he said, “This is a Hasan Gharib Hadith.” The genealogists — including Muhammad bin Ishaq — said, “The name of Saba’ was `Abd Shams bin Yashjub bin Ya`rub bin Qahtan; he was called Saba’ because he was the first Arab tribe to disperse. He was also known as Ar-Ra’ish, because he was the first one to take booty in war and give it to his people, so he was called Ar-Ra’ish; because the Arabs call wealth Rish or Riyash. They differ over Qahtan, about whom there were three views. (The first) he descended from the line of Iram bin Sam bin Nuh, then there were three different views over how he descended from him. (The second) was that he was descended from `Abir, another name for Hud, peace be upon him, then there were also three different views over exactly how he descended from him. (The third) was that he was descended from Isma`il bin Ibrahim Al-Khalil, peace be upon him, then there were also three different views over exactly how he descended from him. This was discussed in full detail by Imam Al-Hafiz Abu `Umar bin `Abdul-Barr An-Namari, may Allah have mercy on him, in his book Al-Musamma Al-Inbah `Ala Dhikr Usul Al-Qaba’il Ar-Ruwat. The meaning of the Prophet’s words,

(He was a man among the Arabs.) means that he was one of the original Arabs, who were before Ibrahim, peace be upon him, and were descendants of Sam bin Nuh (Shem, the son of Noah). According to the third view mentioned above, he descended from Ibrahim, peace be upon him, but this was not a well-known view among them. And Allah knows best. But in Sahih Al-Bukhari, it is reported that the Messenger of Allah passed by a group of people from (the tribe of) Aslam who were practicing archery, and he said,

(Shoot, O sons of Isma`il, for your father was an archer.) Aslam was a tribe of the Ansar, and the Ansar — both Aws and Khazraj — were from Ghassan, from the Arabs of Yemen from Saba’, who settled in Yathrib when Saba’ was scattered throughout the land when Allah sent against them the flood released from the dam. A group of them also settled in Syria, and they were called Ghassan for the name of the water beside which they camped — it was said that it was in the Yemen, or that it was near Al-Mushallal, as Hassan bin Thabit, may Allah be pleased with him, said in one of his poems. The meaning of his words: “If you ask, then we are the community of the noble descendants, our lineage is Al-Azd and our water is Ghassan.”

(He had ten sons among the Arabs.) means that these ten were of his lineage, and that the origins of the Arab tribes of the Yemen go back to him, not that they were his sons born of his loins. There may have been two or three generations between him and some of them, or more or less, as is explained in detail in the books of genealogy. The meaning of the words,

(Six of whom went south and four of whom went north. ) is that after Allah sent against them the flood released from the dam, some of them stayed in their homeland, whilst others left to go elsewhere.

The Dam of Ma’arib and the Flood

The story of the dam is about the water which used to come to them from between two mountains, combined with the floods from rainfall and their valleys. Their ancient kings built a huge, strong dam and the water reached a high level between these two mountains. Then they planted trees and got the best fruits that could ever be harvested, plentiful and beautiful. A number of the Salaf, including Qatadah, mentioned that a woman could walk beneath the trees, carrying a basket or vessel — such as is used for gathering fruit — on her head. And that the fruit would fall from the trees and fill the basket without any need for her to make the effort to pick the fruit, because it was so plentiful and ripe. This was the dam of Ma’arib, a land between which and San`a’ was a journey of three days. Others said that in their land there were no flies, mosquitoes or fleas, or any kind of vermin. This was because the weather was good and the people were healthy, and Allah took care of them so that they would single out and worship Him alone, as He says:

( Indeed there was for Saba` (Sheba) a sign in their dwelling place) Then He explains this by saying:

(two gardens on the right and on the left;) meaning, the two sides where the mountains were, and their land was in between them.

((and it was said to them: ) “Eat of the provision of your Lord, and be grateful to Him.” A fair land and an Oft-Forgiving Lord!) means, `He would forgive you if you continue to worship Him alone.

(But they turned away,) means, from worshipping Allah alone and from giving thanks to Him for the blessings that He had bestowed upon them, and they started to worship the sun instead of Allah, as the hoopoe told Sulayman, peace be upon him:

(“I have come to you from Saba’ (Sheba) with true news. I found a woman ruling over them, she has been given all things, and she has a great throne. I found her and her people worshipping the sun instead of Allah, and Shaytan has made their deeds fair seeming to them, and has barred them from the way, so they have no guidance.”) (27:22-24)

(so We sent against them flood released from the dam,) Some, including Ibn `Abbas, Wahb bin Munabbih, Qatadah and Ad-Dahhak said that when Allah wanted to punish them by sending the flood upon them, he sent beasts from the earth to the dam, large rats, which made a hole in it. Wahb bin Munabbih said, “They found it written in their Scriptures that the dam would be destroyed because of these large rats. So they brought cats for a while, but when the decree came to pass, the rats overran the cats and went into the dam, making a hole in it, and it collapsed.” Qatadah and others said, “The large rat is the desert rat. They gnawed at the bottom of the dam until it became weak, then the time of the floods came and the waters hit the structure and it collapsed. The waters rushed through the bottom of the valley and destroyed everything in their path — buildings, trees, etc.” As the water drained from the trees that were on the mountains, to the right and the left, those trees dried up and were destroyed. Those beautiful, fruit-bearing trees were replaced with something altogether different, as Allah says:

(and We converted their two gardens into gardens producing bitter bad fruit (ukul khamt),) Ibn `Abbas, Mujahid, `Ikrimah, `Ata’ Al-Khurasani, Qatadah and As-Suddi said, “It refers to Arak (Zingiber officinale) and bitter bad fruit.”

and Athl, Al- Awfi and Ibn Abba0s said that this means tamarisk. Others said that it means a tree that resembles a tamarisk, and it was said that it was the gum acacia or mimosa. And Allah knows best.

and some few lote trees. Because the lote trees were the best of the trees with which the garden was replaced, there were only a few of them.

and some few lote trees. This is what happened to those two gardens after they had been so fruitful and productive, offering beautiful scenes, deep shade and flowing rivers: they were replaced with thorny trees, tamarisks and lote trees with huge thorns and little fruit. This was because of their disbelief and their sin of associating others with Allah, and because they denied the truth and turned towards falsehood. Allah said:

(Like this We requited them because they were ungrateful disbelievers. And never do We requite in such a way except those who are ungrateful.) meaning, `We punished them for their disbelief.’ Mujahid said, “He does not punish anyone except the disbelievers.” Al-Hasan Al-Basri said, “Allah the Almighty has spoken the truth: no one will be punished in a manner that befits the sin except the ungrateful disbelievers.”

وَجَعَلْنَا بَيْنَهُمْ وَبَيْنَ الْقُرَى الَّتِى بَارَكْنَا فِيهَا قُرًى ظَـهِرَةً وَقَدَّرْنَا فِيهَا السَّيْرَ سِيرُواْ فِيهَا لَيَالِىَ وَأَيَّاماً ءَامِنِينَ

(18. And We placed, between them and the towns which We had blessed, towns easy to be seen, and We made the stages (of journey) between them easy (saying): “Travel in them safely both by night and day.”) 

فَقَالُواْ رَبَّنَا بَـعِدْ بَيْنَ أَسْفَارِنَا وَظَلَمُواْ أَنفُسَهُمْ فَجَعَلْنَـهُمْ أَحَادِيثَ وَمَزَّقْنَـهُمْ كُلَّ مُمَزَّقٍ إِنَّ فِى ذَلِكَ لاّيَـتٍ لِّكُلِّ صَبَّارٍ شَكُورٍ

(19. But they said: “Our Lord! Make the stages between our journey longer,” and they wronged themselves; so We made them as tales (in the land), and We dispersed them all totally. Verily, in this are indeed signs for every steadfast, grateful (person).)

Surah 34 Saba, Verse 18-19

Tafsir Ibn Kathir

Allah tells us about the blessings which the people of Saba’ enjoyed, and the luxuries and plentiful provision which was theirs in their land, with its secure dwellings and towns which were joined to one another, with many trees, crops and fruits. When they traveled, they had no need to carry provisions or water with them; wherever they stopped, they would find water and fruits, so they could take their noontime rest in one town, and stay overnight in another, according to their needs on their journey. Allah says:

(And We placed, between them and the towns which We had blessed,) Mujahid, Al-Hasan, Sa`id bin Jubayr and Malik, who narrated it from Zayd bin Aslam, and Qatadah, Ad-Dahhak, As-Suddi, Ibn Zayd and others — all said that this means the towns of Syria. It means they used to travel from Yemen to Syria via towns easy to be seen and connected to one another. Al-`Awfi reported that Ibn `Abbas said, “`The towns which We had blessed by putting Jerusalem among them.”

towns easy to be seen, meaning, clear and visible, known to travelers, so they could take their noontime rest in one town and stay overnight in another. Allah says:

(and We made the stages (of journey) between them easy) meaning, `We made it in a way that met the needs of the travelers.’

(Travel in them safely both by night and day.) means, those who travel in them will be safe both by night and by day.

(But they said: “Our Lord! Make the stages between our journey longer,” and they wronged themselves;) They failed to appreciate this blessing, as Ibn `Abbas, Mujahid, Al-Hasan and others said: “They wanted to travel long distances through empty wilderness where they would need to carry provisions with them and would have to travel through intense heat in a state of fear.”

(so We made them as tales (in the land), and We dispersed them all totally.) means, `We made them something for people to talk about when they converse in the evening, how Allah plotted against them and dispersed them after they had been together living a life of luxury, and they were scattered here and there throughout the land.’ So, the Arabs say of a people when they are dispersed, “They have been scattered like Saba’,” in all directions.

(Verily, in this are indeed signs for every steadfast, grateful.) In the punishment which these people suffered, the way in which their blessings and good health were turned into vengeance for their disbelief and sins, is a lesson and an indication for every person who is steadfast in the face of adversity and grateful for blessings. Imam Ahmad recorded that Sa`d bin Abi Waqqas, may Allah be pleased with him, said, “The Messenger of Allah said:

(I am amazed at what Allah has decreed for the believer; if something good befalls him, He praises his Lord and gives thanks, and if something bad befalls him, he praises his Lord and has patience. The believer will be rewarded for everything, even the morsel of food which he lifts to his wife’s mouth.)” This was also recorded by An-Nasa’i in Al-Yawm wal-Laylah. There is a corroborating report in the Two Sahihs, where a Hadith narrated by Abu Hurayrah, may Allah be pleased with him, says:

(How amazing is the affair of the believer! Allah does not decree anything for him but it is good for him. If something good happens to him, he gives thanks, and that is good for him; if something bad happens to him, he bears it with patience, and that is good for him. This is not for anyone except the believer.)” It was reported that Qatadah said:

(Verily, in this are indeed signs for every steadfast, grateful.) It was Mutarrif who used to say: “How blessed is the grateful, patient servant. If he is given something, he gives thanks, and if he is tested, he bears it with patience.”

وَلَقَدْ صَدَّقَ عَلَيْهِمْ إِبْلِيسُ ظَنَّهُ فَاتَّبَعُوهُ إِلاَّ فَرِيقاً مِّنَ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ

(20. And indeed Iblis did prove true his thought about them, and they followed him, all except a group of true believers.)

 وَمَا كَانَ لَهُ عَلَيْهِمْ مِّن سُلْطَـنٍ إِلاَّ لِنَعْلَمَ مَن يُؤْمِنُ بِالاٌّخِرَةِ مِمَّنْ هُوَ مِنْهَا فِى شَكٍّ وَرَبُّكَ عَلَى كُلِّ شَىْءٍ حَفُيظٌ

 (21. And he had no authority over them, — except that We might test him who believes in the Hereafter, from him who is in doubt about it. And your Lord is Watchful over everything.)

Surah 34 Saba, Verse 20-21

Tafsir Ibn Kathir

Having mentioned Saba’ and how they followed their desires, and the Shaytan, Allah tells us about their counterparts among those who follow Iblis and their own desires, and who go against wisdom and true guidance. Allah says:

(And indeed Iblis did prove true his thought about them,) Ibn `Abbas, may Allah be pleased with him, and others said that this Ayah is like the Ayah where Allah tells us about how Iblis refused to prostrate to Adam, peace be upon him, then said:

(See this one whom You have honored above me, if You give me respite to the Day of Resurrection, I will surely seize and mislead his offspring all but a few!) (17:62)

(Then I will come to them from before them and behind them, from their right and from their left, and You will not find most of them as thankful ones.) (7:17) And there are many Ayat which refer to this matter.

(And he (Iblis) had no authority over them, ) Ibn `Abbas, may Allah be pleased with him said, “This means, he had no proof.

(except that We might test him who believes in the Hereafter, from him who is in doubt about it.) means, `We gave him power over them only to show who believes in the Hereafter and that it will come to pass.’ The people will be brought to account and rewarded or punished accordingly, so that he will worship his Lord properly in this world — and to distinguish these believers from those who are in doubt about the Hereafter.

(And your Lord is a Watchful over everything.) means, despite His watching, those who follow Iblis go astray, but by His watching and care, the believers who follow the Messengers are saved.

www.tafsir.com

Sulayman (Solomon), peace be upon him, and Queen Bilqis, the Queen of Sheba.

I take refuge with Allaah from the accursed devil.  

بِسْمِ اللَّهِ الرَّحْمَـنِ الرَّحِيمِ 

 Bismillah-ir-Rahman-ir-Raheem: In the name of Allah, the Compassionate, the Merciful.  

Welcome to my blog and praise the Magnificent Lord as you enter: Allahu Akbar: Allah is the Greatest .

 May the Peace and Blessing of Allah Azza wa Jal, our Lord Glorified and Praised be He, be upon our beloved Prophet, his Family, and Companions.  

Sulayman (Solomon) Alaihi Salaam and Queen Bilqis, the Queen of Sheba.

[قَالَ سَنَنظُرُ أَصَدَقْتَ أَمْ كُنتَ مِنَ الْكَـذِبِينَ

(27. (Sulayman) said: “We shall see whether you speak the truth or you are (one) of the liars.”)

اذْهَب بِّكِتَابِى هَـذَا فَأَلْقِهْ إِلَيْهِمْ ثُمَّ تَوَلَّ عَنْهُمْ فَانْظُرْ مَاذَا يَرْجِعُونَ

(28. “Go you with this letter of mine and deliver it to them, then draw back from them and see what they return.”)

 قَالَتْ يأَيُّهَا الْمَلأُ إِنَّى أُلْقِىَ إِلَىَّ كِتَابٌ كَرِيمٌ

(29. She said: “O chiefs! Verily, here is delivered to me a noble letter, ”)

 إِنَّهُ مِن سُلَيْمَانَ وَإِنَّهُ بِسْمِ اللَّهِ الرَّحْمَـنِ الرَّحِيمِ

 (30. “Verily, it is from Sulayman, and it (reads): `In the Name of Allah, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful;’)

 أَلاَّ تَعْلُواْ عَلَىَّ وَأْتُونِى مُسْلِمِينَ

(31. `Be you not exalted against me, but come to me submitting (as Muslims).’ ”)

Surah 27 An Naml, Verse 27-31

Tafsir ibn Kathir

Allah tells us what Sulayman said to the hoopoe when he told him about the people of Saba’ and their queen:

((Sulayman) said: “We shall see whether you speak the truth or you are (one) of the liars.”) meaning, `are you telling the truth’

(or you are (one) of the liars.) meaning, `or are you telling a lie in order to save yourself from the threat I made against you’

(Go you with this letter of mine and deliver it to them then draw back from them and see what they return.) Sulayman wrote a letter to Bilqis and her people and gave it to the hoopoe to deliver. It was said that he carried it on his wings, as is the way with birds, or that he carried it in his beak. He went to their land and found the palace of Bilqis, then he went to her private chambers and threw the letter through a small window, then he stepped to one side out of good manners. Bilqis was amazed and confused when she saw that, then she went and picked up the letter, opened its seal and read it. The letter said:

(it is from Sulayman, and it (reads): `In the Name of Allah, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful; Be you not exalted against me, but come to me submitting (as Muslims).’) So she gathered her commanders and ministers and the leaders of her land, and said to them:

(“O chiefs! Verily, here is delivered to me a noble letter.”) She described it as such because of the wondrous things she had seen, that it was delivered by a bird who threw it to her, then stood aside out of good manners. This was something that no king could do. Then she read the letter to them:

(Verily, it is from Sulayman, and it (reads): `In the Name of Allah, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful; Be you not exalted against me, but come to me submitting (as Muslims).’) Thus they knew that it was from Allah’s Prophet Sulayman, upon him be peace, and that they could not match him. This letter was the utmost in brevity and eloquence, coming straight to the point.

(Be you not exalted against me,) Qatadah said: “Do not be arrogant with me.

(but come to me submitting (as Muslims). )” `Abdur-Rahman bin Zayd bin Aslam said: “Do not refuse or be too arrogant to come to me

(but come to me submitting (as Muslims).)”

