Adam, may peace be upon him, enters and exits paradise

بِسْمِ اللَّهِ الرَّحْمَـنِ الرَّحِيمِ  

Bismillah-ir-Rahman-ir-Raheem: In the name of Allah, the Compassionate, the Merciful.  

Welcome to my blog and praise the Magnificent Lord as you enter: Allahu Akbar: Allah is the Greatest .  

May the Peace and Blessing of Allah Azza wa Jal, our Lord Glorified and Praised be He, be upon our beloved Prophet, his Family, and Companions.

Adam, Alaihi Salaam, Enters and Exists Paradise.

وَقُلْنَا يَاءَادَمُ اسْكُنْ أَنْتَ وَزَوْجُكَ الْجَنَّةَ وَكُلاَ مِنْهَا رَغَدًا حَيْثُ شِئْتُمَا وَلاَ تَقْرَبَا هَـذِهِ الشَّجَرَةَ فَتَكُونَا مِنَ الْظَّـلِمِينَ

(35. And We said: “O Adam! Dwell you and your wife in the Paradise and eat both of you freely with pleasure and delight, of things therein wherever you will, but come not near this tree or you both will be of the Zalimin (wrongdoers). ”)

فَأَزَلَّهُمَا الشَّيْطَـنُ عَنْهَا فَأَخْرَجَهُمَا مِمَّا كَانَا فِيهِ وَقُلْنَا اهْبِطُواْ بَعْضُكُمْ لِبَعْضٍ عَدُوٌّ وَلَكُمْ فِى الأَرْضِ مُسْتَقَرٌّ وَمَتَـعٌ إِلَى حِينٍ

(36. Then the Shaytan made them slip therefrom (the Paradise), and got them out from that in which they were. We said: “Get you down, all, with enmity between yourselves. On earth will be a dwelling place for you and an enjoyment for a time.”)

Surah 2 Al Baqarah, Verse 35-36

Tafsir Ibn Kathir

Allah honored Adam by commanding the angels to prostrate before him, so they all complied except for Iblis. Allah then allowed Adam to live and eat wherever and whatever he wished in Paradise. Al-Hafiz Abu Bakr bin Marduwyah reported Abu Dharr saying, “I said, `O Messenger of Allah! Was Adam a Prophet’ He said,

(Yes. He was a Prophet and a Messenger to whom Allah spoke directly), meaning

((O Adam!) Dwell you and your wife in the Paradise.)”

The Ayah (2:35) indicates that Hawwa’ was created before Adam entered Paradise, as Muhammad bin Ishaq stated. Ibn Ishaq said, “After Allah finished criticizing Iblis, and after teaching Adam the names of everything, He said,

(O Adam! Inform them of their names) until,

(Verily, You are the Knower, the Wise.)

Then Adam fell asleep, as the People of the Book and other scholars such as Ibn `Abbas have stated, Allah took one of Adam’s left ribs and made flesh grow in its place, while Adam was asleep and unaware. Allah then created Adam’s wife, Hawwa’, from his rib and made her a woman, so that she could be a comfort for him. When Adam woke up and saw Hawwa’ next to him, it was claimed, he said, `My flesh and blood, my wife.’ Hence, Adam reclined with Hawwa’. When Allah married Adam to Hawwa’ and gave him comfort, Allah said to him directly,

(“O Adam! Dwell you and your wife in the Paradise and eat both of you freely with pleasure and delight, of things therein wherever you will, but come not near this tree or you both will be of the Zalimin (wrongdoers).”).”

Allah’s statement to Adam,

(but come not near this tree) is a test for Adam. There are conflicting opinions over the nature of the tree mentioned here. Some said that it was the grape tree, barley, date tree, fig tree, and so forth. Some said that it was a certain tree, and whoever eats from it will be relieved of the call of nature. It was also said that it was a tree from which the angels eat so that they live for eternity. Imam Abu Ja`far bin Jarir said, “The correct opinion is that Allah forbade Adam and his wife from eating from a certain tree in Paradise, but they ate from it. We do not know which tree that was, because Allah has not mentioned anything in the Qur’an or the authentic Sunnah about the nature of this tree. It was said that it was barley, grape, or a fig tree. It is possible that it was one of those trees. Yet, this is knowledge that does not bring any benefit, just as being ignorant in its nature does no harm. Allah knows best.” This is similar to what Ar-Razi stated in his Tafsir, and this is the correct opinion. Allah’s statement,

(Then the Shaytan made them slip therefrom) either refers to Paradise, and in this case, it means that Shaytan led Adam and Hawwa’ away from it, as `Asim bin Abi An-Najud recited it. It is also possible that this Ayah refers to the forbidden tree. In this case, the Ayah would mean, as Al-Hasan and Qatadah stated, “He tripped them.” In this case,

(Then the Shaytan made them slip therefrom)

means, “Because of the tree”, just as Allah said,

(And got them out from that in which they were) meaning, the clothes, spacious dwelling and comfortable sustenance.

(We said: “Get you down, all, with enmity between yourselves. On earth will be a dwelling place for you and an enjoyment for a time.”) meaning, dwelling, sustenance and limited life, until the commencement of the Day of Resurrection.

Ibn Abi Hatim narrated that Ubayy bin Ka`b said that the Messenger of Allah said,

(Allah created Adam tall, with thick hair, just as a date tree with full branches. When Adam ate from the forbidden tree, his cover fell off, and the first thing that appeared was his private area. When he saw his private area, he ran away in Paradise and his hair got caught in a tree. He tried to free himself and Ar-Rahman called him, ‘O Adam! Are you running away from Me’ When Adam heard the words of Ar-Rahman (Allah), he said, ‘No, O my Lord! But I am shy.’)

Al-Hakim recorded that Ibn `Abbas said, “Adam was allowed to reside in Paradise during the time period between the `Asr (Afternoon) prayer, until sunset.” Al-Hakim then commented this is “Sahih according to the Two Shaykhs (Al-Bukhari and Muslim), but they did not include it in their collections.” Also, Ibn Abi Hatim recorded Ibn `Abbas saying, “Allah sent Adam to earth to an area called, Dahna, between Makkah and At-Ta’if.” Al-Hasan Al-Basri said that Adam was sent down to India, while Hawwa’ was sent to Jeddah. Iblis was sent down to Dustumaysan, several miles from Basra. Further, the snake was sent down to Asbahan. This was reported by Ibn Abi Hatim. Also, Muslim and An-Nasa’i recorded that Abu Hurayrah said that the Messenger of Allah said,

(Friday is the best day on which the sun has risen. On Friday, Allah created Adam, admitted him into Paradise, and expelled him from it.)

If one asks, “If the Paradise that Adam was thrown out of was in heaven, as the majority of the scholars assert, then is it possible for Iblis to enter Paradise, although he was expelled from it by Allah’s decision (when he refused to prostrate before Adam)”

Basically, the response to this would be that the Paradise which Adam was in, was in the heavens, not on the earth, as we explained in the beginning of our book Al-Bidayah wan-Nihayah.

The majority of scholars said that Shaytan was originally prohibited from entering Paradise, but there were times when he sneaked into it in secret. For instance, the Tawrah stated that Iblis hid inside the snake’s mouth and entered Paradise. Some scholars said that it is possible that Shaytan led Adam and Hawwa’ astray on his way out of Paradise. Some scholars said that he led Adam and Hawwa’ astray when he was on earth, while they were still in heaven, as stated by Az-Zamakhshari. 

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The Honoring of Adam, may peace be upon him

بِسْمِ اللَّهِ الرَّحْمَـنِ الرَّحِيمِ  

Bismillah-ir-Rahman-ir-Raheem: In the name of Allah, the Compassionate, the Merciful.  

Welcome to my blog and praise the Magnificent Lord as you enter: Allahu Akbar: Allah is the Greatest .  

May the Peace and Blessing of Allah Azza wa Jal, our Lord Glorified and Praised be He, be upon our beloved Prophet, his Family, and Companions.

The Honoring of Adam Alaihi Salaam.

وَإِذْ قُلْنَا لِلْمَلَـئِكَةِ اسْجُدُواْ لاًّدَمَ فَسَجَدُواْ إِلاَّ إِبْلِيسَ أَبَى وَاسْتَكْبَرَ وَكَانَ مِنَ الْكَـفِرِينَ

(34. And (remember) when We said to the angels: “Prostrate yourselves before Adam.” And they prostrated except Iblis (Shaytan), he refused and was proud and was one of the disbelievers (disobedient to Allah).)

Surah 2 Al Baqarah, Verse 34

Tafsir Ibn Kathir

This Ayah mentions the great honor that Allah granted Adam, and Allah reminded Adam’s offspring of this fact. Allah commanded the angels to prostrate before Adam, as this Ayah and many Hadiths testify, such as the Hadith about the intercession that we discussed. There is a Hadith about the supplication of Musa, “O my Lord! Show me Adam who caused us and himself to be thrown out of Paradise.” When Musa met Adam, he said to him, “Are you Adam whom Allah created with His Own Hands, blew life into and commanded the angels to prostrate before” Iblis was among Those ordered to prostrate before Adam, although He was not an Angel.

When Allah commanded the angels to prostrate before Adam, Iblis was included in this command. Although Iblis was not an angel, he was trying – and pretending – to imitate the angels’ behavior and deeds, and this is why he was also included in the command to the angels to prostrate before Adam. Satan was criticized for defying that command.

Similarly, Muhammad bin Ishaq reported that Ibn `Abbas said, “Before he undertook the path of sin, Iblis was with the angels and was called `Azazil.’ He was among the residents of the earth and was one of the most active worshippers and knowledgeable persons among the angels. This fact caused him to be arrogant. Iblis was from a genus called Jinn.”

Qatadah commented on Allah’s statement,

(And (remember) when We said to the angels: “Prostrate yourselves before Adam.”)

“The obedience was for Allah and the prostration was before Adam. Allah honored Adam and commanded the angels to prostrate before him.” Some people said that this prostration was just a prostration of greeting, peace and honor, hence Allah’s statement,

(And he (Prophet Yusuf) raised his parents to the throne and they fell down before him prostrate. And he said: “O my father! This is the interpretation of my dream aforetime! My Lord has made it come true!”) (12:100)

The practice of prostrating was allowed for previous nations, but was repealed for ours. Mu`adh said to the Prophet , “I visited Ash-Sham and found that they used to prostate before their priests and scholars. You, O Messenger of Allah, are more deserving of prostration.” The Prophet said,

(No. If I was to command any human to prostrate before another human, I would command the wife to prostrate before her husband because of the enormity of his right on her.)

Ar-Razi agreed with this view. Also, Qatadah said about Allah’s statement,

(And they prostrated except Iblis (Shaytan), he refused and was proud and was one of the disbelievers (disobedient to Allah).)

“Iblis, the enemy of Allah, envied Adam because Allah honored Adam. He said, `I was created from fire, and he was created from clay.’ Therefore, the first error ever committed was arrogance, for the enemy of Allah was too arrogant to prostrate before Adam.” I – Ibn Kathir – say, the following is recorded in the Sahih,

(No person who has the weight of a mustard seed of arrogance in his heart shall enter Paradise.)

Iblis had disbelief, arrogance, and rebellion, all of which caused him to be expelled from the holy presence of Allah, and His mercy. 

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Adam, may peace be on him, learns the names of everything

بِسْمِ اللَّهِ الرَّحْمَـنِ الرَّحِيمِ  

Bismillah-ir-Rahman-ir-Raheem: In the name of Allah, the Compassionate, the Merciful.  

Welcome to my blog and praise the Magnificent Lord as you enter: Allahu Akbar: Allah is the Greatest .  

May the Peace and Blessing of Allah Azza wa Jal, our Lord Glorified and Praised be He, be upon our beloved Prophet, his Family, and Companions.

Adam, Alaihi Salaam, Learns the Names of Everything.

وَعَلَّمَ ءَادَمَ الأَسْمَآءَ كُلَّهَا ثُمَّ عَرَضَهُمْ عَلَى الْمَلَـئِكَةِ فَقَالَ أَنبِئُونِى بِأَسْمَآءِ هَـؤُلاَءِ إِن كُنتُمْ صَـدِقِينَ

(31. And He taught Adam all the names (of everything), then He showed them to the angels and said, “Tell Me the names of these if you are truthful.”)

 قَالُواْ سُبْحَـنَكَ لاَ عِلْمَ لَنَآ إِلاَّ مَا عَلَّمْتَنَآ إِنَّكَ أَنتَ الْعَلِيمُ الْحَكِيمُ

(32. They (angels) said: “Glory is to You, we have no knowledge except what you have taught us. Verily, You are the Knower, the Wise.”)

قَالَ يَـاءَادَمُ أَنبِئْهُم بِأَسْمَآئِهِمْ فَلَمَّآ أَنبَأَهُم بِأَسْمَآئِهِم قَالَ أَلَمْ أَقُل لَّكُمْ إِنِّي أَعْلَمُ غَيْبَ السَّمَـوَاتِ وَالاٌّرْضِ وَأَعْلَمُ مَا تُبْدُونَ وَمَا كُنتُمْ تَكْتُمُونَ

(33. He said: “O Adam! Inform them of their names,” and when he had informed them of their names, He said: “Did I not tell you that I know the Ghayb (unseen) in the heavens and the earth, and I know what you reveal and what you have been concealing”)

Surah 2 al Baqarah, Verse 31-33

Tafsir Ibn Kathir

Allah stated the virtue of Adam above the angels, because He taught Adam, rather than them, the names of everything. This occurred after they prostrated to him. This discussion precedes that event here, only to show the importance of his position, and the absence of the angels’ knowledge about creating the Khalifah when they asked about it. So Allah informed the angels that He knows what they do not know, and then He mentioned this to show them Adam’s superiority over them in knowledge. Allah said,

(And He taught Adam all the names (of everything)).

Ad-Dahhak said that Ibn `Abbas commented on the Ayah;

(And He taught Adam all the names (of everything)) “Meaning, the names that people use, such as human, animal, sky, earth, land, sea, horse, donkey, and so forth, including the names of the other species.” Ibn Abi Hatim and Ibn Jarir reported that `Asim bin Kulayb narrated from Sa`id bin Ma`bad that Ibn `Abbas was questioned,

(And He taught Adam all the names (of everything)) “Did Allah teach him the names of the plate and the pot” He said, “Yes, and even the terms for breaking wind!”

Allah taught Adam the names of everything, their proper names, the names of their characteristics, and what they do, just as Ibn `Abbas stated about the terms for passing gas.

In his Sahih, Al-Bukhari explained this Ayah in the Book of Tafsir with a report from Anas bin Malik who said that the Messenger of Allah said,

(The believers will gather on the Day of Resurrection and will say, `We should seek a means of intercession with our Lord’ They will go to Adam and say, `O Adam! You are the father of all mankind, Allah created you with His Own Hand, ordered the angels to prostrate for you and taught you the names of everything. Will you not intercede for us with your Lord, so that he relieve us from this gathering place’ On that Adam will reply, `I cannot do what you have asked’. He will have remembered his error and will be embarrassed, saying, `Go to Nuh, for he is the first of Allah’s Messengers whom Allah sent to the people of the earth.’

They will go to Nuh and ask him. He will say, `I cannot do what you have asked.’ He will recall asking Allah what he was not to know, and will also be embarrassed. He will say, `Go to Khalil Ar-Rahman.’

They will go to Ibrahim and he will also say, `I cannot do what you have asked.’ He will say, `Go to Musa, a servant to whom Allah spoke directly and gave the Tawrah.’

Musa will say, `I cannot do what you have asked.’ He will remember that he killed a person without justification and will be embarrassed before his Lord. He will say, `Go to `Isa, Allah’s servant and Messenger and His Word and a spirit of His.’ They will go to `Isa and he will say, `I will not do what you asked.

Go to Muhammad, a servant whose previous and latter errors were forgiven.’

They will come to me, and I will go to Allah and seek His permission and He will give me His permission. When I gaze at my Lord, I will prostrate myself and Allah will allow me to remain like that as much as He will. Then I will be addressed, `O Muhammad! Raise your head; ask, for you will be given what you ask, and intercede, for your intercession will be accepted.’ I will raise my head and thank and praise Allah with such praise as He will inspire me. I will intercede and He will grant me a quantity of people that He will admit into Paradise. I will go back to Him, and when I see my Lord, I will intercede and He will allow me a quantity that He will admit into Paradise. I will do that for a third and then a fourth time. I will say, `There are no more people left in Hell except those whom the Qur’an has incarcerated and have thus acquired eternity in Hell.’) This Hadith was collected by Muslim, An-Nasa’i and Ibn Majah. The reason why we mentioned this Hadith here is the Prophet’s statement,

(They will go to Adam and say, `O Adam! You are the father of all mankind, and Allah created you with His Own Hand, ordered the angels to prostrate for you, and taught you the names of everything). This part of the Hadith testifies to the fact that Allah taught Adam the names of all creatures.

This is why Allah said,

(Then He showed them to the angels) meaning, the objects or creations. `Abdur-Razzaq narrated that Ma`mar said that Qatadah said, “Allah paraded the objects before the angels,

(And said, “Tell Me the names of these if you are truthful”).”