قَالَتْ يأَيُّهَا الْمَلأ أَفْتُونِى فِى أَمْرِى مَا كُنتُ قَـطِعَةً أَمْراً حَتَّى تَشْهَدُونِ

(32. She said: “O chiefs! Advise me in case of mine. I decide no case till you are present with me.”)

قَالُواْ نَحْنُ أُوْلُواْ قُوَّةٍ وَأُولُو بَأْسٍ شَدِيدٍ وَالاٌّمْرُ إِلَيْكِ فَانظُرِى مَاذَا تَأْمُرِينَ

(33. They said: “We have great strength, and great ability for war, but it is for you to command; so think over what you will command.”)

قَالَتْ إِنَّ الْمُلُوكَ إِذَا دَخَلُواْ قَرْيَةً أَفْسَدُوهَا وَجَعَلُواْ أَعِزَّةَ أَهْلِهَآ أَذِلَّةً وَكَذلِكَ يَفْعَلُونَ

(34. She said: “Verily, kings, when they enter a town, they destroy it and make the most honorable among its people the lowest. And thus they do.”)

 وَإِنِّى مُرْسِلَةٌ إِلَيْهِمْ بِهَدِيَّةٍ فَنَاظِرَةٌ بِمَ يَرْجِعُ الْمُرْسَلُونَ

(35. “But verily, I am going to send him a present, and see with what (answer) the messengers return.”)

Surah 27 An Naml 32-35

Tafsir Ibn Kathir

When she(Bilqis) read Sulayman’s letter to them and consulted with them about this news, she said:

(“O chiefs! Advise me in (this) case of mine. I decide no case till you are present with me.”) meaning, `until you come together and offer me your advice.’

(They said: “We have great strength, and great ability for war…”) They reminded her of their great numbers, preparedness and strength, then they referred the matter to her and said:

(but it is for you to command; so think over what you will command.) meaning, `we have the power and strength, if you want to go to him and fight him.’ The matter is yours to decide, so instruct us as you see fit and we will obey. Ibn `Abbas said: “Bilqis said:

(Verily, kings, when they enter a town, they destroy it and make the most honorable amongst its people the lowest.) And Allah said:

(And thus they do. ) Then she resorted to peaceful means, seeking a truce and trying to placate Sulayman, and said:

(But verily, I am going to send him a present, and see with what the messengers return.) meaning, `I will send him a gift befitting for one of his status, and will wait and see what his response will be. Perhaps he will accept that and leave us alone, or he will impose a tax which we can pay him every year, so that he will not fight us and wage war against us.’ Qatadah said: “May Allah have mercy on her and be pleased with her — how wise she was as a Muslim and (before that) as an idolator! She understood how gift-giving has a good effect on people.” Ibn `Abbas and others said: “She said to her people, if he accepts the gift, he is a king, so fight him; but if he does not accept it, he is a Prophet, so follow him.”

فَلَمَّا جَآءَ سُلَيْمَانَ قَالَ أَتُمِدُّونَنِ بِمَالٍ فَمَآ ءَاتَـنِى اللَّهُ خَيْرٌ مِّمَّآ ءَاتَـكُمْ بَلْ أَنتُمْ بِهَدِيَّتِكُمْ تَفْرَحُونَ

(36. So, when (the messengers with the gift) came to Sulayman, he said: “Will you help me in wealth What Allah has given me is better than that which He has given you! Nay, you rejoice in your gift!”) 

ارْجِعْ إِلَيْهِمْ فَلَنَأْتِيَنَّهُم بِجُنُودٍ لاَّ قِبَلَ لَهُمْ بِهَا وَلَنُخْرِجَنَّهُم مِّنْهَآ أَذِلَّةً وَهُمْ صَـغِرُونَ

(37. “Go back to them. We verily, shall come to them with armies that they cannot resist, and we shall drive them out from there in disgrace, and they will be abased.”)

Surah 27 An Naml, Verse 36-37

More than one of the scholars of Tafsir among the Salaf and others stated that she sent him a huge gift of gold, jewels, pearls and other things. It is apparent that Sulayman, peace be upon him, did not even look at what they brought at all and did not pay any attention to it, but he turned away and said, rebuking them:

(“Will you help me in wealth”) meaning, `are you trying to flatter me with wealth so that I will leave you alone with your Shirk and your kingdom’

(What Allah has given me is better than that which He has given you!) means, `what Allah has given to me of power, wealth and troops, is better than that which you have.’

(Nay, you rejoice in your gift!) means, `you are the ones who are influenced by gifts and presents; we will accept nothing from you except Islam or the sword.’

(Go back to them) means, with their gift,

(We verily, shall come to them with armies that they cannot resist,) they have no power to match them or resist them.

(and we shall drive them out from there in disgrace,) `we shall drive them out in disgrace from their land.’

(and they will be abased.) means, humiliated and expelled. When her messengers came back to her with her undelivered gift, and told her what Sulayman said, she and her people paid heed and obeyed him. She came to him with her troops in submission and humility, honoring Sulayman and intending to follow him in Islam. When Sulayman, peace be upon him, realized that they were coming to him, he rejoiced greatly.

قَالَ يأَيُّهَا الْمَلأ أَيُّكُمْ يَأْتِينِى بِعَرْشِهَا قَبْلَ أَن يَأْتُونِى مُسْلِمِينَ

(38. He said: “O chiefs! Which of you can bring me her throne before they come to me surrendering themselves in obedience (as Muslims)”)

 قَالَ عِفْرِيتٌ مِّن الْجِنِّ أَنَاْ ءَاتِيكَ بِهِ قَبْلَ أَن تَقُومَ مِن مَّقَامِكَ وَإِنِّى عَلَيْهِ لَقَوِىٌّ أَمِينٌ

 (39. An `Ifrit from the Jinn said: “I will bring it to you before you rise from your place. And verily, I am indeed strong and trustworthy for such work.”)

 قَالَ الَّذِى عِندَهُ عِلْمٌ مِّنَ الْكِتَـبِ أَنَاْ ءَاتِيكَ بِهِ قَبْلَ أَن يَرْتَدَّ إِلَيْكَ طَرْفُكَ فَلَمَّا رَءَاهُ مُسْتَقِرّاً عِندَهُ قَالَ هَـذَا مِن فَضْلِ رَبِّى لِيَبْلُوَنِى أَءَشْكُرُ أَمْ أَكْفُرُ وَمَن شَكَرَ فَإِنَّمَا يَشْكُرُ لِنَفْسِهِ وَمَن كَفَرَ فَإِنَّ رَبِّى غَنِىٌّ كَرِيمٌ

(40. One with whom was knowledge of the Scripture, said: “I will bring it to you within the twinkling of an eye!” Then when he saw it placed before him, he said: “This is by the grace of my Lord — to test me whether I am grateful or ungrateful! And whoever is grateful, truly, his gratitude is for himself; and whoever is ungrateful, certainly my Lord is Rich, Bountiful.”)

Surah 27 An Naml, Verse 38-40

Tafsir Ibn Kathir

Muhammad bin Ishaq reported from Yazid bin Ruman: “When the messengers returned with word of what Sulayman said, she said: `By Allah, I knew he was more than a king, and that we have no power to match him, and that we can gain nothing by being stubborn with him. So, she sent word to him saying: “I am coming to you with the leaders of my people to see what you will instruct us to do and what you are calling us to of your religion.” Then she issued commands that her throne, which was made of gold and inlaid with rubies, chrysolite and pearls, should be placed in the innermost of seven rooms, one within the other, and all the doors should be locked. Then she told her deputy whom she was leaving in charge, “Take care of my people and my throne, and do not let anyone approach it or see it until I come back to you.” Then she set off to meet Sulayman with twelve thousand of her commanders from the leaders of Yemen, under each of whose command were many thousands of men. Sulayman sent the Jinn to bring him news of her progress and route every day and night, then when she drew near, he gathered together the Jinns and humans who were under his control and said:

(O chiefs! Which of you can bring me her throne before they come to me surrendering themselves in obedience (as Muslims)).”

(An `Ifrit from the Jinn said: ) Mujahid said, “A giant Jinn.” Abu Salih said, “It was as if he was a mountain.”

(I will bring it to you before you rise from your place.) Ibn `Abbas, may Allah be pleased with him, said, “Before you get up from where you are sitting.” As-Suddi and others said: “He used to sit to pass judgements and rulings over the people, and to eat, from the beginning of the day until noon.”

(And verily, I am indeed strong and trustworthy for such work.) Ibn `Abbas said: “Strong enough to carry it and trustworthy with the jewels it contains. Sulayman, upon him be peace, said, “I want it faster than that.” From this it seems that Sulayman wanted to bring this throne as a demonstration of the greatness of the power and authority that Allah had bestowed upon him and the troops that He had subjugated to him. Power such as had never been given to anyone else, before or since, so that this would furnish proof of his prophethood before Bilqis and her people, because this would be a great and wondrous thing, if he brought her throne as if he were in her country, before they could come to it, although it was hidden and protected by so many locked doors. When Sulayman said, “I want it faster than that,

(One with whom was knowledge of the Scripture said: ) Ibn `Abbas said, “This was Asif, the scribe of Sulayman.” It was also narrated by Muhammad bin Ishaq from Yazid bin Ruman that he was Asif bin Barkhiya’ and he was a truthful believer who knew the Greatest Name of Allah. Qatadah said: “He was a believer among the humans, and his name was Asif.”

(I will bring it to you within the twinkling of an eye!) Meaning, lift your gaze and look as far as you can, and before you get tired and blink, you will find it before you. Then he got up, performed ablution and prayed to Allah, may He be exalted. Mujahid said: “He said, O Owner of majesty and honor.” When Sulayman and his chiefs saw it before them,

(he said: “This is by the grace of my Lord…”) meaning, `this is one of the blessings which Allah has bestowed upon me.’

(to test whether I am grateful or ungrateful! And whoever is grateful, truly, his gratitude is for himself;) This is like the Ayat:

(Whosoever does righteous good deed, it is for himself; and whosoever does evil, it is against himself.) (41:46)

(and whosoever does righteous good deed, then such will prepare a good place for themselves.) (30:44).

(and whoever is ungrateful, certainly my Lord is Rich, Bountiful.) He has no need of His servants or their worship.

(Bountiful) He is Bountiful in and of Himself, even if no one were to worship Him. His greatness does not depend on anyone. This is like what Musa said:

(If you disbelieve, you and all on earth together, then verily, Allah is Rich, Owner of all praise.) (14:8). It is recorded in Sahih Muslim:

(Allah, may He be exalted, says: “O My servants, if the first of you and the last of you, mankind and Jinn alike, were all to be as pious as the most pious among you, that would not add to My dominion in the slightest. O My servants, if the first of you and the last of you, mankind and Jinn alike, were all to be as evil as the most evil one among you, that would not detract from My dominion in the slightest. O My servants, these are deeds which I am recording for you, and I will judge you according to them, so whoever finds something good, let him praise Allah, and whoever finds otherwise, let him blame no one but himself.”)

قَالَ نَكِّرُواْ لَهَا عَرْشَهَا نَنظُرْ أَتَهْتَدِى أَمْ تَكُونُ مِنَ الَّذِينَ لاَ يَهْتَدُونَ

(41. He said: “Disguise her throne for her that we may see whether she will be guided, or she will be one of those not guided.”) 

 فَلَمَّا جَآءَتْ قِيلَ أَهَكَذَا عَرْشُكِ قَالَتْ كَأَنَّهُ هُوَ وَأُوتِينَا الْعِلْمَ مِن قَبْلِهَا وَكُنَّا مُسْلِمِينَ

 (42. So when she came, it was said, “Is your throne like this” She said: “As though it were the very same.” And he said, “Knowledge was bestowed on us before her, and we had submitted to Allah (as Muslims).”)

 وَصَدَّهَا مَا كَانَت تَّعْبُدُ مِن دُونِ اللَّهِ إِنَّهَا كَانَتْ مِن قَوْمٍ كَـفِرِينَ

(43. And Saddaha that which she used to worship besides Allah has prevented her (from Islam), for she was of a disbelieving people.)

قِيلَ لَهَا ادْخُلِى الصَّرْحَ فَلَمَّا رَأَتْهُ حَسِبَتْهُ لُجَّةً وَكَشَفَتْ عَن سَاقَيْهَا قَالَ إِنَّهُ صَرْحٌ مُّمَرَّدٌ مِّن قَوارِيرَ قَالَتْ رَبِّ إِنِّى ظَلَمْتُ نَفْسِى وَأَسْلَمْتُ مَعَ سُلَيْمَـنَ لِلَّهِ رَبِّ الْعَـلَمِينَ

(44. It was said to her: “Enter As-Sarh,” but when she saw it, she thought it was a pool, and she (tucked up her clothes) uncovering her legs. Sulayman said: “Verily, it is a Sarh Mumarrad of Qawarir.” She said: “My Lord! Verily, I have wronged myself, and I submit, together with Sulayman to Allah, the Lord of all that exits.”)

Surah 27 An Naml, 41-44

Tafsir Ibn Kathir

When Sulayman brought the throne of Bilqis before she and her people arrived, he issued orders that some of its features should be altered, so that he could test her and see whether she recognized it and how composed she would be when she saw it. Would she hasten to say either that it was her throne or that it was not So he said:

(Disguise her throne for her that we may see whether she will be guided, or she will be one of those not guided.) Ibn `Abbas said: “Remove some of its adornments and parts.” Mujahid said: “He issued orders that it should be changed, so whatever was red should be made yellow and vice versa, and whatever was green should be made red, so everything was altered.” `Ikrimah said, “They added some things and took some things away.” Qatadah said, “It was turned upside down and back to front, and some things were added and some things were taken away.” 

(So when she came, it was said: “Is your throne like this”) Her throne, which had been altered and disguised, with some things added and others taken away, was shown to her. She was wise and steadfast, intelligent and strong-willed. She did not hasten to say that this was her throne, because it was far away from her. Neither did she hasten to say that it was not her throne, when she saw that some things had been altered and changed. She said,

((It is) as though it were the very same. ) This is the ultimate in intelligence and strong resolve.

(Knowledge was bestowed on us before her, and we had submitted to Allah.) Mujahid said, “This was spoken by Sulayman.”

(And Saddaha that which she used to worship besides Allah has prevented her, for she was of a disbelieving people.) This is a continuation of the words of Sulayman — according to the opinion of Mujahid and Sa`id bin Jubayr, may Allah be pleased with them both — i.e., Sulayman said:

(Knowledge was bestowed on us before her, and we had submitted to Allah.) and what stopped her from worshipping Allah alone was

(that which she used to worship besides Allah, for she was of a disbelieving people.) What Mujahid and Sa`id said is good; it was also the view of Ibn Jarir. Then Ibn Jarir said, “It could be that the subject of the verb.

(And Saddaha) refers to Sulayman or to Allah, so that the phrase now means:

(She would not worship anything over than Allah.)

(for she was of a disbelieving people.) I say: the opinion of Mujahid is supported by the fact that she declared her Islam after she entered the Sarh, as we shall see below.

(It was said to her: “Enter As-Sarh” but when she saw it, she thought it was a pool, and she (tucked up her clothes) uncovering her legs.) Sulayman had commanded the Shayatin to build for her a huge palace of glass beneath which water was flowing. Anyone who did not know the nature of the building would think that it was water, but in fact there was a layer of glass between a person walking and the water.

Allah says of Fir`awn — may Allah curse him — that he said to his minister Haman:

(Build me a Sarh that I may arrive at the ways.) (40:36-37) Sarh is also used to refer to the high constructed palaces in Yemen. Mumarrad means sturdily constructed and smooth.

(of Qawarir) means, made of glass, i.e., it was built with smooth surfaces. Marid is a fortress in Dawmat Al-Jandal. What is meant here is that Sulayman built a huge, lofty palace of glass for this queen, in order to show her the greatness of his authority and power. When she saw for herself what Allah had given him and how majestic his position was, she submitted to the command of Allah and acknowledged that he was a noble Prophet, so she submitted to Allah and said:

(My Lord! Verily, I have wronged myself,) meaning, by her previous disbelief and Shirk and by the fact that she and her people had worshipped the sun instead of Allah.

(and I submit, together with Sulayman to Allah, the Lord of all that exists.) meaning, following the religion of Sulayman, worshipping Allah alone with no partner or associate, Who created everything and measured it exactly according to its due measurements.

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Sulayman (Solomon), peace be upon him, crosses the valley of the ants

I take refuge with Allaah from the accursed devil.  

بِسْمِ اللَّهِ الرَّحْمَـنِ الرَّحِيمِ 

 Bismillah-ir-Rahman-ir-Raheem: In the name of Allah, the Compassionate, the Merciful.  

Welcome to my blog and praise the Magnificent Lord as you enter: Allahu Akbar: Allah is the Greatest .

 May the Peace and Blessing of Allah Azza wa Jal, our Lord Glorified and Praised be He, be upon our beloved Prophet, his Family, and Companions.  

Sulayman (Solomon), Alaihi Salaam, Crosses the Valley of the Ants.