Allah’s statement means, “Tell Me the names of what I paraded before you, O angels who said,

(Will You place therein those who will make mischief therein and shed blood).

You asked, `Are You appointing a Khalifah from us or from other creations We praise and glorify You.

Therefore, Allah said, “If you say the truth, that if I appoint a non-angel Khalifah on the earth, he and his offspring will disobey Me, commit mischief and shed blood, but if I designate you the Khalifahs you will obey Me, follow My command and honor and glorify Me. However, since you do not know the names of the objects I paraded before you, then you have even less knowledge of what will occur on the earth that does not exist yet.”

(They (angels) said: “Glory is to You, we have no knowledge except what you have taught us. Verily, it is You, the Knower, the Wise.”).

Here the angels are praising Allah’s holiness, and perfection above every kind of deficiency, affirming that no creature could ever acquire any part of Allah’s knowledge, except by His permission, nor could anyone know anything except what Allah teaches them. This is why they said,

(“Glory is to You, we have no knowledge except what you have taught us. Verily You are the Knower, the Wise) meaning, Allah is knowledgeable of everything, Most Wise about His creation, and He makes the wisest decisions, and He teaches and deprives whom He wills from knowledge. Verily, Allah’s wisdom and justice in all matters is perfect.

Allah said,

(He said: “O Adam! Inform them of their names,” and when he had informed them of their names, He said: “Did I not tell you that I know the Ghayb (unseen) in the heavens and the earth, and I know what you reveal and what you have been concealing”)

Zayd bin Aslam said, “You are Jibril, you are Mika’il, you are Israfil, until he mentioned the name of the crow.” Mujahid said that Allah’s statement,

(He said: “O Adam! Inform them of their names,”) “The name of the pigeon, the crow and everything.” Statements of a similar meaning were reported from Sa`id bin Jubayr, Al-Hasan, and Qatadah. When Adam’s virtue over the angels became apparent, as he mentioned the names that Allah taught him, Allah said to the angels,

(Did I not tell you that I know the Ghayb (unseen) in the heavens and the earth, and I know what you reveal and what you have been concealing)

This means, “Did I not state that I know the seen and unseen matters. ” Similarly, Allah said,

(And I know what you reveal and what you have been concealing).

It is reported from Ad-Dahhak that Ibn `Abbas said that,

(And I know what you reveal and what you have been concealing) means, “`I know the secrets, just as I know the apparent things, such as, what Iblis concealed in his heart of arrogance and pride.” Abu Ja`far Ar-Razi narrated that Ar-Rabi` bin Anas said that,

(And I know what you reveal and what you have been concealing) means, “The apparent part of what they said was: `Do you create in it that which would commit mischief and shed blood’ The hidden meaning was: `We have more knowledge and honor than any creation our Lord would create.’ But they came to know that Allah favored Adam above them regarding knowledge and honor.”

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The Disobedience of Iblis, the Devil, and his Promise

بِسْمِ اللَّهِ الرَّحْمَـنِ الرَّحِيمِ  

Bismillah-ir-Rahman-ir-Raheem: In the name of Allah, the Compassionate, the Merciful.  

Welcome to my blog and praise the Magnificent Lord as you enter: Allahu Akbar: Allah is the Greatest .  

May the Peace and Blessing of Allah Azza wa Jal, our Lord Glorified and Praised be He, be upon our beloved Prophet, his Family, and Companions.

The Disbobedience of Iblis, the Devil, and his Promise.

وَلَقَدْ خَلَقْنَـكُمْ ثُمَّ صَوَّرْنَـكُمْ ثُمَّ قُلْنَا لِلْمَلَـئِكَةِ اسْجُدُواْ لأَدَمَ فَسَجَدُواْ إِلاَ إِبْلِيسَ لَمْ يَكُن مِّنَ السَّـجِدِينَ

(11. And surely, We created you and then gave you shape; then We told the angels, “Prostrate yourselves to Adam,” and they prostrated, except Iblis (Shaytan), he refused to be of those who prostrated.)

Surah 7 Al-Araf, Verse 11

Tafsir Ibn Kathir

Allah informs the Children of Adam about the honor of their father and the enmity of Shaytan, who still has envy for them and for their father Adam. So they should beware of him and not follow in his footsteps. Allah said,

(And surely, We created you and then gave you shape; then We told the angels, “Prostrate yourselves to Adam,” and they prostrated,) This is like His saying,

(And (remember) when your Lord said to the angels: “I am going to create a man from dried (sounding) clay of altered mud. So, when I have fashioned him completely and breathed into him the soul (which I created for him), then fall (you) down prostrating yourselves unto him.”) [15:28-29].

After Allah created Adam with His Hands from dried clay of altered mud and made him in the shape of a human being, He blew life into him and ordered the angels to prostrate before him, honoring Allah’s glory and magnificence. The angels all heard, obeyed and prostrated, but Iblis did not prostrate.

قَالَ مَا مَنَعَكَ أَلاَّ تَسْجُدَ إِذْ أَمَرْتُكَ قَالَ أَنَاْ خَيْرٌ مِّنْهُ خَلَقْتَنِي مِن نَّارٍ وَخَلَقْتَهُ مِن طِينٍ

(12. (Allah) said: “What prevented you (O Iblis) that you did not prostrate, when I commanded you” Iblis said: “I am better than him (Adam), You created me from fire, and him You created from clay.”)

Surah 7 Al-Araf, Verse 12

Tafsir Ibn Kathir

(What prevented you (O Iblis) that you did not prostrate) [7: 12] meaning, what stopped and hindered you from prostrating after I ordered you to do so, according to Ibn Jarir. This meaning is sound, and Allah knows best. Iblis, may Allah curse him, said,

(I am better than him (Adam)), and this excuse is worse than the crime itself! Shaytan said that he did not obey Allah because he who is better cannot prostrate to he who is less. Shaytan, may Allah curse him, meant that he is better than Adam, “So how can You order me to prostrate before him” Shaytan said that he is better than Adam because he was created from fire while, “You created him from clay, and fire is better.” The cursed one looked at the origin of creation not at the honor bestowed, that is, Allah creating Adam with His Hand and blowing life into him. Shaytan made a false comparison when confronted by Allah’s command,

(“Then you fall down prostrate to him”)[38:72]. Therefore, Shaytan alone contradicted the angels, because he refused to prostrate. He, thus, became `Ablasa’ from the mercy, meaning, lost hope in acquiring Allah’s mercy. He committed this error, may Allah curse him, due to his false comparison. His claim that the fire is more honored than mud was also false, because mud has the qualities of wisdom, for – bearance, patience and assurance, mud is where plants grow, flourish, increase, and provide good. To the contrary, fire has the qualities of burning, recklessness and hastiness. Therefore, the origin of creation directed Shaytan to failure, while the origin of Adam led him to return to Allah with repentance, humbleness, obedience and submission to His command, admitting his error and seeking Allah’s forgiveness and pardon for it. Muslim recorded that `Aishah said that the Messenger of Allah said,

(The angels were created from light, Shaytan from a smokeless flame of fire, while Adam was created from what was described to you).

Ibn Jarir recorded that Al-Hasan commented on Shaytan’s statement,

(“You created me from fire, and him You created from clay.”) “Iblis used Qiyas [analogy], and he was the first one to do so.” This statement has an authentic chain of narration. Ibn Jarir recorded that Ibn Sirin said, “The first to use Qiyas was Iblis, and would the sun and moon be worshipped if it was not for Qiyas” This statement also has an authentic chain of narration.

قَالَ فَاهْبِطْ مِنْهَا فَمَا يَكُونُ لَكَ أَن تَتَكَبَّرَ فِيهَا فَاخْرُجْ إِنَّكَ مِنَ الصَّـغِرِينَ

(13. (Allah) said: “(O Iblis) get down from this (Paradise), it is not for you to be arrogant here. Get out, for you are of those humiliated and disgraced.”)

 قَالَ أَنظِرْنِى إِلَى يَوْمِ يُبْعَثُونَ

(14. (Iblis) said: “Allow me respite till the Day they are raised up (the Day of Resurrection).”)

قَالَ إِنَّكَ مِنَ المُنظَرِينَ

(15. (Allah) said: “You are of those respited.”)

Surah 7 Al-Araf, verse 13-15

Tafsir Ibn Kathir

Allah ordered Iblis;

(Get down from this) “because you defied My command and disobeyed Me. Get out, it is not for you to be arrogant here,” in Paradise, according to the scholars of Tafsir. It could also refer to particular status which he held in the utmost highs. Allah said to Iblis,

(Get out, for you are of those humiliated and disgraced.) as just recompense for his ill intentions, by giving him the opposite of what he intended (arrogance). This is when the cursed one remembered and asked for respite until the Day of Judgment,

(Then allow me respite till the Day they are raised up. (Allah) said: “Then you are of those respited.”) [15: 36-37] Allah gave Shaytan what he asked for out of His wisdom, being His decision and decree, that is never prevented or resisted. Surely, none can avert His decision, and He is swift in reckoning.

قَالَ فَبِمَآ أَغْوَيْتَنِى لأَقْعُدَنَّ لَهُمْ صِرَطَكَ الْمُسْتَقِيمَ

(16. (Iblis) said: “Because You have `Aghwaytni’, surely, I will sit in wait against them (human beings) on Your straight path.)

ثُمَّ لآتِيَنَّهُم مِّن بَيْنِ أَيْدِيهِمْ وَمِنْ خَلْفِهِمْ وَعَنْ أَيْمَـنِهِمْ وَعَن شَمَآئِلِهِمْ وَلاَ تَجِدُ أَكْثَرَهُمْ شَـكِرِينَ

(17. “Then I will come to them from before them and behind them, from their right and from their left, and You will not find most of them to be thankful.”)

Surah 7 Al-Araf, Verse 16-17

Tafsir Ibn Kathir

Allah said that after He gave respite to Shaytan,

till the Day they are raised up (resurrected)) and Iblis was sure that he got what he wanted, he went on in defiance and rebellion. He said,

(Because You have `Aghwaytani’, surely, I will sit in wait against them (human beings) on Your straight path.”) meaning, as You have sent me astray. Ibn `Abbas said that `Aghwaytani’ means, “Misguided me.” Others said, “As You caused my ruin, I will sit in wait for Your servants whom You will create from the offspring of the one you expelled me for.” He went on,

(Your straight path), the path of truth and the way of safety. I (Iblis) will misguide them from this path so that they do not worship You Alone, because You sent me astray. Mujahid said that the `straight path’, refers to the truth.

Ali bin Abi Talhah reported that Ibn `Abbas commented on:

(Then I will come to them from before them) Raising doubts in them concerning their Hereafter,

(and (from) behind them), making them more eager for this life,

(from their right), causing them confusion in the religion,

(and from their left) luring them to commit sins.” This is meant to cover all paths of good and evil. Shaytan discourages the people from the path of good and lures them to the path of evil. Al-Hakam bin Abban said that `Ikrimah narrated from Ibn `Abbas concerning the Ayah,

(Then I will come to them from before them and behind them, from their right and from their left,) “He did not say that he will come from above them, because the mercy descends from above.” `Ali bin Abi Talhah reported that Ibn `Abbas said,

(and You will not find most of them to be thankful.) “means, those who single Him out [in worship].” When Shaytan said this, it was a guess and an assumption on his part. Yet, the truth turned out to be the same, for Allah said,

(And indeed Iblis (Shaytan) did prove true his thought about them, and they followed him, all except a group of true believers. And he had no authority over them, except that We might test him who believes in the Hereafter, from him who is in doubt about it. And your Lord is Watchful over everything.) [34:20-21].  This is why there is a Hadith that encourages seeking refuge with Allah from the lures of Shaytan from all directions. Imam Ahmad narrated that `Abdullah bin `Umar said, “The Messenger of Allah used to often recite this supplication in the morning and when the night falls,

اللَّهُمَّ إِنِّي أَسْأَلُكَ الْعَافِيَةَ فِي الدُّنْيَا وَالْآخِرَةِ، اللَّهُمَّ إِنِّي أَسْأَلُكَ الْعَفْوَ وَالْعَافِيَةَ فِي دِينِي وَدُنْيَايَ وَأَهْلِي وَمَالِي، اللَّهُمَّ اسْتُرْ عَوْرَاتِي وَآمِنْ رَوْعَاتِي، اللَّهُمَّ احْفَظْنِي مِنْ بَيْنِ يَدَيَّ وَمِنْ خَلْفِي وَعَنْ يَمِينِي وَعَنْ شِمَالِي وَمِنْ فَوْقِي وَأَعُوذُ بِعَظَمتِكَ أَنْ أُغْتَالَ مِنْ تَحْتِي

(O Allah! I ask You for well-being in this life and the Hereafter. O Allah! I ask You for pardon and well-being in my religion, life, family and wealth. O Allah! Cover my errors and reassure me in times of difficulty. O Allah! Protect me from before me, from behind me, from my right, from my left and from above me. I seek refuge with Your greatness from being killed from below me.)” Waki` commented (about being killed from below), “This refers to earthquakes.” Abu Dawud, An-Nasa’i, Ibn Majah, Ibn Hibban and Al-Hakim collected this Hadith, and Al-Hakim said, “Its chain is Sahih. ”

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Allah, Glorified and Praised, talks to the Angels

بِسْمِ اللَّهِ الرَّحْمَـنِ الرَّحِيمِ  

Bismillah-ir-Rahman-ir-Raheem: In the name of Allah, the Compassionate, the Merciful.  

Welcome to my blog and praise the Magnificent Lord as you enter: Allahu Akbar: Allah is the Greatest .  

May the Peace and Blessing of Allah Azza wa Jal, our Lord Glorified and Praised be He, be upon our beloved Prophet, his Family, and Companions.

Allah, Glorified and Praised, talks to the Angels.

وَإِذْ قَالَ رَبُّكَ لِلْمَلَـئِكَةِ إِنِّي جَاعِلٌ فِى الأَرْضِ خَلِيفَةً قَالُواْ أَتَجْعَلُ فِيهَا مَن يُفْسِدُ فِيهَا وَيَسْفِكُ الدِّمَآءَ وَنَحْنُ نُسَبِّحُ بِحَمْدِكَ وَنُقَدِّسُ لَكَ قَالَ إِنِّي أَعْلَمُ مَا لاَ تَعْلَمُونَ

(30. And (remember) when your Lord said to the angels: “Verily, I am going to place (mankind) generations after generations on earth.” They said: “Will You place therein those who will make mischief therein and shed blood, ـ while we glorify You with praises and thanks and sanctify You.” He (Allah) said: “I know that which you do not know.”)

Surah 2 Al-Baqarah, Verse 30 

Tafsir Ibn Kathir 

Allah reiterated His favor on the Children of Adam when He stated that He mentioned them in the highest of heights before He created them. Allah said, 

(And (remember) when your Lord said to the angels.) 

This Ayah means, “O Muhammad ! Mention to your people what Allah said to the angels, 

(Verily, I am going to place a Khalifah on earth). 

Meaning people reproducing generation after generation, century after century, just as Allah said, 

 (And it is He Who has made you (Khala’if) generations coming after generations, replacing each other on the earth) (6:165), 

 (And makes you (Khulafa’) inheritors of the earth) (27:62), 

(And if it were Our will, We would have (destroyed you (mankind all, and) made angels to replace you (Yakhlufun) on the earth.) (43: 60) and, 

(Then after them succeeded an (evil) generation (Khalf)) (7:169). It appears that Allah was not refering to Adam specifically as Khalifah, otherwise he would not have allowed the angels’ statement, 

(Will You place therein those who will make mischief therein and shed blood). 

The angels meant that this type of creature usually commits the atrocities they mentioned. The angels knew of this fact, according to their understanding of human nature, for Allah stated that He would create man from clay. Or, the angels understood this fact from the word Khalifah, which also means the person who judges disputes that occur between people, forbidding them from injustice and sin, as Al-Qurtubi said. 

The statement the angels uttered was not a form of disputing with Allah’s, nor out of envy for the Children of Adam, as some mistakenly thought. Allah has described them as those who do not precede Him in speaking, meaning that they do not ask Allah anything without His permission. When Allah informed them that He was going to create a creation on the earth, and they had knowledge that this creation would commit mischief on it, as Qatadah mentioned, they said, 

(Will You place therein those who will make mischief therein and shed blood)

This is only a question for the sake of learning about the wisdom of that, as if they said, Our Lord! What is the wisdom of creating such creatures since they will cause trouble in the earth and spill blood “If the wisdom behind this action is that You be worshipped, we praise and glorify You (meaning we pray to You) we never indulge in mischief, so why create other creatures”

Allah said to the angels in answer to their inquiry, 

(I know that which you do not know.) meaning, “I know that the benefit of creating this type of creature outweighs the harm that you mentioned, that which you have no knowledge of. I will create among them Prophets and send Messengers. I will also create among them truthful, martyrs, righteous believers, worshippers, the modest, the pious, the scholars who implement their knowledge, humble people and those who love Allah and follow His Messengers.”