 وَلَقَدْ ءَاتَيْنَا دَاوُودَ وَسُلَيْمَـنَ عِلْماً وَقَالاَ الْحَمْدُ لِلَّهِ الَّذِى فَضَّلَنَا عَلَى كَثِيرٍ مِّنْ عِبَادِهِ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ  

(15. And indeed We gave knowledge to Dawud and Sulayman, and they both said: “All praise be to Allah, Who has preferred us above many of His believing servants!”)  

وَوَرِثَ سُلَيْمَـنُ دَاوُودَ وَقَالَ يأَيُّهَا النَّاسُ عُلِّمْنَا مَنطِقَ الطَّيْرِ وَأُوتِينَا مِن كُلِّ شَىْءٍ إِنَّ هَـذَا لَهُوَ الْفَضْلُ الْمُبِينُ

 (16. And Sulayman inherited from Dawud. He said: “O mankind! We have been taught the language of birds, and we have been given from everything. This, verily, is an evident grace.”)

 وَحُشِرَ لِسْلَيْمَـنَ جُنُودُهُ مِنَ الْجِنِّ وَالإِنْس وَالطَّيْرِ فَهُمْ يُوزَعُونَ

 (17. And there were gathered before Sulayman his hosts of Jinn and men, and birds, and they all were set in battle order (marching forward).)

 حَتَّى إِذَآ أَتَوْا عَلَى وَادِى النَّمْلِ قَالَتْ نَمْلَةٌ يأَيُّهَا النَّمْلُ ادْخُلُواْ مَسَـكِنَكُمْ لاَ يَحْطِمَنَّكُمْ سُلَيْمَـنُ وَجُنُودُهُ وَهُمْ لاَ يَشْعُرُونَ

  (18. Till, when they came to the valley of the ants, one of the ants said: “O ants! Enter your dwellings, lest Sulayman and his armies should crush you, while they perceive not.”)

 فَتَبَسَّمَ ضَـحِكاً مِّن قَوْلِهَا وَقَالَ رَبِّ أَوْزِعْنِى أَنْ أَشْكُرَ نِعْمَتَكَ الَّتِى أَنْعَمْتَ عَلَىَّ وَعَلَى وَالِدَىَّ وَأَنْ أَعْمَلَ صَـلِحاً تَرْضَـهُ وَأَدْخِلْنِى بِرَحْمَتِكَ فِى عِبَادِكَ الصَّـلِحِينَ

(19. So he (Sulayman) smiled, amused at her speech and said: “My Lord! Grant me the power and ability that I may be grateful for Your favors which You have bestowed on me and on my parents, and that I may do righteous good deeds that will please You, and admit me by Your mercy among Your righteous servants.”)

Surah 27 An Naml, Verse 15-19

Tafsir Ibn Kathir

Here Allah tells us about the great blessings and favors which He bestowed upon two of His servants and Prophets, Dawud (David) and his son Sulayman (Solomon), peace be upon them both, and how they enjoyed happiness in this world and the Hereafter, power and authority in this world, and the position of being Prophets and Messengers. Allah says:  

(And indeed We gave knowledge to Dawud and Sulayman, and they both said: “All the praises and thanks be to Allah, Who has preferred us above many of His believing servants!”)

 (And Sulayman inherited from Dawud.) means, in kingship and prophethood. What is meant here is not wealth, because if that were the case, Sulayman would not have been singled out from among the sons of Dawud, as Dawud had one hundred wives. Rather what is meant is the inheritance of kingship and prophethood, for the wealth of the Prophets cannot be inherited, as the Messenger of Allah said:

(We Prophets cannot be inherited from; whatever we leave behind is charity.) And Sulayman said:

(O mankind! We have been taught the language of birds, and we have been given from everything.) Here Sulayman was speaking of the blessings that Allah bestowed upon him, by giving him complete authority and power, whereby mankind, the Jinn and the birds were subjugated to him. He also knew the language of the birds and animals, which is something that had never been given to any other human being — as far as we know from what Allah and His Messenger told us. Allah enabled Sulayman to understand what the birds said to one another as they flew through the air, and what the different kinds of animals said. Sulayman said:

(We have been taught the language of birds, and we have been given from everything.) i.e., all things that a king needs.

(This, verily, is an evident grace.) means, `this is clearly the blessings of Allah upon us.’

(And there were gathered before Sulayman his hosts of Jinn and men, and birds, and they all were set in battle order.) means, all of Sulayman’s troops of Jinn, men and birds were gathered together, and he rode with them in a display of might and glory, with people marching behind him, followed by the Jinn, and the birds flying above his head. When it was hot, they would shade him with their wings.

(and they all were set in battle order.) The first and the last of them were brought together, so that none of them would step out of place. Mujahid said: “Officials were appointed to keep each group in order, and to keep the first and the last together so that no one would step out of line — just as kings do nowadays.”

(Till, when they came to the valley of the ants,) meaning, when Sulayman, the soldiers and the army with him crossed the valley of the ants,

(one of the ants said: “O ants! Enter your dwellings, lest Sulayman and his armies should crush you, while they perceive not.”) Sulayman, peace be upon him, understood what the ant said,

(So he smiled, amused at her speech and said: “My Lord! Grant me the power and ability that I may be grateful for Your favors which You have bestowed on me and on my parents, and that I may do righteous good deeds that will please You, ) meaning: `inspire me to give thanks for the blessings that You have bestowed upon me by teaching me to understand what the birds and animals say, and the blessings that You have bestowed upon my parents by making them Muslims who believe in You.’

(and that I may do righteous good deeds that will please You,) means, `deeds that You love which will earn Your pleasure.’

(and admit me by Your mercy among Your righteous servants.) means, `when You cause me to die, then join me with the righteous among Your servants, and the Higher Companion among Your close friends.’

[وَتَفَقَّدَ الطَّيْرَ فَقَالَ مَالِيَ لاَ أَرَى الْهُدْهُدَ أَمْ كَانَ مِنَ الْغَآئِبِينَ

(20. He inspected the birds, and said: “What is the matter that I see not the hoopoe Or is he among the absentees”)

لأُعَذِّبَنَّهُ عَذَاباً شَدِيداً أَوْ لاّذْبَحَنَّهُ أَوْ لَيَأْتِيَنِّى بِسُلْطَـنٍ مُّبِينٍ

 (21. “I will surely punish him with a severe torment or slaughter him, unless he brings me a clear reason.”)

Surah 27 An Naml, Verse 20-21

Tafsir Ibn Kathir

Mujahid, Sa`id bin Jubayr and others narrated from Ibn `Abbas and others that the hoopoe was an expert who used to show Sulayman where water was if he was out in open land and needed water. The hoopoe would look for water for him in the various strata of the earth, just as a man looks at things on the surface of the earth, and he would know just how far below the surface the water was. When the hoopoe showed him where the water was, Sulayman would command the Jinn to dig in that place until they brought water from the depths of the earth. One day Sulayman went to some open land and checked on the birds, but he could not see the hoopoe.

(and (Sulayman) said: “What is the matter that I see not the hoopoe Or is he among the absentees”) One day `Abdullah bin `Abbas told a similar story, and among the people was a man from the Khawarij whose name was Nafi` bin Al-Azraq, who often used to raise objections to Ibn `Abbas. He said to him, “Stop, O Ibn `Abbas; you will be defeated (in argument) today!” Ibn `Abbas said: “Why” Nafi` said: “You are telling us that the hoopoe can see water beneath the ground, but any boy can put seed in a trap and cover the trap with dirt, and the hoopoe will come and take the seed, so the boy can catch him in the trap.” Ibn `Abbas said, “If it was not for the fact that this man would go and tell others that he had defeated Ibn `Abbas in argument, I would not even answer.” Then he said to Nafi`: “Woe to you! When the decree strikes a person, his eyes become blind and he loses all caution.” Nafi` said: “By Allah I will never dispute with you concerning anything in the Qur’an.

(I will surely punish him with a severe torment) Al-A`mash said, narrating from Al-Minhal bin `Amr from Sa`id that Ibn `Abbas said: “He meant, by plucking his feathers.” `Abdullah bin Shaddad said: “By plucking his feathers and exposing him to the sun.” This was also the view of more than one of the Salaf, that it means plucking his feathers and leaving him exposed to be eaten by ants.

(or slaughter him,) means, killing him.

(unless he brings me a clear reason.) i.e., a valid excuse. Sufyan bin `Uyaynah and `Abdullah bin Shaddad said: “When the hoopoe came back, the other birds said to him: “What kept you Sulayman has vowed to shed your blood.” The hoopoe said: “Did he make any exception [did he say `unless’]” They said, “Yes, he said:

(I will surely punish him with a severe torment or slaughter him, unless he brings me a clear reason.) The hoopoe said, “Then I am saved.”

فَمَكَثَ غَيْرَ بَعِيدٍ فَقَالَ أَحَطتُ بِمَا لَمْ تُحِطْ بِهِ وَجِئْتُكَ مِن سَبَإٍ بِنَبَإٍ يَقِينٍ

 (22. But (the hoopoe) stayed not long, he said: “I have grasped which you have not grasped and I have come to you from Saba’ with true news.”)

 إِنِّى وَجَدتُّ امْرَأَةً تَمْلِكُهُمْ وَأُوتِيَتْ مِن كُلِّ شَىْءٍ وَلَهَا عَرْشٌ عَظِيمٌ

(23. “I found a woman ruling over them, she has been given all things, and she has a great throne.”)

وَجَدتُّهَا وَقَوْمَهَا يَسْجُدُونَ لِلشَّمْسِ مِن دُونِ اللَّهِ وَزَيَّنَ لَهُمُ الشَّيْطَـنُ أَعْمَـلَهُمْ فَصَدَّهُمْ عَنِ السَّبِيلِ فَهُمْ لاَ يَهْتَدُونَ

 (24. “I found her and her people worshipping the sun instead of Allah, and Shaytan has made their deeds fair seeming to them to prevent them from the way, so they have no guidance.”)

أَلاَّ يَسْجُدُواْ للَّهِ الَّذِى يُخْرِجُ الْخَبْءَ فِى السَّمَـوَتِ وَالاٌّرْضِ وَيَعْلَمُ مَا تُخْفُونَ وَمَا تُعْلِنُونَ

  (25. So they do not prostrate themselves before Allah, Who brings to light what is hidden in the heavens and the earth, and knows what you conceal and what you reveal.)

 اللَّهُ لاَ إِلَـهَ إِلاَّ هُوَ رَبُّ الْعَرْشِ الْعَظِيمِ

(26. Allah, La ilaha illa Huwa, the Lord of the Supreme Throne!”)

Surah 27 An Naml 22-26

Tafsir Ibn Kathir

Allah says:

(But (the hoopoe) stayed not long,) meaning, he was absent for only a short time. Then he came and said to Sulayman:

(I have grasped which you have not grasped) meaning, `I have come to know something that you and your troops do not know.’

(and I have come to you from Saba’ with true news.) meaning, with true and certain news. Saba’ (Sheba) refers to Himyar, they were a dynasty in Yemen. Then the hoopoe said:

(I found a woman ruling over them,) Al-Hasan Al-Basri said, “This is Bilqis bint Sharahil, the queen of Saba’.” Allah’s saying:

(she has been given all things,) means, all the conveniences of this world that a powerful monarch could need.

(and she has a great throne.) meaning, a tremendous chair adorned with gold and different kinds of jewels and pearls. The historians said, “This throne was in a great, strong palace which was high and firmly constructed. In it there were three hundred and sixty windows on the east side, and a similar number on the west, and it was constructed in such a way that each day when the sun rose it would shine through one window, and when it set it would shine through the opposite window. And the people used to prostrate to the sun morning and evening. This is why the hoopoe said:

(I found her and her people worshipping the sun instead of Allah, and Shaytan has made their deeds fair seeming to them, and has prevented them from the way,) meaning, from the way of truth, 

(so they have no guidance.) Allah’s saying: 

(and Shaytan has made their deeds fair seeming to them, and has prevented them from the way, so they have no guidance, so they do not prostrate themselves before Allah.) They do not know the way of truth, prostrating only before Allah alone and not before anything that He has created, whether heavenly bodies or anything else. This is like the Ayah: 

 (And from among His signs are the night and the day, and the sun and the moon. Prostrate yourselves not to the sun nor to the moon, but prostrate yourselves to Allah Who created them, if you indeed worship Him.) (41:37)

(Who brings to light what is hidden in the heavens and the earth,) `Ali bin Abi Talhah reported that Ibn `Abbas said: “He knows everything that is hidden in the heavens and on earth.” This was also the view of `Ikrimah, Mujahid, Sa`id bin Jubayr, Qatadah and others. His saying:

(and knows what you conceal and what you reveal.) means, He knows what His servants say and do in secret, and what they say and do openly. This is like the Ayah:

(It is the same whether any of you conceals his speech or declares it openly, whether he be hid by night or goes forth freely by day) (13:10). His saying:

(Allah, La ilaha illa Huwa, the Lord of the Supreme Throne!) means, He is the One to be called upon, Allah, He is the One other than Whom there is no god, the Lord of the Supreme Throne, and there is none greater than Him in all of creation. Since the hoopoe was calling to what is good, and for people to worship and prostrate to Allah alone, it would have been forbidden to kill him. Imam Ahmad, Abu Dawud and Ibn Majah recorded that Abu Hurayrah, may Allah be pleased with him, said that the Prophet forbade killing four kinds of animals: ants, bees, hoopoes and the sparrow hawks. Its chain of narration is Sahih.

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Sulayman (Solomon), peace be upon him, the son of Dawood (David), peace be upon him

 

I take refuge with Allaah from the accursed devil.

بِسْمِ اللَّهِ الرَّحْمَـنِ الرَّحِيمِ  

Bismillah-ir-Rahman-ir-Raheem: In the name of Allah, the Compassionate, the Merciful.  

Welcome to my blog and praise the Magnificent Lord as you enter: Allahu Akbar: Allah is the Greatest .  

May the Peace and Blessing of Allah Azza wa Jal, our Lord Glorified and Praised be He, be upon our beloved Prophet, his Family, and Companions.

Sulayman (Solomon) Alaihi Salaam, the son of Dawood (David) Alaihi Salaam.

وَوَهَبْنَا لِدَاوُودَ سُلَيْمَـنَ نِعْمَ الْعَبْدُ إِنَّهُ أَوَّابٌ

(30. And to Dawud We gave Sulayman. How excellent a servant! Verily, he was ever turning in repentance (to Us)!)

 إِذْ عُرِضَ عَلَيْهِ بِالْعَشِىِّ الصَّـفِنَـتُ الْجِيَادُ

(31. When there were displayed before him, in the afternoon, well trained horses of the highest breed.)

فَقَالَ إِنِّى أَحْبَبْتُ حُبَّ الْخَيْرِ عَن ذِكْرِ رَبِى حَتَّى تَوَارَتْ بِالْحِجَابِ

 (32. He said: “I did love the good instead of remembering my Lord,” till the time was over, and (the sun) had hidden in the veil (of night).)

رُدُّوهَا عَلَىَّ فَطَفِقَ مَسْحاً بِالسُّوقِ وَالاٌّعْنَاقِ

(33. Then he said: “Bring them back to me.” Then he began to pass his hand over their legs and their necks.)

Surah 38 Sad, Verse 30-33

Tafsir Ibn Kathir

Allah tells us that he gave Sulayman to Dawud as a Prophet, as He says elsewhere:

(And Sulayman inherited Dawud) (27:1). meaning, he inherited prophethood from him. Dawud had other sons besides Sulayman, for he had one hundred free wives.

(How excellent a servant! Verily, he was ever oft-returning in repentance (to Us)!) This is praise for Sulayman, because he was very much obedient, worshipping Allah much and always turning to Allah in repentance.

(When there were displayed before him, in the afternoon, well trained horses of the highest breed.) means, these well trained horses were shown to Sulayman, peace be upon him, in his capacity as king and ruler. Mujahid said, “They were the kind of horses which stand on three legs and raise the fourth, and they were swift horses.” This was also the view of several others among the Salaf. Abu Dawud recorded that `A’ishah, may Allah be pleased with her, said, “The Messenger of Allah came back from the campaign of Tabuk or Khaybar, and there was a curtain covering her room. The wind came and lifted the curtain, revealing some toys belonging to `A’ishah, may Allah be pleased with her. The Prophet said:

(What is this, O `A’ishah) She, may Allah be pleased with her, said, “My toys.” Among them he saw a horse with two wings made of cloth. He said:

(What is this that I see in the midst of them) She, may Allah be pleased with her, said, “A horse.” The Messenger of Allah said,

(And what is this on it) She, may Allah be pleased with her, said, “Wings.” The Messenger of Allah said,

(A horse with two wings) She, may Allah be pleased with her, said, “Did you not hear that Sulayman, peace be upon him, had a horse that had wings” She, may Allah be pleased with her, said, “The Messenger of Allah smiled so broadly that I could see his molars.”