The Sahih recorded that when the angels ascend to Allah with the records of the servant’s deeds, Allah asks them, while having better knowledge, “How did you leave My servants” They will say, “We came to them while they were praying and left them while they were praying.” This is because the angels work in shifts with mankind, and they change shifts during the Fajr and `Asr prayers. The angels who descended will remain with us, while the angels who have remained with us ascend with our deeds. The Messenger of Allah said,

(The deeds of the night are elevated to Allah before the morning, and the deeds of the morning before the night falls. )

Hence, the angels’ statement, “We came to them while they were praying and left them while they were praying,” explains Allah’s statement,

I know that which you do not know.)

It was said that the meaning of Allah’s statement,

 (I know that which you do not know.) is, “I have a specific wisdom in creating them, which you do not have knowledge of.” It was also said that it is in answer to,

(While we glorify You with praises and thanks and sanctify You) after which Allah said,

(I know that which you do not know). Meaning, “I know that Iblis is not as you are, although he is among you.” Others said, 

“(Will You place therein those who will make mischief therein and shed blood, ـ while we glorify you with praises and thanks and sanctify You.) is their request that they should be allowed to inhabit the earth, instead of the Children of Adam. So Allah said to them,

(I know that which you do not know) if your inhabiting the heavens is better, or worse for you.” Ar-Razi as well as others said this. Allah knows best.

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Allah, Glorified and Praised, is the Light of the Heavens and the Earth

بِسْمِ اللَّهِ الرَّحْمَـنِ الرَّحِيمِ 

Bismillah-ir-Rahman-ir-Raheem: In the name of Allah, the Compassionate, the Merciful. 

Welcome to my blog and praise the Magnificent Lord as you enter: Allahu Akbar: Allah is the Greatest . 

May the Peace and Blessing of Allah Azza wa Jal, our Lord Glorified and Praised be He, be upon our beloved Prophet, his Family, and Companions.

Allah, Glorified and Praised, is the Light of the Heavens and the Earth.

اللَّهُ نُورُ السَّمَـوَتِ وَالاٌّرْضِ مَثَلُ نُورِهِ كَمِشْكَاةٍ فِيهَا مِصْبَاحٌ الْمِصْبَاحُ فِى زُجَاجَةٍ الزُّجَاجَةُ كَأَنَّهَا كَوْكَبٌ دُرِّىٌّ يُوقَدُ مِن شَجَرَةٍ مُّبَـرَكَةٍ زَيْتُونَةٍ لاَّ شَرْقِيَّةٍ وَلاَ غَرْبِيَّةٍ يَكَادُ زَيْتُهَا يُضِىءُ وَلَوْ لَمْ تَمْسَسْهُ نَارٌ نُّورٌ عَلَى نُورٍ يَهْدِى اللَّهُ لِنُورِهِ مَن يَشَآءُ وَيَضْرِبُ اللَّهُ الاٌّمْثَالَ لِلنَّاسِ وَاللَّهُ بِكُلِّ شَىْءٍ عَلَيِمٌ

(35. Allah is the Light of the heavens and the earth. The parable of His Light is as a niche and within it a lamp: the lamp is in a glass, the glass as it were a star Durriyyun, lit from a blessed tree, an olive, neither of the east nor of the west, whose oil would almost glow forth, though no fire touched it. Light upon Light! Allah guides to His Light whom He wills. And Allah sets forth parables for mankind, and Allah is All-Knower of everything.)

Surah 24 An-Noor, Verse 35

Tafsir Ibn Kathir

`Ali bin Abi Talhah reported that Ibn `Abbas said:

(Allah is the Light of the heavens and the earth.) means, the Guide of the inhabitants of the heavens and the earth. Ibn Jurayj said: “Mujahid and Ibn `Abbas said concerning the Ayah:

(Allah is the Light of the heavens and the earth.) He is controlling their affairs and their stars and sun and moon.” As-Suddi said concerning the Ayah:

(Allah is the Light of the heavens and the earth.) by His Light the heavens and earth are illuminated. In the Two Sahihs, it is recorded that Ibn `Abbas, may Allah be pleased with him, said: “When the Messenger of Allah got up to pray at night, he would say:

(O Allah, to You be praise, You are the Sustainer of heaven and earth and whoever is in them. To You be praise, You are the Light of the heavens and the earth and whoever is in them. ) It was narrated that Ibn Mas`ud said, “There is no night or day with your Lord; the Light of the Throne comes from the Light of His Face.”

(The parable of His Light) There are two views concerning the meaning of the pronoun (His). The first is that it refers to Allah, may He be glorified and exalted, meaning that the parable of His guidance in the heart of the believer is

(as a niche) This was the view of Ibn `Abbas. The second view is that the pronoun refers to the believer, which is indicated by the context of the words and implies that the parable of the light in the heart of the believer is as a niche. So the heart of the believer and what he is naturally inclined to of guidance and what he learns of the Qur’an which is in accordance with his natural inclinations are, as Allah says:

(Can they who rely on a clear proof from their Lord, and whom a witness from Him recites it (can they be equal with the disbelievers)) [11:17]. The heart of the believer in its purity and clarity is likened to a lamp in transparent and jewel-like glass, and the Qur’an and Shari`ah by which it is guided are likened to good, pure, shining oil in which there is no impurity or deviation.

(as (if there were) a niche) Ibn `Abbas, Mujahid, Muhammad bin Ka`b and others said, “This refers to the position of the wick in the lamp.” This is well-known, and hence Allah then says:

(and within it a lamp.) This is the flame that burns brightly. Or it was said that the niche is a niche in the house. This is the parable given by Allah of obedience towards Him. Allah calls obedience to Him as light, then He calls it by other numerous names as well. Ubayy bin Ka`b said, “The lamp is the light, and this refers to the Qur’an and the faith that is in his heart.” As-Suddi said, “It is the lamp.”

(the lamp is in a glass,) means, this light is shining in a clear glass. Ubayy bin Ka`b and others said, “This is the likeness of the heart of the believer.”

(the glass as it were a star Durriyyun,) Some authorities recite the word Durriyyun with a Dammah on the Dal and without a Hamzah, which means pearls, i.e., as if it were a star made of pearls (Durr). Others recite it as Dirri’un or Durri’un, with a Kasrah on the Dal, or Dammah on the Dal, and with a Hamzah at the end, which means reflection (Dir’), because if something is shone on the star it becomes brighter than at any other time. The Arabs call the stars they do not know Darari. Ubayy bin Ka`b said: a shining star. Qatadah said: “Huge, bright and clear.”

(lit from a blessed tree,) means, it is derived from olive oil, from a blessed tree.

(an olive,) This refers to the blessed tree mentioned previously.

(neither of the east nor of the west,) means, it is not in the eastern part of the land so that it does not get any sun in the first part of the day, nor is it in the western part of the land so that it is shaded from the sun before sunset, but it is in a central position where it gets sun from the beginning of the day until the end, so its oil is good and pure and shining. Ibn Abi Hatim recorded that Ibn `Abbas commented on:

(an olive, neither of the east nor of the west,) “This is a tree in the desert which is not shaded by any other tree or mountain or cave, nothing covers it, and this is best for its oil.” Mujahid commented on:

(neither of the east nor of the west, ) saying; “It is not in the east where it will get no sun when the sun sets, nor is it in the west where it will get no sun when the sun rises, but it is in a position where it will get sun both at sunrise and sunset.” Sa`id bin Jubayr commented:

(an olive, neither of the east nor of the west, whose oil would almost glow forth (of itself)) “This is the best kind of oil. When the sun rises it reaches the tree from the east and when it sets it reaches it from the west, so the sun reaches it morning and evening, so it is not counted as being in the east or in the west.”

(whose oil would almost glow forth (of itself), though no fire touched it.) `Abdur-Rahman bin Zayd bin Aslam said (this means) because the oil itself is shining.

(Light upon Light!) Al-`Awfi narrated from Ibn `Abbas that this meant the faith and deeds of a person. As-Suddi said:

(Light upon Light!) “Light of the fire and the light of the oil: when they are combined they give light, and neither of them can give light without the other. Similarly the light of the Qur’an and the light of faith give light when they are combined, and neither can do so without the other.”

(Allah guides to His Light whom He wills.) means, Allah shows the way to the ones whom He chooses, as it says in the Hadith recorded by Imam Ahmad from `Abdullah bin `Amr, who said, “I heard the Messenger of Allah say:

(Allah created His creation in darkness, then on the same day He sent His Light upon them. Whoever was touched by His Light on that day will be guided and whoever was missed will be led astray. Hence I say: the pens have dried in accordance with the knowledge of Allah, may He be glorified.)”