(He (Sulayman) said: “I did love the good (i.e., horses) instead of remembering my Lord” till the time was over, and (the sun) had hidden in the veil (of night)) More than one of the Salaf and scholars of Tafsir mentioned that he was so busy looking at the horses that he missed the time of `Asr prayer. He did not miss it deliberately, but because of forgetfulness, as happened to the Prophet on the day of Khandaq, when he was too busy to pray `Asr and he prayed it after the sun had set. This was recorded in the Two Sahihs with more than one chain of narration, including the report from Jabir, may Allah be pleased with him, who said, “On the day of Khandaq, `Umar, may Allah be pleased with him, came after the sun had set and started cursing the disbelievers of the Quraysh. He said, `O Messenger of Allah, I could not pray `Asr until the sun had almost set.’ The Messenger of Allah said,

(By Allah, I did not pray it either.)” He (Jabir) said, “So we got up and went to Buthan. Allah’s Prophet performed ablution for the prayer and we too performed ablution. He prayed `Asr after the sun had set, then he prayed Maghrib after that.”

(Then he (Sulayman) said: “Bring them (horses) back to me.” Then he began to pass his hand over their legs and their necks.) Al-Hasan Al-Basri said, “He said, `No, by Allah, you will not keep me from worshipping my Lord again,’ then he ordered that they should be slaughtered.” This was also the view of Qatadah. As-Suddi said, “Their necks and hamstrings were struck with swords.” `Ali bin Abi Talhah reported that Ibn `Abbas, may Allah be pleased with him, said, “He began patting the horses’ heads and legs out of love for them.” This is the view that was favored by Ibn Jarir. He said, “Because he would not punish an animal by cutting its hamstrings or destroy his own wealth for no other reason than that he had been distracted from his prayer by looking at it, and it was not the animals’ fault. ” This view which Ibn Jarir thought more correct is subject to further review, because such action may have been permissible according to their law, especially since he got angry for the sake of Allah for being distracted by these horses until the time for prayer had lapsed. Then, since he dispensed with them for the sake of Allah, Allah compensated him with something better, the wind which blew gently by his order wherever he willed. Its morning lasted a month’s (journey), and its afternoon lasted a month’s (journey). This was faster and better than horses.

Imam Ahmad recorded that Abu Qatadah and Abu Ad-Dahma’, who traveled a lot to the Ka`bah, said, “We met a man from among the bedouins who said to us: `The Messenger of Allah took my hand and started teaching me some of that which Allah had taught him. He said,

(You do not give up anything for the sake of Allah, but Allah will give you something better than it.)”’

وَلَقَدْ فَتَنَّا سُلَيْمَـنَ وَأَلْقَيْنَا عَلَى كُرْسِيِّهِ جَسَداً ثُمَّ أَنَابَ

(34. And indeed, We tried Sulayman and We placed on his throne Jasad (a body), and he returned.)

قَالَ رَبِّ اغْفِرْ لِى وَهَبْ لِى مُلْكاً لاَّ يَنبَغِى لاًّحَدٍ مِّن بَعْدِى إِنَّكَ أَنتَ الْوَهَّابُ

 (35. He said: “My Lord! Forgive me, and bestow upon me a kingdom such as shall not belong to any other after me. Verily, You are the Bestower.”)

فَسَخَّرْنَا لَهُ الرِّيحَ تَجْرِى بِأَمْرِهِ رُخَآءً حَيْثُ أَصَابَ

(36. So, We subjected to him the wind; it blew gently by his order wherever he willed,)

 وَالشَّيَـطِينَ كُلَّ بَنَّآءٍ وَغَوَّاصٍ

 (37. And the Shayatin, from every kind of builder and diver,)

وَءَاخَرِينَ مُقَرَّنِينَ فِى الاٌّصْفَادِ

 (38. And also others bound in fetters.)

هَـذَا عَطَآؤُنَا فَامْنُنْ أَوْ أَمْسِكْ بِغَيْرِ حِسَابٍ

 (39. [Allah said to Sulayman]: “This is Our gift, so spend you or withhold, no account will be asked of you.”)

وَإِنَّ لَهُ عِندَنَا لَزُلْفَى وَحُسْنَ مَـَابٍ

(40. And verily, for him is a near access to Us, and a good (final) return.)

Surah 38 Sad, Verse 34-40

Tafsir Ibn Kathir

Allah says,

(And indeed, We tried Sulayman) meaning, `We tested him.’

(and We placed on his throne Jasad (a body)).

(and he returned.) means, after this test, he turned back to Him and asked for forgiveness and to be given a kingdom such as shall not belong to any other after him.

(He said: “My Lord! Forgive me, and bestow upon me a kingdom such as shall not belong to any other after me. Verily, You are the Bestower.”) Some of them said, “No one after me will have the right to ask Allah for such a kingdom.” This is the apparent meaning from the context of the Ayah, and several Hadiths with a similar meaning have been narrated from the Messenger of Allah . In his Tafsir of this Ayah, Al-Bukhari recorded that Abu Hurayrah, may Allah be pleased with him, said that the Prophet said:

(An `Ifrit from among the Jinn came and bothered me last night- or he said something similar -Trying to stop me from praying. Allah enabled me to overpower him, and I wanted to tie him to one of the pillars in the Masjid so that you could see him this morning. Then I remembered what my brother Sulayman said, (My Lord! Forgive me and bestow upon me a kingdom such as shall not belong to any other after me)) Rawh said, “so he let him go, humiliated.” ) This was also recorded by Muslim and An-Nasa’i. In his Sahih, Muslim recorded that Abu Ad-Darda’, may Allah be pleased with him, said, “The Messenger of Allah stood up to pray and we heard him say,

(I seek refuge with Allah from you.) Then he said,

(I curse you with the curse of Allah.) three times, and he stretched out his hand as if he was reaching out to take something. When he finished his prayer, we said, `O Messenger of Allah, we heard you say something in your prayer which we have never heard you say before, and we saw you stretching out your hand.’ He said:

(The enemy of Allah Iblis came with a flame of fire to throw in my face, so I said, “I seek refuge with Allah from you” three times, then I said, “I curse you with the complete curse of Allah,” but he did not back off. I said it three times. Then I wanted to seize him. By Allah, if it were not for the words of our brother Sulayman, he would have been chained up and he would have become a plaything for the children of the people of Al-Madinah.)” Allah says:

(So, We subjected to him the wind; it blew gently by his order wherever he willed.) Al-Hasan Al-Basri, may Allah have mercy on him, said, “When Sulayman, peace be upon him, slaughtered the horses out of anger for the sake of Allah, Allah compensated him with something better and swifter, the wind whose morning was a month’s (journey), and its afternoon was a month’s (journey).”

(wherever he willed.) means, wherever in the world he wanted.

(And also the Shayatin, from every kind of builder and diver,) means, among them were some whom he used to build high rooms, images, basins as large as reservoirs, and cauldrons fixed (in their places), and other difficult tasks which humans were unable to do. And there was another group, who dived into the sea recovering pearls, jewels and other precious things which cannot be found anywhere else.

(And also others bound in fetters.) means, tied up in chains. These were the ones who had rebelled and refused to work, or else their work was bad and they were wrongdoers.

([Allah said to Sulayman]: “This is Our Gift, so spend you or withhold, no account will be asked of you.”) means, `this that We have given to you of kingship and perfect power, as you asked for, you may give to whomsoever you wish and deny to whomsoever you wish, and you will not be brought to account. Whatever you do is permissible for you, so however you judge, it will be right.’ It was reported in the Two Sahihs that when the Messenger of Allah was given the choice between being a servant and a Messenger — who does what he is commanded to do and distributes things among the people as Allah commands him to do — or being a Prophet and a king, who can give to whomever he wishes and withhold from whomever he wishes without being held accountable for anything, he chose the former. He consulted with Jibril, peace be upon him, who said, “Be humble.” So he chose the former because it has a greater value before Allah and brings a higher status in the Hereafter, even though the second option, prophethood combined with kingship, is also a great thing both in this world and in the Hereafter, when Allah tells us what He gave to Sulayman, peace be upon him, in this world, He tells us that he will have a great share with Allah on the Day of Resurrection. He says:

(And verily, for him is a near access to Us, and a good (final) return.) meaning, in this world and the Hereafter.

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Allah, Glorified and Praised, bestows bounties on Dawood (David), peace be upon him

 

I take refuge with Allaah from the accursed devil.

بِسْمِ اللَّهِ الرَّحْمَـنِ الرَّحِيمِ  

Bismillah-ir-Rahman-ir-Raheem: In the name of Allah, the Compassionate, the Merciful.  

Welcome to my blog and praise the Magnificent Lord as you enter: Allahu Akbar: Allah is the Greatest .  

May the Peace and Blessing of Allah Azza wa Jal, our Lord Glorified and Praised be He, be upon our beloved Prophet, his Family, and Companions.

Allah, Glorified and Praised, Bestows Bounties on Dawood (David) Alaihi Salaam.

وَلَقَدْ ءَاتَيْنَا دَاوُودَ مِنَّا فَضْلاً يَجِبَالُ أَوِّبِى مَعَهُ وَالطَّيْرَ وَأَلَنَّا لَهُ الْحَدِيدَ

(10. And indeed We bestowed grace on Dawud from Us (saying): “O you mountains! Glorify with him! And you birds (also)! And We made the iron soft for him.”)

 أَنِ اعْمَلْ سَـبِغَـتٍ وَقَدِّرْ فِى السَّرْدِ وَاعْمَلُواْ صَـلِحاً إِنِّى بِمَا تَعْمَلُونَ بَصِيرٌ

(11. Saying: “Make you perfect coats of mail, and balance well the rings of chain armor [Sard], and work you (men) righteousness. Truly, I am All-Seer of what you do.”)

Surah 34 Saba, Verse 10-11

Tafsir Ibn Kathir

Here Allah tells us how He blessed His servant and Messenger Dawud (David), peace be upon him, and what He gave him of His great bounty, giving him both prophethood and kingship, and huge numbers of troops. And He blessed him with a mighty voice. Such that when he glorified Allah, the firm, solid, high mountains joined him in glorifying Allah, and the free-roaming birds, who go out in the morning and come back in the evening, stopped for him, and he was able to speak all languages. In the Sahih it is recorded that the Messenger of Allah heard the voice of Abu Musa Al-Ash`ari, may Allah be pleased with him, reciting at night, and he stopped and listened to his recitation, then he said:

(This man has been given one of the sweet melodious voices of the Prophet Dawud.) Abu `Uthman An-Nahdi said, “I never heard any cymbal, stringed instrument or chord that was more beautiful than the voice of Abu Musa Al-Ash`ari, may Allah be pleased with him.”

(Glorify) means, glorify Allah. This was the view of Ibn `Abbas, Mujahid and others. The root of this word [Ta’wib] means to repeat or respond, so the mountains and birds were commanded to repeat after him.

And We made the iron soft for him. Al-Hلasan Al-Basلri, Qata0dah, Al-A mash and others said, He did not need to heat it in the fire or beat it with a hammer؛ he could simply twist it in his hands, like a thread. Allah said:

Saying: Make you perfect coats of mail… , which means chain mail. Qatadah said, He was the first person ever to make chain mail؛ before that, they used to wear plated armor.

(and balance well the rings of chain armor [Sard],) This is how Allah taught His Prophet Dawud, peace be upon him, to make coats of mail. Mujahid said concerning the Ayah:

(and balance well the rings of chain armor [Sard],) “Do not make the rivets too loose that the rings (of chain mail) will shake, or make them too tight that they will not be able to move at all, but make it just right.” `Ali bin Abi Talhah reported that `Ibn `Abbas said, “Sard refers to a ring of iron.” Some of them said, “Chain mail is called Masrud if it is held together with rivets.”

and work you (men) righteousness. means, with regard to what Allah has given you of blessings.

Truly, I am All-Seer of what you do. means, watching you and seeing all that you do and say؛ nothing of that is hidden at all.

 وَرَبُّكَ أَعْلَمُ بِمَنْ فِى السَّمَـوَتِ وَالاٌّرْضِ وَلَقَدْ فَضَّلْنَا بَعْضَ النَّبِيِّينَ عَلَى بَعْضٍ وَءَاتَيْنَا دَاوُودَ زَبُورًا

(55. And your Lord knows best all who are in the heavens and the earth. And indeed, We have preferred some of the Prophets above others, and to Dawud We gave the Zabur.)

Surah 17 Al-Isra, Verse 55

Tafsir Ibn Kathir

(and to Dawud We gave the Zabur.) is an indication of his virtue and honor. Al-Bukhari recorded from Abu Hurayrah that the Prophet said:

(The Qur’an (i.e. revea- led Scripture of Zabur) was made easy for Dawud, so he would call for his mounts to be saddled, and he would finish reciting it (i.e., the Zabur) be- fore the job was done.)

وَلَقَدْ كَتَبْنَا فِى الزَّبُورِ مِن بَعْدِ الذِّكْرِ أَنَّ الاٌّرْضَ يَرِثُهَا عِبَادِىَ الصَّـلِحُونَ

(105. And indeed We have written in Az-Zabur after Adh-Dhikr that My righteous servants shall inherit the land.)

 إِنَّ فِى هَـذَا لَبَلَـغاً لِّقَوْمٍ عَـبِدِينَ

(106. Verily, in this there is a plain Message for people who worship Allah.)

 وَمَآ أَرْسَلْنَـكَ إِلاَّ رَحْمَةً لِّلْعَـلَمِينَ

(107. And We have sent you (O Muhammad ) not but as a mercy for the `Alamin.)

Surah 21 Al Anbiya, Verse 105-107

Tafsir Ibn Kathir

Allah tells us of His decree for His righteous servants who are the blessed in this world and in the Hereafter, those who will inherit the earth in this world and in the Hereafter. As Allah says:

(Verily, the earth is Allah’s. He gives it as a heritage to whom He wills of His servants; and the (blessed) end is for those who have Taqwa.) [7:128]

(Verily, We will indeed make victorious Our Messengers and those who believe in this world’s life and on the Day when the witnesses will stand forth.) [40:51]

(Allah has promised those among you who believe and do righteous good deeds, that He will certainly grant them succession in the land, as He granted it to those before them, and that He will grant them the authority to practise their religion which He has chosen for them) [24:55]. Allah tells us that this is recorded in the Books of Divine Laws and Decrees, and that it will inevitably come to pass. Allah says:

(And indeed We have written in Az-Zabur after Adh-Dhikr) Al-A`mash said: “I asked Sa`id bin Jubayr about the Ayah:

(And indeed We have written in Az-Zabur after Adh-Dhikr). He said: `Az-Zabur means the Tawrah, the Injil and the Qur’an.”’ Mujahid said, “Az-Zabur means the Book.” Ibn `Abbas, Ash-Sha`bi, Al-Hasan, Qatadah and others said, “Az-Zabur is that which was revealed to Dawud, and Adh-Dhikr is the Tawrah.” Mujahid said: “Az-Zabur means the Books which came after Adh-Dhikr, and Adh-Dhikr is the Mother of the Book (Umm Al-Kitab) which is with Allah.” This was also the view of Zayd bin Aslam: “It is the First Book.” Ath-Thawri said: “It is Al-Lawh Al-Mahfuz.”

(that My righteous servants shall inherit the land.) Mujahid said, narrating from Ibn `Abbas, “This means, the land of Paradise.” This was also the view of Abu `Aliyah, Mujahid, Sa`id bin Jubayr, Ash-Sha`bi, Qatadah, As-Suddi, Abu Salih, Ar-Rabi` bin Anas and Ath-Thawri (may Allah have mercy on them).

(Verily, in this (the Qur’an) there is a plain Message for people who worship Allah.) means, `in this Qur’an which We have revealed to Our servant Muhammad , there is a plain Message which is beneficial and is sufficient for a people who worship Allah.’ This refers to those who worship Allah in the manner which He has prescribed and which He loves and is pleased with, and they would rather obey Allah than follow the Shaytan or their own desires.

(And We have sent you not but as a mercy for the `Alamin.) Here Allah tells us that He has made Muhammad a mercy to the `Alamin, i.e., He sent him as a mercy for all of them [peoples], so whoever accepts this mercy and gives thanks for this blessing, will be happy in this world and in the Hereafter. But whoever rejects it and denies it, will lose out in this world and in the Hereafter, as Allah says:

(Have you not seen those who have changed the blessings of Allah into disbelief, and caused their people to dwell in the house of destruction Hell, in which they will burn, — and what an evil place to settle in!) [14:28-29] And Allah says, describing the Qur’an:

(Say: “It is for those who believe, a guide and a healing. And as for those who disbelieve, there is heaviness in their ears, and it is blindness for them. They are those who are called from a place far away.”) [41:44] Muslim reports in his Sahih: Ibn Abi `Umar told us, Marwan Al-Fazari told us, from Yazid bin Kisan, from Ibn Abi Hazim that Abu Hurayrah said that it was said, “O Messenger of Allah, pray against the idolators.” He said:

(I was not sent as a curse, rather I was sent as a mercy.) This was recorded by Muslim. Imam Ahmad recorded that `Amr bin Abi Qurrah Al-Kindi said: “Hudhayfah was in Al-Mada’in and he was mentioning things that the Messenger of Allah had said. Hudhayfah came to Salman and Salman said: `O Hudhayfah, the Messenger of Allah [would sometimes be angry and would speak accordingly, and would sometimes be pleased and would speak accordingly. I know that the Messenger of Allah ] addressed us and said:

(Any man of my Ummah whom I have insulted or cursed when I was angry — for I am a man from among the sons of Adam, and I get angry just as you do. But Allah has sent me as a Mercy to the Worlds, so I will make that [my anger] into blessings for him on the Day of Resurrection.”) This was also recorded by Abu Dawud from Ahmad bin Yunus from Za’idah. It may be asked: what kind of mercy do those who disbelieve in him get The answer is what Abu Ja`far bin Jarir recorded from Ibn `Abbas concerning the Ayah:

(And We have sent you not but as a mercy for the `Alamin. ) He said, “Whoever believes in Allah and the Last Day, mercy will be decreed for him in this world and in the Hereafter; whoever does not believe in Allah and His Messenger, will be protected from that which happened to the nations of earthquakes and stoning.”

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The Story of King Talut (Saul), Prophet Dawood (David), peace be upon him, and Jalut (Goliath)

 

I take refuge with Allaah from the accursed devil.

بِسْمِ اللَّهِ الرَّحْمَـنِ الرَّحِيمِ  

Bismillah-ir-Rahman-ir-Raheem: In the name of Allah, the Compassionate, the Merciful.  

Welcome to my blog and praise the Magnificent Lord as you enter: Allahu Akbar: Allah is the Greatest .  

May the Peace and Blessing of Allah Azza wa Jal, our Lord Glorified and Praised be He, be upon our beloved Prophet, his Family, and Companions.

The Story of King Talut (Saul), Prophet Dawood (David) Alaihi Salaam and Jalut(Goliath)

أَلَمْ تَرَ إِلَى الْمَلإِ مِن بَنِى إِسْرءِيلَ مِن بَعْدِ مُوسَى إِذْ قَالُواْ لِنَبِىٍّ لَّهُمُ ابْعَثْ لَنَا مَلِكًا نُّقَـتِلْ فِى سَبِيلِ اللَّهِ قَالَ هَلْ عَسَيْتُمْ إِن كُتِبَ عَلَيْكُمُ الْقِتَالُ أَلاَّ تُقَـتِلُواْ قَالُواْ وَمَا لَنَآ أَلاَّ نُقَـتِلَ فِى سَبِيلِ اللَّهِ وَقَدْ أُخْرِجْنَا مِن دِيَـرِنَا وَأَبْنَآئِنَا فَلَمَّا كُتِبَ عَلَيْهِمُ الْقِتَالُ تَوَلَّوْاْ إِلاَّ قَلِيلاً مِّنْهُمْ وَاللَّهُ عَلِيمٌ بِالظَّـلِمِينَ

(246. Have you not thought about the group of the Children of Israel after (the time of) Musa When they said to a Prophet of theirs, “Appoint for us a king and we will fight in Allah’s way.” He said, “Would you then refrain from fighting, if fighting was prescribed for you” They said, “Why should we not fight in Allah’s way while we have been driven out of our homes and our children (families have been taken as captives)”

Surah 2 Al Baqarah, Verse 246

Tafsir Ibn Kathir

(But when fighting was ordered for them, they turned away, all except a few of them. And Allah is All-Aware of the wrongdoers.)

(Mujahid said that the Prophet (mentioned in the Ayah 2:246 above) is Shamwil (Samuel). Wahb bin Munabbih said: The Children of Israel remained on the straight path for a period of time after Moses. They then innovated in the religion and some of them even worshipped the idols. Yet, there were always Prophets sent among them who would command them to work righteous deeds, refrain from doing evil and who would rule them according to the commands of the Torah. When they (Israelites) committed the evil that they committed, Allah caused their enemies to overwhelm them, and many fatalities fell among them as a consequence. Their enemies also captured a great number of them, and took over large areas of their land. Earlier, anyone who would fight the Israelites would lose, because they had the Torah and the Tabut, which they inherited generation after generation ever since the time of Moses, who spoke to Allah directly. Yet, the Israelites kept indulging in misguidance until some king took the Tabut from them during a battle. That king also took possession of the Torah, and only a few of the Israelites who memorized it remained. The prophethood halted among their various tribes and only a pregnant woman remained of the offspring of Lavi (Levi), in whom the prophethood still appeared. Her husband had been killed, so the Israelites kept her in a house so that Allah may give her a boy, who would be their Prophet. The woman also kept invoking Allah to grant her a boy. Allah heard her pleas and gave her a boy whom she called `Shamwil’ meaning `Allah has heard my pleas.’ Some people said that the boy’s name was Sham`un (Simeon), which also has a similar meaning.

As that boy grew, Allah raised him to be a righteous person. When he reached the age of prophethood, Allah revealed to him and commanded him to call (his people) to Him and to His Tawhid (Oneness). Shamwil called the Children of Israel (to Allah) and they asked him to appoint a king over them so that they could fight their enemies under his command. The kingship had also ended among them. Their Prophet said to them, “What if Allah appoints a king over you, would you fulfill your vow to fight under his command”

(They said, “Why should we not fight in Allah’s way while we have been driven out of our homes and our children”) meaning, `After our land had been confiscated and our children had been taken from us’ Allah said:

(But when fighting was ordered for them, they turned away, all except a few of them. And Allah is All-Aware of the wrongdoers) meaning, only a few of them kept their promise, but the majority abandoned Jihad and Allah has full knowledge of them.

وَقَالَ لَهُمْ نَبِيُّهُمْ إِنَّ اللَّهَ قَدْ بَعَثَ لَكُمْ طَالُوتَ مَلِكًا قَالُواْ أَنَّى يَكُونُ لَهُ الْمُلْكُ عَلَيْنَا وَنَحْنُ أَحَقُّ بِالْمُلْكِ مِنْهُ وَلَمْ يُؤْتَ سَعَةً مِّنَ الْمَالِ قَالَ إِنَّ اللَّهَ اصْطَفَـهُ عَلَيْكُمْ وَزَادَهُ بَسْطَةً فِي الْعِلْمِ وَالْجِسْمِ وَاللَّهُ يُؤْتِى مُلْكَهُ مَن يَشَآءُ وَاللَّهُ وَسِعٌ عَلِيمٌ

(247. And their Prophet said to them, “Indeed Allah has appointed Talut (Saul) as a king over you.” They said, “How can he be a king over us when we are fitter than him for the kingdom, and he has not been given enough wealth.” He said: “Verily, Allah has chosen him above you and has increased him abundantly in knowledge and stature. And Allah grants His kingdom to whom He wills. And Allah is All-Sufficient for His creatures’ needs, All-Knower.”)

Surah 2 Al Baqarah, Verse 247

Tafsir Ibn Kathir

When the Israelites asked their Prophet to appoint a king over them, he appointed Talut (Saul), who was then a soldier. But, Talut was not a descendant of the house of kings among them, which was exclusively in the offspring of Yahudha (Judah). This is why they said:

(How can he be a king over us) meaning, how can he be the king for us,

(when we are fitter than him for the kingdom, and he has not been given enough wealth) They said that Talut was also poor and did not have the wealth that justifies him being king. Some people stated that Talut used to bring water to the people, while others stated that his profession was dyeing skins. The Jews, thus, disputed with their Prophet while they were supposed to obey him and to say good words to him.

Their Prophet answered them:

(Verily, Allah has chosen him above you) meaning, `Allah chose Talut from amongst you while having better knowledge about him.’ Their Prophet stated, “I did not choose Talut to be your king on my own. Rather, Allah has commanded that upon your request.” Further:

(…and has increased him abundantly in knowledge and stature.) meaning, `Talut is more knowledgeable and honorable than you, and stronger and more patient during combat, and has more knowledge of warfare. In short, he has more knowledge and is stronger than you are. The king should have sufficient knowledge, be fair looking and should have a strong soul and body.’ He then said:

(And Allah grants His kingdom to whom He wills.) meaning, Allah Alone is the Supreme Authority Who does what He wills and no one can ask Him about His actions, while they will be asked (about their actions by Him). This is because Allah has perfect knowledge, wisdom and kindness with His creation. Allah said:

(And Allah is All-Sufficient for His creatures’ needs, All-Knower.) meaning, His favor is encompassing and He grants His mercy to whom He wills. He also knows those who deserve to be kings and those who do not deserve it.

وَقَالَ لَهُمْ نِبِيُّهُمْ إِنَّ ءَايَةَ مُلْكِهِ أَن يَأْتِيَكُمُ التَّابُوتُ فِيهِ سَكِينَةٌ مِّن رَّبِّكُمْ وَبَقِيَّةٌ مِّمَّا تَرَكَ ءَالُ مُوسَى وَءَالُ هَـرُونَ تَحْمِلُهُ الْمَلَـئِكَةُ إِنَّ فِي ذَلِكَ لأَيَةً لَّكُمْ إِن كُنتُم مُّؤْمِنِينَ

(248. And their Prophet said to them: “Verily! The sign of His kingdom is that there shall come to you At-Tabut, wherein is Sakinah (peace and reassurance) from your Lord and a remnant of that which Musa (Moses) and Harun (Aaron) left behind, carried by the angels. Verily, in this is a sign for you if you are indeed believers.)

Surah 2 Al Baqarah, Verse 248

Tafsir Ibn Kathir

Their Prophet then proclaimed, “The sign of the blessings of Talut’s kingship over you is that Allah will give you back the Tabut (wooden box) that has been taken from you.” Allah said:

(wherein is Sakinah from your Lord) meaning, peace (or grace) and reassurance. `Abdur-Razzaq stated that Qatadah said:

(wherein is Sakinah) means grace. In addition, Ar-Rabi` said that Sakinah means mercy. This is also the meaning given by Ibn `Abbas, as Al-`Awfi narrated.

Allah then said:

(…and a remnant of that which Musa (Moses) and Harun (Aaron) left behind,)

Ibn Jarir related that Ibn `Abbas said about this Ayah:

(…and a remnant of that which Musa (Moses) and Harun (Aaron) left behind, ) Meaning, Moses’ staff and the remnants of the Tablets. This is the same Tafsir of Qatadah, As-Suddi, Ar-Rabi` bin Anas and `Ikrimah, who added, “And also the Torah.” `Abdur-Razzaq said that he asked Ath-Thawri about the meaning of,

(…and a remnant of that which Musa (Moses) and Harun (Aaron) left behind,)

Ath-Thawri said, “Some said that it contained a pot of manna and the remnants of the Tablets, while some others said that it contained (Moses’) staff and two shoes (and refer to 20:12).”

Allah then said:

(…carried by the angels.)

Ibn Jurayj stated that Ibn `Abbas said, “The angels came down while carrying the Tabut between the sky and the earth, until they placed it before Talut while the people were watching.” As-Suddi said, “The Tabut was brought to Talut’s house, so the people believed in the prophethood of Sham`un (Simeon) and obeyed Talut”

The Prophet then said:

(Verily, in this is a sign for you) testifying to my truth in what I was sent with, my prophethood, and my command to you to obey Talut,

(if you are indeed believers. ) in Allah and the Hereafter.”

(249. Then when Talut set out with the army, he said: “Verily, Allah will try you by a river. So whoever drinks thereof, he is not of me; and whoever tastes it not, he is of me, except him who takes (thereof) in the hollow of his hand.” Yet, they drank thereof, all, except a few of them. So when he had crossed it (the river), he and those who believed with him, they said: “We have no power this day against Jalut (Goliath) and his hosts.” But those who knew with certainty that they were going to meet Allah, said: “How often has a small group overcome a mighty host by Allah’s leave” And Allah is with As-Sabirin (the patient).)

Surah 2 Al Baqarah, Verse 249

Tafsir Ibn Kathir

Allah states that Talut, the king of the Children of Israel, marched forth with his soldiers and the Israelites who obeyed him. His army was of eighty thousand then, according to As-Suddi, but Allah knows best. Talut said:

(Verily, Allah will try you) meaning, He will test you with a river, which flowed between Jordan and Palestine, i.e. , the Shari`ah river, according to Ibn `Abbas and others. He continued,

(So whoever drinks thereof, he is not of me;) meaning, shall not accompany me today,

(and whoever tastes it not, he is of me, except him who takes (thereof) in the hollow of his hand.) meaning, there is no harm in this case. Allah then said:

(Yet, they drank thereof, all, except a few of them.)

Ibn Jurayj stated that Ibn `Abbas commented, “Whoever took some of it (the river’s water) in the hollow of his hand, quenched his thirst; as for those who drank freely from it, their thirst was not quenched.”

Ibn Jarir reported that Al-Bara’ bin `Azib said, “We used to say that the Companions of Muhammad who accompanied him on the battle of Badr were more than three hundred and ten, just as many as the soldiers who crossed the river with Talut. Only those who believed crossed the river with him.” Al-Bukhari also reported this.

This is why Allah said:

(So when he had crossed it (the river), he and those who believed with him, they said: “We have no power this day against Jalut (Goliath) and his hosts.”)

This Ayah indicates that the Israelites (who remained with Saul) thought that they were few in the face of their enemy who were many then. So, their knowledgeable scholars strengthened their resolve by stating that Allah’s promise is true and that triumph comes from Allah Alone, not from the large numbers or the adequacy of the supplies. They said to them:

(“How often has a small group overcome a mighty host by Allah’s leave” And Allah is with As-Sabirin (the patient).)

وَلَمَّا بَرَزُواْ لِجَالُوتَ وَجُنُودِهِ قَالُواْ رَبَّنَآ أَفْرِغْ عَلَيْنَا صَبْرًا وَثَبّتْ أَقْدَامَنَا وَانصُرْنَا عَلَى الْقَوْمِ الْكَـفِرِينَ

(250. And when they advanced to meet Jalut (Goliath) and his forces, they invoked: “Our Lord! Pour forth on us patience, and set firm our feet and make us victorious over the disbelieving people.”)

 فَهَزَمُوهُم بِإِذْنِ اللَّهِ وَقَتَلَ دَاوُودُ جَالُوتَ وَآتَـهُ اللَّهُ الْمُلْكَ وَالْحِكْمَةَ وَعَلَّمَهُ مِمَّا يَشَآء وَلَوْلاَ دَفْعُ اللَّهِ النَّاسَ بَعْضَهُم بِبَعْضٍ لَفَسَدَتِ الارْضُ وَلَـكِنَّ اللَّهَ ذُو فَضْلٍ عَلَى الْعَـلَمِينَ

(251. So they routed them by Allah’s leave and Dawud (David) killed Jalut (Goliath), and Allah gave him (Dawud) the kingdom [after the death of Talut and Samuel] and Al-Hikmah (prophethood), and taught him of that which He willed. And if Allah did not check one set of people by means of another, the earth would indeed be full of mischief. But Allah is full of bounty to the `Alamin (mankind, Jinn and all that exists).)

تِلْكَ آيَـتُ اللَّهِ نَتْلُوهَا عَلَيْكَ بِالْحَقّ وَإِنَّكَ لَمِنَ الْمُرْسَلِينَ

(252. These are the verses of Allah, We recite them to you (O Muhammad ) in truth, and surely, you are one of the Messengers (of Allah.)

Surah 2 Al Baqarah, Verse 250-252

Tafsir Ibn Kathir

When the faithful party, who were few under the command of Talut, faced their enemy, who were many under the command of Jalut,

(they invoked: “Our Lord! Pour forth on us patience…”) meaning, send down patience on us from You.

(and set firm our feet) meaning, against the enemy and save us from running away and from feebleness,

(and make us victorious over the disbelieving people.)

Allah said:

 (So they routed them by Allah’s leave) meaning, they defeated and overwhelmed them by Allah’s aid and support. Then,

(and Dawud killed Jalut)

Israelite accounts claimed that (Prophet) David killed Goliath with a slingshot that he had, which he launched at Goliath causing his death.

Talut promised that whoever killed Jalut, would marry his daughter and would share his kingship and authority. He kept his promise. Later, the kingship was transferred to Prophet Dawud in addition to being granted Prophethood by Allah. So, Allah said:

(…and Allah gave him (Dawud) the kingdom) that Talut had and,

(and Al-Hikmah) that comes with the prophethood, meaning, after Shamwil. [Allah then said:]

(and taught him of that which He willed.) meaning, what He willed of the knowledge that He bestowed on (Prophet) Dawud.

Next, Allah said:

(And if Allah did not check one set of people by means of another, the earth would indeed be full of mischief.)

This Ayah indicates that if it were not for the fact that Allah checks one set of people with another, such as when Talut and the bravery of Dawud helped the Children of Israel (against Goliath), then people would have perished. Similarly, Allah said:

(For had it not been that Allah checks one set of people by means of another, monasteries, churches, synagogues, and Masjids, wherein the Name of Allah is mentioned much, would surely, have been pulled down.) (22:40)

Allah then said:

(But Allah is full of bounty to the `Alamin (mankind, Jinn and all that exists)) meaning, by His mercy and favor He fixes some of them by some others. Surely, Allah has the wisdom, the supreme authority and the clear proof against His creation in all of His actions and statements.