(And Allah sets forth parables for mankind, and Allah is All-Knower of everything.) Having mentioned this parable of the Light of His guidance in the heart of the believer, Allah ends this Ayah with the words:

(And Allah sets forth parables for mankind, and Allah is All-Knower of everything.) meaning, He knows best who deserves to be guided and who deserves to be led astray. Imam Ahmad recorded that Abu Sa`id Al-Khudri said, “The Messenger of Allah said:

(Hearts are of four kinds: the heart that is clear like a shining lamp; the heart that is covered and tied up; the heart that is upside-down; and the heart that is clad in armor. As for the clear heart, it is the heart of the believer in which is a lamp filled with light; as for the covered heart, this is the heart of the disbeliever; as for the upside-down heart, this is the heart of the hypocrite, who recognizes then denies; as for the armor-clad heart, this is the heart in which there is both faith and hypocrisy. The parable of the faith in it is that of legume, a sprout that is irrigated with good water, and the likeness of the hypocrisy in it is that of sores that are fed by blood and pus. Whichever of the two prevails is the characteristic that will dominate.) Its chain of narrators is good (Jayyid) although they (Al-Bukhari and Muslim) did not record it.

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Supplication when going to the mosque

‘O Allaah, place within my heart light, and upon my tongue light, and within my ears light, and within my eyes light, and place behind me light and in front of me light and above me light and beneath me light. O Allaah, bestow upon me light.’

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The Quranic Verses

بِسْمِ اللَّهِ الرَّحْمَـنِ الرَّحِيمِ 

Bismillah-ir-Rahman-ir-Raheem: In the name of Allah, the Compassionate, the Merciful. 

Welcome to my blog and praise the Magnificent Lord as you enter: Allahu Akbar: Allah is the Greatest . 

May the Peace and Blessing of Allah Azza wa Jal, our Lord Glorified and Praised be He, be upon our beloved Prophet, his Family, and Companions.

The Quranic Verses.

هُوَ الَّذِى أَنزَلَ عَلَيْكَ الْكِتَـبَ مِنْهُ آيَـتٌ مُّحْكَمَـتٌ هُنَّ أُمُّ الْكِتَـبِ وَأُخَرُ مُتَشَـبِهَـتٌ فَأَمَّا الَّذِينَ فى قُلُوبِهِمْ زَيْغٌ فَيَتَّبِعُونَ مَا تَشَـبَهَ مِنْهُ ابْتِغَآءَ الْفِتْنَةِ وَابْتِغَآءَ تَأْوِيلِهِ وَمَا يَعْلَمُ تَأْوِيلَهُ إِلاَّ اللَّهُ وَالرَسِخُونَ فِي الْعِلْمِ يَقُولُونَ ءَامَنَّا بِهِ كُلٌّ مِّنْ عِندِ رَبِّنَا وَمَا يَذَّكَّرُ إِلاَّ أُوْلُواْ الأَلْبَـبِ 

(7. It is He Who has sent down to you the Book. In it are verses that are entirely clear, they are the foundations of the Book; and others not entirely clear. So as for those in whose hearts there is a deviation (from the truth) they follow (only) that which is not entirely clear thereof, seeking Al-Fitnah, and seeking its Ta’wil, but none knows its Ta’wil except Allah. And those who are firmly grounded in knowledge say: “We believe in it; all of it is from our Lord.” And none receive admonition except men of understanding.) 

رَبَّنَا لاَ تُزِغْ قُلُوبَنَا بَعْدَ إِذْ هَدَيْتَنَا وَهَبْ لَنَا مِن لَّدُنكَ رَحْمَةً إِنَّكَ أَنتَ الْوَهَّابُ 

(8. (They say): “Our Lord! Let not our hearts deviate (from the truth) after You have guided us, and grant us mercy from You. Truly, You are the Bestower.”) 

Surah 3 Ala Imran, Verse 7-8 

Tafsir Ibn Kathir 

Allah states that in the Qur’an, there are Ayat that are Muhkamat, entirely clear and plain, and these are the foundations of the Book which are plain for everyone. And there are Ayat in the Qur’an that are Mutashabihat not entirely clear for many, or some people. So those who refer to the Muhkam Ayat to understand the Mutashabih Ayat, will have acquired the correct guidance, and vice versa. This is why Allah said, 

They are the foundations of the Book), meaning, they are the basis of the Qur’an, and should be referred to for clarification, when warranted, 

(And others not entirely clear) as they have several meanings, some that agree with the Muhkam and some that carry other literal indications, although these meaning might not be desired. 

The Muhkamat are the Ayat that explain the abrogating rulings, the allowed, prohibited, laws, limits, obligations and rulings that should be believed in and implemented. As for the Mutashabihat Ayat, they include the abrogated Ayat, parables, oaths, and what should be believed in, but not implemented. 

Muhammad bin Ishaq bin Yasar commented on, 

(In it are verses that are entirely clear) as “Containing proof of the Lord, immunity for the servants and a refutation of opponents and of falsehood. They cannot be changed or altered from what they were meant for.” He also said, “As for the unclear Ayat (verses), they can (but must not) be altered and changed, and this is a test from Allah to the servants, just as He tested them with the allowed and prohibited things. So these Ayat must not be altered to imply a false meaning or be distorted from the truth.” 

Therefore, Allah said, 

(So as for those in whose hearts there is a deviation) meaning, those who are misguided and deviate from truth to falsehood, 

(they follow that which is not entirely clear thereof) meaning, they refer to the Mutashabih, because they are able to alter its meanings to conform with their false interpretation since the wordings of the Mutashabihat encompass such a wide area of meanings. As for the Muhkam Ayat, they cannot be altered because they are clear and, thus, constitute unequivocal proof against the misguided people. This is why Allah said, 

(seeking Al-Fitnah) meaning, they seek to misguide their following by pretending to prove their innovation by relying on the Qur’an — the Mutashabih of it — but, this is proof against and not for them. For instance, Christians might claim that [`Isa is divine because] the Qur’an states that he is Ruhullah and His Word, which He gave to Mary, all the while ignoring Allah’s statements, 

(He [`Isa] was not more than a servant. We granted Our favor to him.) [43:59], and, 

(Verily, the likeness of `Isa before Allah is the likeness of Adam. He created him from dust, then (He) said to him: “Be!” and he was.) [3:59]. 

There are other Ayat that clearly assert that `Isa is but one of Allah’s creatures and that he is the servant and Messenger of Allah, among other Messengers. 

Allah’s statement, 

(And seeking for its Ta’wil,) to alter them as they desire. Imam Ahmad recorded that `A’ishah said, “The Messenger of Allah recited, 

(It is He Who has sent down to you the Book. In it are verses that are entirely clear, they are the foundations of the Book; and others not entirely clear,), until, 

(Men of understanding) and he said, 

When you see those who argue in it (using the Mutashabihat), then they are those whom Allah meant. Therefore, beware of them.)” 

Al-Bukhari recorded a similar Hadith in the Tafsir of this Ayah [3:7], as did Muslim in the book of Qadar (the Divine Will) in his Sahih, and Abu Dawud in the Sunnah section of his Sunan, from `A’ishah; “The Messenger of Allah recited this Ayah, 

(It is He Who has sent down to you the Book. In it are verses that are entirely clear,) until, 

(And none receive admonition except men of understanding.)

He then said,

(When you see those who follow what is not so clear of the Qur’an, then they are those whom Allah described, so beware of them.)”

This is the wording recorded by Al-Bukhari.

Allah said,

(But none knows its Ta’wil except Allah.)

Similarly, as preceded in what has been reported from Ibn `Abbas, “Tafsir is of four types: Tafsir that the Arabs know in their language; Tafsir that no one is excused of being ignorant of; Tafsir that the scholars know; and Tafsir that only Allah knows.” Scholars of Qur’an recitation have different opinions about pausing at Allah’s Name in this Ayah. This stop was reported from `A’ishah, `Urwah, Abu Ash-Sha`tha’ and Abu Nahik.

Some pause after reciting,

 (And those who are firmly grounded in knowledge) saying that the Qur’an does not address the people with what they cannot understand. Ibn Abi Najih said that Mujahid said that Ibn `Abbas said, “I am among those who are firmly grounded in its Ta’wil interpretation.” The Messenger of Allah supplicated for the benefit of Ibn `Abbas,

(O Allah! Bestow on him knowledge in the religion and teach him the Ta’wil (interpretation).)