Allah said:

(These are the verses of Allah, We recite them to you (O Muhammad ) in truth, and surely, you are one of the Messengers (of Allah).)

This Ayah states, `These Ayat (verses) of Allah that We have narrated for you in truth conform to the exact manner that these stories have occurred and to the truth that still remain in the (Divine) Books that the scholars of the Children of Israel have and know. Allah said: O Muhammad,

( you are)

(one of the Messengers (of Allah)) emphatically stating the truth of his prophethood)

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The Prophethood of Dawood (David), Peace Be Upon Him

 

I take refuge with Allaah from the accursed devil.

بِسْمِ اللَّهِ الرَّحْمَـنِ الرَّحِيمِ  

Bismillah-ir-Rahman-ir-Raheem: In the name of Allah, the Compassionate, the Merciful.  

Welcome to my blog and praise the Magnificent Lord as you enter: Allahu Akbar: Allah is the Greatest .  

May the Peace and Blessing of Allah Azza wa Jal, our Lord Glorified and Praised be He, be upon our beloved Prophet, his Family, and Companions.

The Prophethood of Dawood (David) Alaihi Salaam.

اصْبِر عَلَى مَا يَقُولُونَ وَاذْكُرْ عَبْدَنَا دَاوُودَ ذَا الاٌّيْدِ إِنَّهُ أَوَّابٌ

(17.And remember Our slave Dawud, endued with Al-Ayd. Verily, he was ever oft-returning in all matters and in repentance.)

إِنَّا سَخَّرْنَا الجِبَالَ مَعَهُ يُسَبِّحْنَ بِالْعَشِىِّ وَالإِشْرَاقِ

(18. Verily, We made the mountains to glorify Our praises with him in the `Ashi and Ishraq.)

وَالطَّيْرَ مَحْشُورَةً كُلٌّ لَّهُ أَوَّابٌ

(19. And (so did) the birds assembled, all obedient to him.)

وَشَدَدْنَا مُلْكَهُ وَءَاتَيْنَـهُ الْحِكْمَةَ وَفَصْلَ الْخِطَابِ

(20. We made his kingdom strong and gave him Al-Hikmah and sound judgement in speech and decision.)

 Surah 38 Sad, Verse 17-20

Tafsir Ibn Kathir

Al-Ayd means strength in knowledge and action. Ibn `Abbas, may Allah be pleased with him, As-Suddi and Ibn Zayd said, “Al-Ayd means strength.” Mujahid said, “Al-Ayd means strength in obedience to Allah.” Qatadah said, “Dawud, peace be upon him, was given strength in worship and the proper understanding of Islam.” He told us that he, peace be upon him, used to spend a third of the night in prayer, and he fasted for half a lifetime. This was reported in the Two Sahihs, where it is recorded that the Messenger of Allah said:

(The most beloved of prayer to Allah is the prayer of Dawud, and the most beloved of fasting to Allah is the fasting of Dawud. He used to sleep for half of the night, stand in prayer for a third of the night, then sleep for a sixth of the night, and he used to fast alternate days. He never fled from the battlefield, and he always turned to Allah.) which means that he turned to Allah with regard to all of his affairs.

(Verily, We made the mountains to glorify Our praises with him in the `Ashi and Ishraq. ) means, Allah caused the mountains to glorify His praises with him at sunrise and at the end of the day. This is like the Ayah:

(O you mountains. Glorify (Allah) with him! And you birds (also)!) (34:10). The birds also used to glorify Allah’s praises with him. If a bird flew by him and heard him chanting the Zabur, it would not go away; instead it would stay hovering in the air, glorifying Allah along with him. And the lofty mountains would respond to him and echo his glorification of Allah. Ibn Jarir recorded from `Abdullah bin Al-Harith bin Nawfal that Ibn `Abbas, may Allah be pleased with him, did not pray Ad-Duha. [`Abdullah said:] “So I took him to Umm Hani, may Allah be pleased with her, and said to her, `Tell him what you told me.’ She said, `The Messenger of Allah entered my house on the day of the conquest of Makkah. He called for water to be poured into a large bowl, then he called for a garment which he used as a screen between me and him, and he washed himself. Then he sprinkled water around the house and prayed eight Rak`ahs. This was Ad-Duha, and its standing, bowing, prostration and sitting were all equal in brevity.’ Ibn `Abbas, may Allah be pleased with him, left, saying, `I have read the Qur’an from cover to cover, and I never knew about Salat Ad-Duha until now!’ Then he recited:

(glorify Our praises with him in the `Ashi and Ishraq.) I used to say, “What is Salat Al-Ishraq, but now I know what it is.”

(And (so did) the birds assembled,) meaning, hovering in the air.

(all obedient to him.) means, they obeyed him and followed him in glorifying Allah. Sa`id bin Jubayr, Qatadah and Malik said, narrating from Zayd bin Aslam and Ibn Zayd:

(all obedient to him.) means, “Following his commands.”

(and gave him Al-Hikmah) Mujahid said, “This means understanding, reason and intelligence.” Qatadah said, “The Book of Allah and following what is in it.” As-Suddi said:

(Al-Hikmah) “Prophethood.”

(and sound judgement) Shurayh Al-Qadi and Ash-Sha`bi said, “Sound judgement is testimony and oaths.” Qatadah said, “Two witnesses for the plaintiff or an oath on the part of the defendant is meaning of sound judgement.” This is the sound judgement which the Prophets and Messengers judged and the believers and righteous accepted. This is the basis of this Ummah’s judicial system until the Day of Resurrection. This was the view of Abu `Abdur-Rahman As-Sulami. Mujahid and As-Suddi said, “It means passing the right judgement and understanding the case.” Mujahid also said, “It is soundness in speech and in judgement, and this includes all of the above.” This is what is meant, and this is the view favored by Ibn Jarir.

وَهَلْ أَتَاكَ نَبَؤُا الْخَصْمِ إِذْ تَسَوَّرُواْ الْمِحْرَابَ

(21. And has the news of the litigants reached you When they climbed over the wall into (his) Mihrab (private chamber of worship);)

إِذْ دَخَلُواْ عَلَى دَاوُودَ فَفَزِعَ مِنْهُمْ قَالُواْ لاَ تَخَفْ خَصْمَانِ بَغَى بَعْضُنَا عَلَى بَعْضٍ فَاحْكُمْ بَيْنَنَا بِالْحَقِّ وَلاَ تُشْطِطْ وَاهْدِنَآ إِلَى سَوَآءِ الصِّرَطِ

(22. When they entered in upon Dawud, he was terrified of them. They said: “Fear not! (We are) two litigants, one of us has wronged the other, therefore judge between us with truth, and treat us not with injustice, and guide us to the right way.)

إِنَّ هَذَآ أَخِى لَهُ تِسْعٌ وَتِسْعُونَ نَعْجَةً وَلِى نَعْجَةٌ وَحِدَةٌ فَقَالَ أَكْفِلْنِيهَا وَعَزَّنِى فِى الْخِطَابِ

(23. Verily, this my brother (in religion) has ninety-nine ewes, while I have (only) one ewe, and he says: “Hand it over to me, and he overpowered me in speech.”)

قَالَ لَقَدْ ظَلَمَكَ بِسُؤَالِ نَعْجَتِكَ إِلَى نِعَاجِهِ وَإِنَّ كَثِيراً مِّنَ الْخُلَطَآءِ لَيَبْغِى بَعْضُهُمْ عَلَى بَعْضٍ إِلاَّ الَّذِينَ ءَامَنُواْ وَعَمِلُواْ الصَّـلِحَـتِ وَقَلِيلٌ مَّا هُمْ وَظَنَّ دَاوُودُ أَنَّمَا فَتَنَّـهُ فَاسْتَغْفَرَ رَبَّهُ وَخَرَّ رَاكِعاً وَأَنَابَ

(24. [Dawud] said: “He has wronged you in demanding your ewe in addition to his ewes. And, verily, many partners oppress one another, except those who believe and do righteous good deeds, and they are few.” And Dawud guessed that We have tried him and he sought forgiveness of his Lord, and he fell down prostrate and turned (to Allah) in repentance.)

فَغَفَرْنَا لَهُ ذَلِكَ وَإِنَّ لَهُ عِندَنَا لَزُلْفَى وَحُسْنَ مَـَابٍ

(25. So, We forgave him that, and verily, for him is a near access to Us, and a good place of return.)

Surah 38 Sad, Verse 21-25

Tafsir Ibn Kathir

In discussing this passage, the scholars of Tafsir mention a story which is mostly based upon Isra’iliyat narrations. Nothing has been reported about this from the Infallible Prophet that we could accept as true. But Ibn Abi Hatim narrated a Hadith whose chain of narration cannot be regarded as Sahih because it is reported by Yazid Ar-Raqashi from Anas, may Allah be pleased with him. Although Yazid was one of the righteous, his Hadiths are regarded as weak by the Imams. So, it is better to speak briefly of this story and refer knowledge of it to Allah, may He be exalted. For the Qur’an is true and what it contains is also true.

(he was terrified of them.) This was because he was in his Mihrab (private chamber). That was the noblest part of his house, where he commanded that no one should enter upon him that day. So, he did not realize that these two people had climbed the fence surrounding his Mihrab (private chamber) to ask him about their case.

(and he overpowered me in speech.) means, `he defeated me.’

(And Dawud guessed that We have tried him) `Ali bin Abi Talhah reported that Ibn `Abbas said that this means, “We tested him.”

(and he fell down prostrate and turned (to Allah) in repentance.)

(So, We forgave him that,)

The performance of Sajdah in Surah Sad is not one of the obligatory locations; it is a prostration of thanks (Sajdat Shukr). The evidence for it is the report recorded by Imam Ahmad from Ibn `Abbas, may Allah be pleased with him, who said; “The prostration in Surah Sad is not one of the obligatory prostrations; I saw the Messenger of Allah prostrating in this Surah.” This was also recorded by Al-Bukhari, Abu Dawud, At-Tirmidhi, and An-Nasa’i in his Tafsir. At-Tirmidhi said, “Hasan Sahih.” In his Tafsir of this Ayah, An-Nasa’i also recorded that Ibn `Abbas, may Allah be pleased with him, said, “The Prophet prostrated in Sad, and he said:

(Dawud prostrated as an act of repentance and we prostrate as an act of thanks.)” This was recorded only by An-Nasa’i. The men of its chain of narration are all reliable. In his Tafsir of this Ayah, Al-Bukhari recorded that Al-`Awwam said that he asked Mujahid about the prostration in Surah Sad. He said, `I asked Ibn `Abbas, may Allah be pleased with him, `Why do you prostrate’ He said, `Have you not read:

(and among his [Nuh’s] progeny Dawud, Sulayman) (6:84)

(They are those whom Allah had guided. So follow their guidance) (6:90). Dawud, peace be upon him, was one of those whom your Prophet was commanded to follow. Dawud prostrated here so the Messenger of Allah also prostrated here.”’ Abu Dawud recorded that Abu Sa`id Al-Khudri, may Allah be pleased with him, said, “The Messenger of Allah recited Sad while he was on the Minbar. When he reached the prostration, he came down from the Minbar and prostrated, and the people prostrated with him. On another occasion when he recited it, he reached the prostration and the people prepared to prostrate. He said:

(This is repentance for a Prophet, but I see that you are preparing to prostrate.) Then he came down (from the Minbar) and prostrated.” This was recorded only by Abu Dawud and its chain of narration meets the conditions of the Two Sahihs.

(and verily, for him is a near access to Us, and a good place of (final) return.) means, on the Day of Resurrection, he will have good deeds by virtue of which he will be brought close to Allah, and he will have a good place of (final) return, which means the lofty levels of Paradise, because of his repentance and his perfect justice in his kingdom. As it says in the Sahih:

(Those who are fair and just with their families and those who are under their authority will be on Minbars of light on the right hand of Ar-Rahman, and both His Hands are right Hands.)”

يدَاوُودُ إِنَّا جَعَلْنَـكَ خَلِيفَةً فِى الاٌّرْضِ فَاحْكُمْ بَيْنَ النَّاسِ بِالْحَقِّ وَلاَ تَتَّبِعِ الْهَوَى فَيُضِلَّكَ عَن سَبِيلِ اللَّهِ إِنَّ الَّذِينَ يَضِلُّونَ عَن سَبِيلِ اللَّهِ لَهُمْ عَذَابٌ شَدِيدُ بِمَا نَسُواْ يَوْمَ الْحِسَابِ

(26. O Dawud! Verily, We have placed you as a successor on the earth; so judge you between men in truth (and justice) and follow not your desire — for it will mislead you from the path of Allah. Verily, those who wander astray from the path of Allah (shall) have a severe torment, because they forgot the Day of Reckoning.)

Surah 38 Sad, Verse 26

Tafsir Ibn Kathir

This is advice from Allah, may He be exalted, to those who are in positions of authority. They should rule according to the truth and justice revealed from Him, they should not turn away from it and be led astray from the path of Allah. Allah has issued a stern warning of a severe punishment to those who go astray from His path and forget the Day of Resurrection. Ibn Abi Hatim recorded that Ibrahim Abu Zur`ah, who read the Scripture, reported that Al-Walid bin `Abd Al-Malik said to him: “Does anyone have the right to question the Khalifah You have read the first Scripture and the Qur’an, and you have understood them.” He replied, “May I speak, O Commander of the faithful” He said, “Speak, for you are under the protection of Allah.” I said, “O Commander of the faithful, are you more dear to Allah, or Dawud, peace be upon him For Allah gave him both prophethood and rulership, then He warned him in His Book:

(O Dawud ! Verily, We have placed you as a successor on the earth; so judge you between men in truth (and justice) and follow not your desire — for it will mislead you from the path of Allah).” `Ikrimah said:

((Those shall) have a severe torment, because they forgot the Day of Reckoning.) “They will have a severe punishment on the Day of Reckoning because of what they forgot. ” As-Suddi said, “They will have a severe punishment because of what they neglected to do for the sake of the Day of Reckoning.” This interpretation is more in accordance with the apparent meaning of the Ayah. And Allah, may He be glorified and exalted, is the Guide to the Truth.

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The reward of Ibrahim’s (Abraham), peace be upon him, submission to Allah, Glorified and Praised

 

I take refuge with Allaah from the accursed devil.

بِسْمِ اللَّهِ الرَّحْمَـنِ الرَّحِيمِ  

Bismillah-ir-Rahman-ir-Raheem: In the name of Allah, the Compassionate, the Merciful.  

Welcome to my blog and praise the Magnificent Lord as you enter: Allahu Akbar: Allah is the Greatest .  

May the Peace and Blessing of Allah Azza wa Jal, our Lord Glorified and Praised be He, be upon our beloved Prophet, his Family, and Companions.

The Reward of Ibrahim’s (Abraham) Alaihi Salaam, Submission to Allah, Glorified and Praised.

وَإِذِ ابْتَلَى إِبْرَهِيمَ رَبُّهُ بِكَلِمَـتٍ فَأَتَمَّهُنَّ قَالَ إِنِّى جَـعِلُكَ لِلنَّاسِ إِمَامًا قَالَ وَمِن ذُرِّيَّتِى قَالَ لاَ يَنَالُ عَهْدِي الظَّـلِمِينَ

(124. And (remember) when the Lord of Ibrahim (Abraham) tried him with (certain) commands, which he fulfilled. He (Allah) said (to him), “Verily, I am going to make you an Imam (a leader) for mankind (to follow you).” (Ibrahim) said, “And of my offspring (to make leaders).” (Allah) said, “My covenant (prophethood) includes not Zalimin (polytheists and wrongdoers).”)

Surah 2 Al Baqarah, Verse 124

Tafsir Ibn Kathir

Allah is informing us of the honor of Ibrahim Al-Khalil, who He made an Imam for the people, and a model to be imitated, because of the way he conducted himself and adhered to Tawhid. This honor was given to Prophet Ibrahim when he adhered to Allah’s decisions and prohibitions. This is why Allah said,

And (remember) when the Lord of Ibrahim (i.e., Allah) tried him with (certain) commands).

This Ayah means, O Muhammad! Remind the idolators and the People of the Scriptures, who pretend to be followers of the religion of Ibrahim, while in reality they do not follow it, while you, O Muhammad, and your followers are the true followers of his religion; remind them of the commands and prohibitions that Allah tested Ibrahim with.

 (which he fulfilled.) indicating that Ibrahim implemented all of Allah’s orders. Allah said in another Ayah,

(And of Ibrahim (Abraham) who fulfilled (or conveyed) all that (Allah ordered him to do or convey)) (53:37)

meaning, he was truthful and he was obedient to Allah’s legislation. Also, Allah said,

(Verily, Ibrahim was an Ummah (or a nation), obedient to Allah, Hanif (i.e. to worship none but Allah), and he was not one of those who were Al-Mushrikin (polytheists), (He was) thankful for His (Allah’s) favors. He (Allah) chose him and guided him to a straight path. And We gave him good in this world, and in the Hereafter he shall be of the righteous. Then, We have sent the revelation to you (O Muhammad saying): “Follow the religion of Ibrahim Hanif (Islamic Monotheism ـ to worship none but Allah) and he was not of the Mushrikin.) (16:120-123) 

(Say (O Muhammad ): “Truly, my Lord has guided me to a straight path, a right religion, the religion of Ibrahim, Hanifan, and Ibrahim (to worship none but Allah, alone) and he was not of Al-Mushrikin.”) (6:161) and,

(Ibrahim was neither a Jew nor a Christian, but he was a true Muslim Hanifan (Islamic Monotheism ـ to worship none but Allah alone) and he was not of Al-Mushrikin. Verily, among mankind who have the best claim to Ibrahim are those who followed him, and this Prophet (Muhammad ) and those who have believed (Muslims). And Allah is the Wali (Protector and Helper) of the believers) (3:67-68).

Allah said,

(with Kalimat (words)) which means, “Laws, commandments and prohibitions.” `Words’ as mentioned here, sometimes refers to what Allah has willed, such as Allah’s statement about Maryam,

(And she testified to the truth of the Words of her Lord, and (also believed in) His Scriptures, and she was of the Qanitin (i.e. obedient to Allah)) (66:12).

“Words” also refers to Allah’s Law, such as Allah’s statement,

(And the Word of your Lord has been fulfilled in truth and in justice) (6:115) meaning, His legislation. “Words” also means truthful news, or a just commandment or prohibition. For instance, Allah said, 

(And (remember) when the Lord of Ibrahim tried him with (certain) Words (commands), which he fulfilled) meaning, he adhered to them, Allah said,

(Verily, I am going to make you an Imam (a leader) for mankind (to follow you).”) as a reward for Ibrahim’s good deeds, adhering to the commandments and avoiding the prohibitions. This is why Allah made Ibrahim a role model for the people, and an Imam whose conduct and path are imitated and followed.

There is a difference of opinion over the words that Allah tested Ibrahim with. There are several opinions attributed to Ibn `Abbas. For instance, `Abdur-Razzaq said that Ibn `Abbas said, “Allah tested him with the rituals (of Hajj).” Abu Ishaq reported the same. `Abdur-Razzaq also narrated that Ibn `Abbas said that,

(And (remember) when the Lord of Ibrahim (Abraham) (i.e., Allah) tried him with (certain) commands) means, “Allah tested him with Taharah (purity, ablution): five on the head and five on the body. As for the head, they are cutting the mustache, rinsing the mouth, inhaling and discarding water, using Siwak and parting the hair. As for the body, they are trimming the nails, shaving the pubic hair, circumcision and plucking under the arm and washing with water after answering the call of nature.” Ibn Abi Hatim said, “A similar statement was also reported from Sa`id bin Al-Musayyib, Mujahid, Ash-Sha`bi, An-Nakha`i, Abu Salih, Abu Al-Jald, and so forth.”

There is a similar statement that Imam Muslim narrated from `A’ishah who said that Allah’s Messenger said,

(Ten are among the Fitrah (instinct, natural constitution): trimming the mustache, growing the beard, using Siwak, inhaling and then exhaling water (in ablution), cutting the nails, washing between the fingers (in ablution), plucking the underarm hair, shaving the pubic hair, washing with water after answering the call of nature, (and I forgot the tenth, I think it was) rinsing the mouth (in ablution).)

The Two Sahihs recorded Abu Hurayrah saying that the Prophet said,

(Five are among the acts of Fitrah: circumcision, shaving the pubic hair, trimming the mustache, cutting the nails and plucking the underarm hair.) This is the wording with Muslim.

Muhammad bin Ishaq reportd that Ibn `Abbas said, “The words that Allah tested Ibrahim with, and that he implemented were: abandoning his (disbelieving) people when Allah commanded him to do so, disputing with Nimrod (king of Babylon) about Allah, being patient when he was thrown in the fire (although this was extremely traumatic) migrating from his homeland when Allah commanded him to do so, patience with the monetary and material demands of hosting guests by Allah’s command, and Allah’s order for him to slaughter his son. When Allah tested Ibrahim with these words, and he was ready for the major test, Allah said to him,

(“Submit (be a Muslim)!” He said, “I have submitted myself (as a Muslim) to the Lord of all that exists. ”) (2:131) although this meant defying and being apart from the people.”

Allah said that Ibrahim said,

(And of my offspring (to make leaders)) and Allah replied,

My covenant (prophethood) includes not Zalimin (polytheists and wrongdoers)).

(When Allah made Ibrahim an Imam (Leader for the faithful), he asked Allah that Imams thereafter be chosen from his offspring. Allah accepted his supplication, but told him that there will be unjust people among his offspring and they will not benefit from Allah’s promise. Thus, they will neither become Imams nor be imitated (for they will not be righteous). The proof that Ibrahim’s supplication to Allah was accepted is that Allah said in Surat Al-`Ankabut (29:27),

(And We ordained among his offspring prophethood and the Book).

As for Allah’s statement

((Allah) said, “My covenant (prophethood) includes not Zalimin (polytheists and wrongdoers). ”)(Allah mentioned that there are unjust people among the offspring of Ibrahim, and they will not benefit from Allah’s promise, nor would they be entrusted with anything, even though they are among the children of Allah’s Khalil (intimate friend, Prophet Abraham). There will also be those who do good among the children of Ibrahim, and these it is who will benefit from Ibrahim’s supplication. Ibn Jarir said that this Ayah indicated that the unjust shall not be Imams for the people. Moreover, the Ayah informed Ibrahim that there will be unjust people among his offspring. Also, Ibn Khuwayz Mindad Al-Maliki said, “The unjust person does not qualify to be a Khalifah, a ruler, one who gives religious verdicts, a witness, or even a narrator (of Hadiths).’

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The sacrifice of Ibrahim (Abraham), peace be upon him


I take refuge with Allaah from the accursed devil.

بِسْمِ اللَّهِ الرَّحْمَـنِ الرَّحِيمِ  

Bismillah-ir-Rahman-ir-Raheem: In the name of Allah, the Compassionate, the Merciful.  

Welcome to my blog and praise the Magnificent Lord as you enter: Allahu Akbar: Allah is the Greatest .  

May the Peace and Blessing of Allah Azza wa Jal, our Lord Glorified and Praised be He, be upon our beloved Prophet, his Family, and Companions.

The Sacrifice of Ibrahim (Abraham) Alaihi Salaam.

وَقَالَ إِنِّى ذَاهِبٌ إِلَى رَبِّى سَيَهْدِينِ

(99. And he said: “Verily, I am going to my Lord. He will guide me!”)

رَبِّ هَبْ لِى مِنَ الصَّـلِحِينِ

(100. “My Lord! Grant me (offspring) from the righteous.”)

 فَبَشَّرْنَـهُ بِغُلَـمٍ حَلِيمٍ

(101. So, We gave him the glad tidings of a forbearing boy.)

 فَلَمَّا بَلَغَ مَعَهُ السَّعْىَ قَالَ يبُنَىَّ إِنِّى أَرَى فِى الْمَنَامِ أَنِّى أَذْبَحُكَ فَانظُرْ مَاذَا تَرَى قَالَ يأَبَتِ افْعَلْ مَا تُؤمَرُ سَتَجِدُنِى إِن شَآءَ اللَّهُ مِنَ الصَّـبِرِينَ

(102. And, when he (his son) was old enough to walk with him, he said: “O my son! I have seen in a dream that I am slaughtering you. So look what you think!” He said: “O my father! Do that which you are commanded, if Allah wills, you shall find me of the patient.”)

فَلَمَّا أَسْلَمَا وَتَلَّهُ لِلْجَبِينِ

 (103. Then, when they had both submitted themselves, and he had laid him prostrate on his forehead;)

 وَنَـدَيْنَـهُ أَن يإِبْرَهِيمُ

(104. We called out to him: “O Ibrahim!”)

قَدْ صَدَّقْتَ الرُّؤْيَآ إِنَّا كَذَلِكَ نَجْزِى الْمُحْسِنِينَ

(105. “You have fulfilled the dream!” Verily, thus do We reward the doers of good.)

 إِنَّ هَـذَا لَهُوَ الْبَلاَءُ الْمُبِينُ

(106. Verily, that indeed was a manifest trial.)

 وَفَدَيْنَـهُ بِذِبْحٍ عَظِيمٍ

(107. And We ransomed him with a great sacrifice;)

وَتَرَكْنَا عَلَيْهِ فِى الاٌّخِرِينَ

(108. And We left for him among the later generations.)

 سَلَـمٌ عَلَى إِبْرَهِيمَ

 (109. “Salam (peace!) be upon Ibrahim!”)

كَذَلِكَ نَجْزِى الْمُحْسِنِينَ

(110. Thus indeed do We reward the doers of good.)

إِنَّهُ مِنْ عِبَادِنَا الْمُؤْمِنِينَ

(111. Verily, he was one of Our believing servants.)

وَبَشَّرْنَـهُ بِإِسْحَـقَ نَبِيّاً مِّنَ الصَّـلِحِينَ

(112. And We gave him the glad tidings of Ishaq — a Prophet from the righteous.)

 وَبَـرَكْنَا عَلَيْهِ وَعَلَى إِسْحَـقَ وَمِن ذُرِّيَّتِهِمَا مُحْسِنٌ وَظَـلِمٌ لِّنَفْسِهِ مُبِينٌ

 (113. We blessed him and Ishaq. And of their progeny are (some) that do right, and some that plainly wrong themselves.)

Surah 37 As saffaat, Verse 99-113

Tafsir Ibn Kathir

Allah tells us that after He helped His close friend Ibrahim, peace be upon him, against his people, and after Ibrahim gave up hoping that they would ever believe despite all the mighty signs that they had witnessed, he emigrated away from them, and said:

(Verily, I am going to my Lord. He will guide me! My Lord! Grant me (offspring) from the righteous.) meaning, obedient children, in compensation for his people and relatives whom he had left. Allah said:

(So We gave him the glad tidings of a forbearing boy.) This child was Isma`il, peace be upon him, for he was the first child of whom glad tidings were given to Ibrahim, peace be upon him, and he was older than Ishaq. The Muslims and the People of the Book agree, and indeed it is stated in their Book, that Isma`il, peace be upon him, was born when Ibrahim, peace be upon him, was eighty-six years old, and Ishaq was born when Ibrahim was ninety-nine years old. According to their Book, Allah commanded Ibrahim to sacrifice his only son, and in another text it says his firstborn son. But here they falsely inserted the name of Ishaq. This is not right because it goes against what their own Scripture says. They inserted the name of Ishaq because he is their ancestor, while Isma`il is the ancestor of the Arabs. They were jealous of them, so they added this idea and changed the meaning of the phrase “only son” to mean `the only son who is with you,’ because Isma`il had been taken with his mother to Makkah. But this is a case of falsification and distortion, because the words “only son” cannot be said except in the case of one who has no other son. Furthermore, the firstborn son has a special status that is not shared by subsequent children, so the command to sacrifice him is a more exquisite test. 

(And, when he (his son) was old enough to walk with him,) means, when he grew up and started to go with his father and walk with him, for Ibrahim used to go every so often to check on his son and his mother in the land of Faran (i.e., Makkah), to see how they were doing. It was said that he used to ride on Al-Buraq, traveling there swiftly, and Allah knows best. It was reported from Ibn `Abbas, peace be upon him, Mujahid, `Ikrimah, Sa`id bin Jubayr, `Ata’ Al-Khurasani, Zayd bin Aslam and others that

(And, when he (his son) was old enough to walk with him,) means, when he became a young man and was able to work as his father did.

(And, when he (his son) was old enough to walk with him, he said: “O my son! I have seen in a dream that I am slaughtering you. So look what you think!”) `Ubayd bin `Umayr said, “The dreams of the Prophets are revelation,” then he recited this Ayah:

(he said: “O my son! I have seen in a dream that I am slaughtering you. So look what you think!”). He told his son that in order to make it easier for him, and also to test his patience and resolve, at a young age, in obeying Allah and obeying his father.

(He said: “O my father! Do that which you are commanded…”) meaning, `obey the command of Allah and sacrifice me.’

(if Allah wills, you shall find me of the patient.) meaning, `I will be patient and will seek the reward for that with Allah.’ He, may peace and blessings be upon him, believed in what had been promised. Allah said:

(And mention in the Book Isma`il. Verily, he was true to what he promised, and he was a Messenger, (and) a Prophet. And he used to enjoin on his family the Salah and the Zakah, and his Lord was pleased with him.) (19:54-55).

(Then, when they had both submitted themselves, and he had laid him prostrate on his forehead;) means, when both of them had pronounced the Shahadah and remembered Allah — Ibrahim because he was about to offer a sacrifice and Isma`il because he was about to die. Or it was said that “submitted themselves” means that they submitted and followed the command of Allah; Ibrahim obeyed the command of Allah and Isma`il obeyed Allah and his father. This was the view of Mujahid, `Ikrimah, Qatadah, As-Suddi and Ibn Ishaq, and others. lThe meaning of the phrase “and he had laid him prostrate on his forehead” is: he placed him facedown so that he could slaughter him from behind, and not have to see his face at the time of slaughter, so that it would be easier for him. Ibn `Abbas, may Allah be pleased with him, Mujahid, Sa`id bin Jubayr, Ad-Dahhak and Qatadah said:

(and he had laid him prostrate on his forehead;) means, “He turned him upside down on his face.” Imam Ahmad recorded that Ibn `Abbas, may Allah be pleased with him, said, “When the rituals were enjoined upon Ibrahim, peace be upon him, the Shaytan appeared to him at the Mas`a and raced with him, but Ibrahim got there first. Then Jibril, upon him be peace, took him to Jamrat Al-`Aqabah and the Shaytan appeared to him, so he stoned him with seven pebbles until he disappeared. Then he appeared him at Al-Jamrah Al-Wusta and he stoned him with seven pebbles. Then he laid him prostrate on his face. Isma`il, peace be upon him, was wearing a white shirt, and he said, `O my father, I do not have any garment in which I can be shrouded apart from this; take it off me so that you can shroud me in it.’ He started to take it off, then he was called from behind:

(O Ibrahim! You have fulfilled the dream!) Ibrahim turned, and saw a fine, horned, white ram.” Ibn `Abbas said, “We used to look for similar types of rams.” Hisham mentioned this Hadith at length in Al-Manasik.

(We called out to him: “O Ibrahim! You have fulfilled the dream!”) means, `the purpose of your dream has been fulfilled by your laying down your son to sacrifice him.’ As-Suddi and others said that he passed the knife over Isma`il’s neck, but it did not cut him at all, because a sheet of copper was placed between them. Ibrahim was called at that point, and it was said:

(You have fulfilled the dream!) Allah says;

(Verily, thus do We reward the doers of good.) means, `this is how We deal with those who obey Us in things that are difficult for them; We make for them a way out.’ As Allah says:

(And whosoever has Taqwa of Allah, He will make a way for him to get out (from every difficulty). And He will provide him from (sources) he never could imagine. And whosoever puts his trust in Allah, then He will suffice him. Verily, Allah will accomplish his purpose. Indeed Allah has set a measure for all things.) (65:2-3). On the basis of this Ayah and this story, some of the scholars of Usul have stated that it is valid for a ruling to be abrogated before anyone is able to act upon it — unlike some of the Mu`tazilah. The evidence for this is obvious, because Allah commanded Ibrahim, peace be upon him, to sacrifice his son, then He abrogated that and pointed out the ransom. The purpose of His command had been primarily to reward His close Friend for his patience and resolve in sacrificing his son. Allah says:

(Verily, that indeed was a manifest trial.) meaning, it was clearly a test when he was commanded to sacrifice his son, so, he hastened to do it, in submission to the command of Allah and in obedience to Him. Allah said:

(And of Ibrahim who fulfilled all that.) (53:37), and

(And We ransomed him with a great sacrifice). It was reported that Ibn `Abbas, may Allah be pleased with him, said, “A ram which had grazed in Paradise for forty years.” Imam Ahmad recorded that Safiyyah bint Shaybah said, “A woman from Bani Sulaym, who was the midwife of most of the people in our household, told me that the Messenger of Allah sent for `Uthman bin Talhah, may Allah be pleased with him.” On one occasion she said, “I asked `Uthman, `Why did the Prophet call you’ He said, `The Messenger of Allah said to me,

 (I saw the horns of the ram when I entered the House [i.e., the Ka`bah], and I forgot to tell you to cover them up; cover them up, for there should not be anything in the House which could distract the worshipper.)”’ Sufyan said, “The horns of the ram remained hanging in the House until it was burned, and they were burned too.” This offers independent evidence that the one who was to be sacrificed was Isma`il, peace be upon him. The Quraysh had inherited the horns of the ram that Ibrahim sacrificed, and they had been passed down from generation to generation, until the Messenger of Allah was sent. And Allah knows best.