Ta’wil has two meanings in the Qur’an, the true reality of things, and what they will turn out to be. For instance, Allah said,

(And he said: “O my father! This is the Ta’wil of my dream aforetime!”.) [12:100], and,

(Await they just for it’s Ta’wil On the Day (Day of Resurrection) it’s Ta’wil is finally fulfillled.)(7:53) refers to the true reality of Resurrection that they were told about. If this is the meaning desired in the Ayah above [3:7], then pausing after reciting Allah’s Name is warranted, because only Allah knows the true reality of things. In this case, Allah’s statement, 

(And those who are firmly grounded in knowledge) is connected to His statement,

(say: “We believe in it”) If the word Ta’wil means the second meaning, that is, explaining and describing, such as what Allah said,

((They said): “Inform us of the Ta’wil of this”) meaning its explanation, then pausing after reciting,

(And those who are firmly grounded in knowledge) is warranted. This is because the scholars have general knowledge in, and understand what they were addressed with, even though they do not have knowledge of the true reality of things. Therefore, Allah’s statement,

(say: “We believe in it”) describes the conduct of the scholars. Similarly, Allah said,

(And your Lord comes, and the angels, in rows.) [89:22] means, your Lord will come, and the angels will come in rows.

Allah’s statement that the knowledgeable people proclaim,

(We believe in it) means, they believe in the Mutashabih.

(all of it is from our Lord) meaning, both the Muhkam and the Mutashabih are true and authentic, and each one of them testifies to the truth of the other. This is because they both are from Allah and nothing that comes from Allah is ever met by contradiction or discrepancy. Allah said,

(Do they not then consider the Qur’an carefully Had it been from other than Allah, they would surely have found therein many a contradiction.) [4:82].

Allah said in his Ayah [3:7],

(And none receive admonition except men of understanding. ) meaning, those who have good minds and sound comprehension, understand, contemplate and comprehend the meaning in the correct manner. Further, Ibn Al-Mundhir recorded in his Tafsir that Nafi` bin Yazid said, “Those firmly grounded in knowledge are those who are modest for Allah’s sake, humbly seek His pleasure, and do not exaggerate regarding those above them, or belittle those below them.”

Allah said that they supplicate to their Lord,

(Our Lord! Let not our hearts deviate (from the truth) after You have guided us.) meaning, “Do not deviate our hearts from the guidance after You allowed them to acquire it. Do not make us like those who have wickedness in their hearts, those who follow the Mutashabih in the Qur’an. Rather, make us remain firmly on Your straight path and true religion.”

(And grant us from Ladunka) meaning, from You,

(Mercy) with which You make our hearts firm, and increase in our Faith and certainty, 

(Truly, You are the Bestower)

Ibn Abi Hatim and Ibn Jarir recorded that Umm Salamah said that the Prophet used to supplicate,

 «يَا مُقَلِّبَ الْقُلُوبِ ثَبِّتْ قَلْبِي عَلَى دِينِك»

(O You Who changes the hearts, make my heart firm on Your religion.)

He then recited,

رَبَّنَا لاَ تُزِغْ قُلُوبَنَا بَعْدَ إِذْ هَدَيْتَنَا وَهَبْ لَنَا مِن لَّدُنكَ رَحْمَةً إِنَّكَ أَنتَ الْوَهَّابُ

(“Our Lord! Let not our hearts deviate (from the truth) after You have guided us, and grant us mercy from You. Truly, You are the Bestower.”) The Ayah continues,

رَبَّنَآ إِنَّكَ جَامِعُ النَّاسِ لِيَوْمٍ لاَّ رَيْبَ فِيهِ

(“Our Lord! Verily, it is You Who will gather mankind together on the Day about which there is no doubt”) meaning, they say in their supplication: O our Lord! You will gather Your creation on the Day of Return, judge between them and decide over what they disputed about. Thereafter, You will reward or punish each according to the deeds they did in this life.

 Aameen

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The Exalted Character of the Final Messenger

بِسْمِ اللَّهِ الرَّحْمَـنِ الرَّحِيمِ

Bismillah-ir-Rahman-ir-Raheem: In the name of Allah, the Compassionate, the Merciful.

Welcome to my blog and praise the Magnificent Lord as you enter: Allahu Akbar: Allah is the Greatest .

May the Peace and Blessing of Allah Azza wa Jal, our Lord Glorified and Praised be He, be upon our beloved Prophet, his Family, and Companions.

The Exalted Character of the Final Messenger, Prophet Muhammed, May the Peace and Blessings of Allah, Glorified and Praised, be upon him.

وَإِنَّكَ لَعَلَى خُلُقٍ عَظِيمٍ

(4. And verily, you are on an exalted character.)

Surah 68 Al Qalam, Verse 4

Tafsir Ibn Kathir

Concerning Allah’s statement,

(And verily, you are on an exalted (standard of) character.) Al-`Awfi reported from Ibn `Abbas, “Verily, you are on a great religion, and it is Islam.” Likewise said Mujahid, Abu Malik, As-Suddi and Ar-Rabi` bin Anas. Ad-Dahhak and Ibn Zayd also said this. Sa`id bin Abi `Arubah reported from Qatadah that he said concerning Allah’s statement,

(And verily, you are on an exalted (standard of) character.) “It has been mentioned to us that Sa`d bin Hisham asked `A’ishah about the character of the Messenger of Allah , so she replied: `Have you not read the Qur’an’ Sa`d said: `Of course.’ Then she said: `Verily, the character of the Messenger of Allah was the Qur’an.”’ `Abdur-Razzaq recorded similar to this and Imam Muslim recorded it in his Sahih on the authority of Qatadah in its full length.

This means that he would act according to the commands and the prohibition in the Qur’an. His nature and character were patterned according to the Qur’an, and he abandoned his natural disposition (i.e., the carnal nature). So whatever the Qur’an commanded, he did it, and whatever it forbade, he avoided it. Along with this, Allah gave him the exalted character, which included the qualities of modesty, kindness, bravery, pardoning, gentleness and every other good characteristic.

This is like that which has been confirmed in the Two Sahihs that Anas said, “I served the Messenger of Allah for ten years, and he never said a word of displeasure to me (Uff), nor did he ever say to me concerning something I had done: `Why did you do that’ And he never said to me concerning something I had not done: `Why didn’t you do this’ He had the best character, and I never touched any silk or anything else that was softer than the palm of the Messenger of Allah . And I never smelled any musk or perfume that had a better fragrance than the sweat of the Messenger of Allah.”

 Imam Al-Bukhari recorded that Al-Bara’ said, “The Messenger of Allah had the most handsome face of all the people, and he had the best behavior of all of the people. And he was not tall, nor was he short.” The Hadiths concerning this matter are numerous. Abu `Isa At-Tirmidhi has a complete book on this subject called Kitab Ash-Shama’il. Imam Ahmad recorded that `A’ishah said, “The Messenger of Allah never struck a servant of his with his hand, nor did he ever hit a woman. He never hit anything with his hand, except for when he was fighting Jihad in the cause of Allah. And he was never given the option between two things except that the most beloved of the two to him was the easiest of them, as long as it did not involve sin. If it did involve sin, then he stayed farther away from sin than any of the people. He would not avenge himself concerning anything that was done to him, except if the limits of Allah were transgressed. Then, in that case he would avenge for the sake of Allah.” Imam Ahmad also recorded from Abu Hurayrah that the Messenger of Allah said,

I have only been sent to perfect righteous behavior.) Ahmad was alone in recording this Hadith.

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The Final Messenger chosen by Allah, Glorified and Praised

بِسْمِ اللَّهِ الرَّحْمَـنِ الرَّحِيمِ

Bismillah-ir-Rahman-ir-Raheem: In the name of Allah, the Compassionate, the Merciful.

Welcome to my blog and praise the Magnificent Lord as you enter: Allahu Akbar: Allah is the Greatest .

May the Peace and Blessing of Allah Azza wa Jal, our Lord Glorified and Praised be He, be upon our beloved Prophet, his Family, and Companions.

The  Beloved Messenger: Prophet Muhammed, May the Peace and Blessings of Allah, Glorified and Praised, be upon him.

كَمَآ أَرْسَلْنَا فِيكُمْ رَسُولاً مِّنْكُمْ يَتْلُواْ عَلَيْكُمْ آيَـتِنَا وَيُزَكِّيكُمْ وَيُعَلِّمُكُمُ الْكِتَـبَ وَالْحِكْمَةَ وَيُعَلِّمُكُم مَّا لَمْ تَكُونُواْ تَعْلَمُونَ

(151. Similarly (to complete My blessings on you), We have sent among you a Messenger (Muhammad ) of your own, reciting to you Our verses (the Qur’an) and purifying you, and teaching you the Book (the Qur’an) and the Hikmah (i. e., Sunnah, Islamic laws and Fiqh ـ jurisprudence), and teaching you that which you did not know.)

فَاذْكُرُونِى أَذْكُرْكُمْ وَاشْكُرُواْ لِي وَلاَ تَكْفُرُونِ

(152. Therefore remember Me (by praying, glorifying). I will remember you, and be grateful to Me (for My countless favors on you) and never be ungrateful to Me.)