Sa`id bin Jubayr, `Amir Ash-Sha`bi, Yusuf bin Mihran, Mujahid, `Ata’ and others reported from Ibn `Abbas that it was Isma`il, peace be upon him. Ibn Jarir narrated that Ibn `Abbas said, “The one who was ransomed was Isma`il, peace be upon him. The Jews claimed that it was Ishaq, but the Jews lied.” It was reported that Ibn `Umar said, “The sacrifice was Isma`il.” Ibn Abi Najih said, narrating from Mujahid, “It was Isma`il, peace be upon him.” This was also the view of Yusuf bin Mihran. Ash-Sha`bi said, “It was Isma`il, peace be upon him, and I saw the horns of the ram in the Ka`bah.” Muhammad bin Ishaq reported from Al-Hasan bin Dinar and `Amr bin `Ubayd from Al-Hasan Al-Basri that he did not doubt that the one of the two sons Ibrahim was commanded to sacrifice was Isma`il, peace be upon him. Ibn Ishaq said, “I heard Muhammad bin Ka`b Al-Qurazi say, `The one whom Allah commanded Ibrahim to sacrifice of his two sons was Isma`il.’ We find this in the Book of Allah, because when Allah finishes the story of the one of the two sons of Ibrahim who was to be sacrificed, He then says:

(And We gave him the glad tidings of Ishaq — a Prophet from the righteous), and

(So, We gave her glad tidings of Ishaq and after Ishaq, of Ya`qub) (11:71). He mentions the son and the son of the son, but He would not have commanded him to sacrifice Ishaq when He had promised that this son would in turn have a son. The one whom He commanded him to sacrifice can only have been Isma`il.” Ibn Ishaq said, “I heard him say that often.” Ibn Ishaq reported from Buraydah bin Sufyan bin Farwah Al-Aslami that Muhammad bin Ka`b Al-Qurazi told them that he mentioned that to `Umar bin `Abd Al-`Aziz, may Allah be pleased with him, when he was Khalifah, while he was with him in Syria. `Umar said to him, “This is something about which I have never given any thought, but I see that it is as you say.” Then he sent for a man who was with him in Syria, a Jew who had become a Muslim and was committed to Islam, and he thought that he had been one of their scholars. `Umar bin `Abd Al-`Aziz, may Allah be pleased with him, asked him about that. Muhammad bin Ka`b said, “I was with `Umar bin `Abd Al-`Aziz. `Umar said to him, `Which of the two sons of Ibrahim was he commanded to sacrifice’ He said, `Isma`il. By Allah, O Commander of the faithful, the Jews know this, but they were jealous of you Arabs because it was your father about whom Allah issued this command and the virtue that Allah mentioned was because of his patience in obeying the command. So they denied that and claimed that it was Ishaq, because he is their father.”’ `Abdullah bin Al-Imam Ahmad bin Hanbal, may Allah have mercy on him, said, “I asked my father about which son was to be sacrificed — was it Isma`il or Ishaq” He said, “Isma`il.” This was mentioned in Kitab Az-Zuhd. Ibn Abi Hatim said, “I heard my father say, `The correct view is that the one who was to be sacrificed was Isma`il, peace be upon him.”’ He said, “And it was narrated that `Ali, Ibn `Umar, Abu Hurayrah, Abu At-Tufayl, Sa`id bin Al-Musayyib, Sa`id bin Jubayr, Al-Hasan, Mujahid, Ash-Sha`bi, Muhammad bin Ka`b Al-Qurazi, Abu Ja`far Muhammad bin `Ali and Abu Salih, may Allah be pleased with them all, said that the one who was to be sacrificed was Isma`il.” Al-Baghawi said in his Tafsir, “This was the view of `Abdullah bin `Umar, Sa`id bin Al-Musayyib, As-Suddi, Al-Hasan Al-Basri, Mujahid, Ar-Rabi` bin Anas, Muhammad bin Ka`b Al-Qurazi and Al-Kalbi.” This was also reported from Ibn `Abbas and from Abu `Amr bin Al-`Ala’.

(And We gave him the glad tidings of Ishaq — a Prophet from the righteous.) having given the glad tidings of the one who was to be sacrificed, who was Isma`il, Allah immediately follows that with mention of the glad tidings of his brother Ishaq. This is also mentioned in Surah Hud (11:71) and in Surat Al-Hijr (15:53-55).

(a Prophet) means, from him there will come a righteous Prophet.

(We blessed him and Ishaq. And of their progeny are (some) that do right, and some that plainly wrong themselves.)

 مَا كَانَ إِبْرَهِيمُ يَهُودِيًّا وَلاَ نَصْرَانِيًّا وَلَكِن كَانَ حَنِيفًا مُّسْلِمًا وَمَا كَانَ مِنَ الْمُشْرِكِينَ

(67. Ibrahim was neither a Jew nor a Christian, but he was a true Muslim Hanifa and he was not of the Mushrikin )

Surah 3 Ala Imran, Verse 67

Tafsir Ibn Kathir

(Ibrahim was neither a Jew nor a Christian, but he was a true Muslim Hanifa), shunning Shirk (associating partners with Allah, Glorified and Praised) and living in Iman (Faith).

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The Angels visit Prophet Ibrahim (Abraham), peace be upon him


I take refuge with Allaah from the accursed devil.

بِسْمِ اللَّهِ الرَّحْمَـنِ الرَّحِيمِ  

Bismillah-ir-Rahman-ir-Raheem: In the name of Allah, the Compassionate, the Merciful.  

Welcome to my blog and praise the Magnificent Lord as you enter: Allahu Akbar: Allah is the Greatest .  

May the Peace and Blessing of Allah Azza wa Jal, our Lord Glorified and Praised be He, be upon our beloved Prophet, his Family, and Companions.

The Angels visit Prophet Ibrahim (Abraham), Peace be upon him.

 وَنَبِّئْهُمْ عَن ضَيْفِ إِبْرَاهِيمَ

(51. And tell them about the guests (i. e., the angels) of Ibrahim.)

إِذْ دَخَلُواْ عَلَيْهِ فَقَالُواْ سَلامًا قَالَ إِنَّا مِنْكُمْ وَجِلُونَ

(52. When they entered upon him, and said: “Salaman (peace!).” He said: “Indeed we are frightened of you.”)

 قَالُواْ لاَ تَوْجَلْ إِنَّا نُبَشِّرُكَ بِغُلَـمٍ عَلِيمٍ

(53. They said: “Do not be afraid! We bring you the good news of a boy possessing much knowledge and wisdom.”)

قَالَ أَبَشَّرْتُمُونِى عَلَى أَن مَّسَّنِىَ الْكِبَرُ فَبِمَ تُبَشِّرُونَ

(54. He said: “Do you give me this good news while old age has overtaken me Of what then is your news about”)

قَالُواْ بَشَّرْنَـكَ بِالْحَقِّ فَلاَ تَكُن مِّنَ الْقَـنِطِينَ

 (55. They said: “We give you good news in truth. So do not be of those who despair.”)

قَالَ وَمَن يَقْنَطُ مِن رَّحْمَةِ رَبِّهِ إِلاَّ الضَّآلُّونَ

 (56. He said: “And who despairs of the mercy of his Lord except those who are astray”)

Surah 15 Al Hijr, Verse 51-56

Tafsir Ibn Kathir

Allah is saying: `Tell them, O Muhammad, about the story of

(the guests of Ibrahim.)’

(they entered upon him, and said: “Salaman (peace!).” He said: “Indeed we are frightened of you.”) meaning that they were scared. The reason for their fear has been mentioned previously, which is that they noticed that these guests did not eat of the food that was offered, which was a fattened calf.

(They said: “Do not be afraid!…”) meaning, do not be scared.

(We bring you the good news of a boy possessing much knowledge and wisdom.) this refers to Ishaq, as was previously mentioned in Surat Hud. Then

(He said) meaning he spoke with wonder and astonishment, asking for confirmation, because he was old and his wife was old:

(Do you give me this good news while old age has overtaken me Of what then is your news about) They responded by confirming the good news they had brought, good news after good news:

(They said: “We give you good news in truth. So do not be of those who despair.”)

قَالَ فَمَا خَطْبُكُمْ أَيُّهَا الْمُرْسَلُونَ

(57. He said: “What then is the business for which you have come, O messengers”)

 قَالُواْ إِنَّآ أُرْسِلْنَآ إِلَى قَوْمٍ مُّجْرِمِينَ

(58. They said: “We have been sent to a guilty people.”)

إِلاَ ءَالَ لُوطٍ إِنَّا لَمُنَجُّوهُمْ أَجْمَعِينَ

(59. “(All) except the family of Lut, all of whom we are to save (from the destruction).”)

إِلاَّ امْرَأَتَهُ قَدَّرْنَآ إِنَّهَا لَمِنَ الْغَـبِرِينَ

(60. “Except for his wife, of whom We have decreed that she shall be of those who remain behind.”)

Surah 15 Al Hijr, Verse 57-60

Tafsir Ibn Kathir

Allah tells us that after Ibrahim had calmed down from the excitement of this good news, he started to ask them why they had come to him. They said,

(We have been sent to a guilty people.) meaning the people of Lut. They told him that they were going to save the family of Lut from among those people, except for his wife, because she was one of those who were doomed. Thus it was said,

(Except for his wife, of whom We have decreed that she shall be of those who remain behind.) i.e., she was one of those who would be left behind and will be destroyed.

وَلَقَدْ جَآءَتْ رُسُلُنَآ إِبْرَهِيمَ بِالْبُـشْرَى قَالُواْ سَلَـماً قَالَ سَلَـمٌ فَمَا لَبِثَ أَن جَآءَ بِعِجْلٍ حَنِيذٍ

(69. And verily, there came Our messengers to Ibrahim with the glad tidings. They said: “Salaman (greetings or peace!)” He answered, “Salamun (greetings or peace!),” and he hastened to entertain them with a roasted calf.)

فَلَمَّا رَأَى أَيْدِيَهُمْ لاَ تَصِلُ إِلَيْهِ نَكِرَهُمْ وَأَوْجَسَ مِنْهُمْ خِيفَةً قَالُواْ لاَ تَخَفْ إِنَّا أُرْسِلْنَا إِلَى قَوْمِ لُوطٍ

(70. But when he saw their hands went not towards it (the meal), he mistrusted them, and conceived a fear of them. They said: “Fear not, we have been sent against the people of Lut.”)

وَامْرَأَتُهُ قَآئِمَةٌ فَضَحِكَتْ فَبَشَّرْنَـهَا بِإِسْحَـقَ وَمِن وَرَآءِ إِسْحَـقَ يَعْقُوبَ

(71. And his wife was standing (there), and she laughed. But We gave her glad tidings of Ishaq, and after Ishaq, of Ya`qub.)

 قَالَتْ يوَيْلَتَا ءَأَلِدُ وَأَنَاْ عَجُوزٌ وَهَـذَا بَعْلِى شَيْخًا إِنَّ هَـذَا لَشَىْءٌ عَجِيبٌ

 (72. She said (in astonishment): “Woe unto me! Shall I bear a child while I am an old woman, and here is my husband an old man Verily, this is a strange thing!”)

 قَالُواْ أَتَعْجَبِينَ مِنْ أَمْرِ اللَّهِ رَحْمَتُ اللَّهِ وَبَرَكَـتُهُ عَلَيْكُمْ أَهْلَ الْبَيْتِ إِنَّهُ حَمِيدٌ مَّجِيدٌ

 (73. They said: “Do you wonder at the decree of Allah The mercy of Allah and His blessings be on you, O the family [of Ibrahim]. Surely, He (Allah) is All-Praiseworthy, All-Glorious.”)

Surah 11 Hud, Verse 69-73

Tafsir Ibn Kathir

Allah, the Exalted, says,

(And verily, there came Our messengers) The word “messengers” here means angels.

(to Ibrahim with the glad tidings.) It has been said that the word “the glad tidings” means, “Receive the glad tidings of Ishaq.” Others have said that it means, “The destruction of the people of Prophet Lut.” The proof of the correctness of the first view is in Allah’s statement,

(They said: “Salaman.” He answered, “Salamun.”) This means, “Upon you.” The scholars of explanation have said, “Ibrahim’s reply of `Salamun’ was better than that with which they had greeted him with, because the subjective case (Salamun instead of Salaman) alludes to affirmation and eternity. ”

(and he hastened to entertain them with a roasted calf.) This means that he (Ibrahim) left with haste in order to bring them food, as a host. The food that he brought was a calf. The word Hanidh means roasted upon heated stones. This meaning has been reported from Ibn `Abbas, Qatadah and others. This is as Allah has said in another verse,

(Then he turned to his household, and brought out a roasted calf. And placed it before them (saying): “Will you not eat”)[51:26-27] This verse contains many aspects of the etiquettes of hosting guests.

(But when he saw their hands went not towards it (the meal), he mistrusted them,) This means that he felt estranged from them.

(and conceived a fear of them.) This is because angels are not concerned with food. They do not desire it, nor do they eat it. Therefore, when Ibrahim saw them reject the food that he had brought them, without tasting any of it at all, he felt a mistrust of them.

(and conceived a fear of them. ) As-Suddi said, “When Allah sent the angels to the people of Lut, they set out walking in the form of young men, until they came to Ibrahim and they were hosted by him. When Ibrahim saw them, he rushed to host them.

(Then he turned to his household, and brought out a roasted calf.)[51:26] He slaughtered it (the calf), roasted it on hot stones and brought it to them. Then, he sat down with them. when he placed it before them. (saying): `Will you not eat’ They said, `O Ibrahim! Verily, we do not eat food without a price.’ Ibrahim then said, `Verily, this food has a price.’ They said, `What is its price’ He said, `You must mention the Name of Allah over it before eating it and praise Allah upon finishing it.’ Jibril then looked at Mika’il and said, `This man has the right that his Lord should take him as an intimate friend.’

(But when he saw their hands went not towards it (the meal), he mistrusted them,) When Ibrahim saw that they were not eating, he became scared and frightened by them. Then, when Sarah looked and saw that he was honoring them, she began to serve them and she was laughing. She said, `What amazing guests we have. We serve them ourselves, showing them respect and they do not eat our food.”’ Then, concerning Allah’s statement about the angels,

(They said: “Fear not,”) They were saying, “Do not be afraid of us. Verily, we are angels sent to the people of Lut in order to destroy them.” Then, Sarah laughed in delight of the good news of their destruction. This is because they had caused much corruption and their disbelief was severe. For this reason, she was rewarded with the glad tidings of a son, even after her despair. Concerning Allah’s statement,

(and after Ishaq, of Ya`qub.) This means that the son that she was going to have would have a son (her grandson) who would succeed him and beget many children. For verily, Ya`qub was the son of Ishaq, just as Allah says in Surat Al-Baqarah,

(Or were you witnesses when death approached Ya’qub When he said unto his sons, “What will you worship after me” They said, “We shall worship your God, the God of your fathers, Ibrahim, Isma`il, Ishaq, One God, and to him we submit.”) [2:133] From this point in this verse there is an evidence for those who say that Isma`il was the son of Ibrahim who was to be sacrificed. It could not have been Ishaq, because the glad tidings were given that he would have a son born to him named Ya`qub. So how could Ibrahim be commanded to sacrifice him when he was a small child and there had not been born to him a child yet, named Ya`qub, who was promised The promise of Allah is true and there is no breaking of Allah’s promise. Therefore, it is not possible that Ibrahim was to sacrifice this child (Ishaq) with the condition being as it was. This makes it clear that Isma`il was the son that was to be sacrificed and this is the best, most correct and clearest evidence of that. And all praise is due to Allah.

(She said (in astonishment): “Woe unto me! Shall I bear a child while I am an old woman, and here is my husband an old man”) Allah speaks of her statement in this verse, just as He spoke of her action in another verse.

(Then his wife came forward with a loud voice: she smote her face, and said: “A barren old woman!”)[51:29] This was the custom of the women in their speech and actions when they were expressing amazement.

(Then said: “Do you wonder at the decree of Allah”) This means that the angels were saying to her, “Do not be amazed at the command of Allah, for verily, whenever He wants something, He merely says `Be’ and it is. So do not be amazed at this, even though you are old and barren and your husband is a very old man. Verily, Allah is able to do whatever He wills.”

(The mercy of Allah and His blessing be on you, O the family (of Ibrahim). Surely, He (Allah) is All-Praiseworthy, All-Glorious.) This means that He is the Most Praiseworthy in all of His actions and statements. He is praised and glorified in His Attributes and His Self. For this reason, it is confirmed in the two Sahihs that they (the Prophet’s Companions) said, “Verily, we already know how to greet you with Salam (peace), but how do we send Salah (prayer) upon you, O Messenger of Allah” He said,

(Say, “O Allah, send prayers upon Muhammad and the family of Muhammad, just as You have sent prayers upon Ibrahim and the family of Ibrahim. And bless Muhammad and the family of Muhammad, just as You have blessed the family of Ibrahim. Truly, You are the All-Praiseworthy, All-Glorious.”)

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