Surah 2 Al-Baqarah, Verses 151-152

Tafsir Ibn Kathir

Allah reminds His believing servants with what He has endowed them with by sending Muhammad as a Messenger to them, reciting to them Allah’s clear Ayat and purifying and cleansing them from the worst types of behavior, the ills of the souls and the acts of Jahiliyyah (pre-Islamic era).

The Messenger also takes them away from the darkness (of disbelief) to the light (of faith) and teaches them the Book, the Qur’an, and the Hikmah (i.e., the wisdom), which is his Sunnah. He also teaches them what they knew not. During the time of Jahiliyyah, they used to utter foolish statements. Later on, and with the blessing of the Prophet’s Message and the goodness of his prophecy, they were elevated to the status of the Awliya’ (loyal friends of Allah) and the rank of the scholars. Hence, they acquired the deepest knowledge among the people, the most pious hearts, and the most truthful tongues. Allah said:

Indeed, Allah conferred a great favor on the believers when He sent among them a Messenger (Muhammad ) from among themselves, reciting unto them His verses (the Qur’an), and purifying them (from sins).) (3:164)

Allah also criticized those who did not give this bounty its due consideration, when He said:

Have you not seen those who have changed the favors of Allah into disbelief (by denying Prophet Muhammad ) and his Message of Islam), and caused their people to dwell in the house of destruction) (14:28)

Ibn `Abbas commented, “Allah’s favor means Muhammad.” Therefore, Allah has commanded the believers to affirm this favor and to appreciate it by thanking and remembering Him:

(Therefore, remember Me. I will remember you, and be grateful to Me, and never be ungrateful to Me.)Mujahid said that Allah’s statement:(Similarly (to complete My favor on you), We have sent among you a Messenger (Muhammad ) of your own,)

means: Therefore, remember Me in gratitude to My favor.

Al-Hasan Al-Basri commented about Allah’s statement:

Therefore remember Me. I will remember you), “Remember Me regarding what I have commanded you and I will remember you regarding what I have compelled Myself to do for your benefit (i.e., His rewards and forgiveness).”

An authentic Hadith states:

(Allah the Exalted said, `Whoever mentions Me to himself, then I will mention him to Myself; and whoever mentions Me in a gathering, I will mention him in a better gathering.)’

Imam Ahmad reported that Anas narrated that Allah’s Messenger said:

(Allah the Exalted said, `O son of Adam! If you mention Me to yourself, I will mention you to Myself. If you mention Me in a gathering, I will mention you in a gathering of the angels (or said in a better gathering). If you draw closer to Me by a hand span, I will draw closer to you by forearm’s length. If you draw closer to Me by a forearm’s length, I will draw closer to you by an arm’s length. And if you come to Me walking, I will come to you running).

Its chain is Sahih, it was recorded by Al-Bukhari. Allah said:

(…and be grateful to Me (for My countless favors on you) and never be ungrateful to Me.)

In this Ayah, Allah commands that He be thanked and appreciated, and promises even more rewards for thanking Him. Allah said in another Ayah:

( And (remember) when your Lord proclaimed: “If you give thanks (by accepting faith and worshipping none but Allah), I will give you more (of My blessings); but if you are thankless (i.e., disbelievers), verily, My punishment is indeed severe.)

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‘O Allaah, I take refuge within Your pleasure from Your displeasure and within Your pardon from Your punishment, and I take refuge in You from You. I cannot enumerate You praise. You are as You have praised Yourself.’

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The Quran and its Messengers

بِسْمِ اللَّهِ الرَّحْمَـنِ الرَّحِيمِ

Bismillah-ir-Rahman-ir-Raheem: In the name of Allah, the Compassionate, the Merciful.

Welcome to my blog and praise the Magnificent Lord as you enter: Allahu Akbar: Allah is the Greatest .

May the Peace and Blessing of Allah Azza wa Jal, our Lord Glorified and Praised be He, be upon our beloved Prophet, his Family, and Companions.

The Quran and its Messengers.

اللَّهُ يَصْطَفِى مِنَ الْمَلَـئِكَةِ رُسُلاً وَمِنَ النَّاسِ إِنَّ اللَّهَ سَمِيعٌ بَصِيرٌ

(75. Allah chooses Messengers from angels and from men. Verily, Allah is All-Hearer, All-Seer.)

 يَعْلَمُ مَا بَيْنَ أَيْدِيهِمْ وَمَا خَلْفَهُمْ وَإِلَى اللَّهِ تُرْجَعُ الاٍّمُورُ

(76. He knows what is before them, and what is behind them. And to Allah return all matters.)

Surah 22 Al Hajj, Verses 75-76

Tafsir Ibn Kathir

Allah tells us that He chooses Messengers from His angels as He wills by His law and decree, and He chooses Messengers from mankind to convey His Message.

(Verily, Allah is All-Hearer, All-Seer.) means, He hears all that His servants say, and He sees them and knows who among them is deserving of that, as He says:

(Allah knows best with whom to place His Message) [6:124] 

(He knows what is before them, and what is behind them. And to Allah return all matters.) He knows what will happen to His Messengers and the Message He sent them with, for none of their affairs are hidden from Him.

 وَإِنَّهُ لَتَنزِيلُ رَبِّ الْعَـلَمِينَ

(192. And truly, this is a revelation from the Lord of all that exists,)

 نَزَلَ بِهِ الرُّوحُ الاٌّمِينُ

(193. Which the trustworthy Ruh (Jibril) has brought down.)

 عَلَى قَلْبِكَ لِتَكُونَ مِنَ الْمُنْذِرِينَ

(194. Upon your heart that you may be (one) of the warners,)

 بِلِسَانٍ عَرَبِىٍّ مُّبِينٍ

(195. In the plain Arabic language.)

Surah 26 ash Shura, Verses 192-195

Tafsir Ibn Kathir

Here Allah tells us about the Book which He revealed to His servant and Messenger Muhammad.

(And truly, this) refers to the Qur’an,

(is a revelation from the Lord of Al-`Alamin.) means, Allah has sent it down to you and revealed it to you.

(Which the trustworthy Ruh has brought down.) This refers to Jibril, peace be upon him. This was the view of more than one of the Salaf: Ibn `Abbas, Muhammad bin Ka`b, Qatadah, `Atiyyah Al-`Awfi, As-Suddi, Ad-Dahhak, Az-Zuhri and Ibn Jurayj. This is an issue concerning which there is no dispute.

(Upon your heart) `O Muhammad, free from any contamination, with nothing added or taken away.’

(that you may be of the warners,) means, `so that you may warn people with it of the punishment of Allah for those who go against it and disbelieve in it, and so that you may give glad tidings with it to the believers who follow it.’

(In the plain Arabic language.) meaning, `this Qur’an which We have revealed to you, We have revealed in perfect and eloquent Arabic, so that it may be quite clear, leaving no room for excuses and establishing clear proof, showing the straight path.’

يَـأَيُّهَا النَّاسُ قَدْ جَآءَكُمْ بُرْهَانٌ مِّن رَّبِّكُمْ وَأَنزَلْنَآ إِلَيْكُمْ نُوراً مُّبِيناً

(174. O mankind! Verily, there has come to you a convincing proof from your Lord; and We sent down to you a manifest light.)

فَأَمَّا الَّذِينَ ءَامَنُواْ بِاللَّهِ وَاعْتَصَمُواْ بِهِ فَسَيُدْخِلُهُمْ فِى رَحْمَةٍ مَّنْهُ وَفَضْلٍ وَيَهْدِيهِمْ إِلَيْهِ صِرَطاً مُّسْتَقِيماً

(175. So, as for those who believed in Allah and held fast to [depend on] Him, He will admit them to His mercy and grace (i.e. Paradise), and guide them to Himself by a straight path.)

Surah 4 An Nisaa, Verses 174-175

Tafsir Ibn Kathir

Allah informs all people that a plain, unequivocal proof has come to them from Him. One that eradicates all possibility of having an excuse, or falling prey to evil doubts. Allah said,

(and We sent down to you a manifest light.) that directs to the Truth. Ibn Jurayj and others said, “It is the Qur’an.”

(So, as for those who believed in Allah and held fast to [depend on] Him,) by worshipping Him and relying on Him for each and every thing. Ibn Jurayj said that this part of the Ayah means, “They believe in Allah and hold fast to the Qur’an.”

(He will admit them to His mercy and grace,) meaning, He will grant them His mercy and admit them into Paradise, and will increase and multiply their rewards and their ranks, as a favor and bounty from Him.

(and guide them to Himself by a straight path.) and a clear way that has no wickedness in it or deviation. This, indeed, is the description of the believers in this life and the Hereafter, as they are on the straight and safe path in matters of action and creed. In the Hereafter, they are on the straight path of Allah that leads to the gardens of Paradise.

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