Allah, the Exalted, the Praised, knows every matter, whether small or big

I take refuge with Allaah from the accursed devil.

بِسْمِ اللَّهِ الرَّحْمَـنِ الرَّحِيمِ

Bismillah-ir-Rahman-ir-Raheem: In the name of Allah, the Compassionate, the Merciful.

Welcome to my blog and praise the Magnificent Lord as you enter: Allahu Akbar: Allah is the Greatest .

May the Peace and Blessing of Allah Azza wa Jal, our Lord Glorified and Praised be He, be upon our beloved Prophet, his Family, and Companions.

Allah, the Exalted, the Praised,  knows every matter, whether small or big.

وَلِلَّهِ مَا فِى السَّمَـوَتِ وَمَا فِى الاٌّرْضِ لِيَجْزِىَ الَّذِينَ أَسَاءُواْ بِمَا عَمِلُواْ وَيِجْزِى الَّذِينَ أَحْسَنُواْ بِالْحُسْنَى

(31. And to Allah belongs all that is in the heavens and all that is on the earth, that He may requite those who do evil with that which they have done, and reward those who do good, with what is best.)

الَّذِينَ يَجْتَنِبُونَ كَبَـئِرَ الإِثْمِ وَالْفَوَحِشَ إِلاَّ اللَّمَمَ إِنَّ رَبَّكَ وَسِعُ الْمَغْفِرَةِ هُوَ أَعْلَمُ بِكُمْ إِذْ أَنشَأَكُمْ مِّنَ الاٌّرْضِ وَإِذْ أَنتُمْ أَجِنَّةٌ فِى بُطُونِ أُمَّهَـتِكُمْ فَلاَ تُزَكُّواْ أَنفُسَكُمْ هُوَ أَعْلَمُ بِمَنِ اتَّقَى

(32. Those who avoid great sins and Al-Fawahish (immoral sins) except Al-Lamam — verily, your Lord is of vast forgiveness. He knows you well when He created you from the earth (Adam), and when you were fetuses in your mothers’ wombs. So, ascribe not purity to yourselves. He knows best him who has Taqwa.)

Surah 53 An Najm Verse 31-32

Tafsir Ibn Kathir

Allah asserts that He is the King and Owner of the heavens and earth and that He is independent of the need for anyone. He is the authority over His creation and rules them with justice. He created the creation in truth,

(that He may requite those who do evil with that which they have done, and reward those who do good, with what is best.) He recompenses each according to his or her deeds, good for good and evil for evil.

Qualities of the Good-doers; Allah forgives the Small Faults.

Allah stated that the gooddoers are those who avoid major sins and immoral sins. They sometimes commit minor sins, but they will be forgiven these minor sins and covered from exposure, as Allah mentioned in another Ayah;

(If you avoid the great sins which you are forbidden to do, We shall expiate from you your (small) sins, and admit you to a Noble Entrance.)(4:31) Allah said here,

(Those who avoid great sins and Al-Fawahish (immoral sins) except Al-Lamam), Al-Lamam means, small faults and minor errors. Imam Ahmad recorded that Ibn `Abbas said, “I have not seen anything that resembles Al-Lamam better than the Hadith that Abu Hurayrah narrated from the Prophet ,

(Verily, Allah the Exalted has decreed for the Son of Adam his share of Zina and he will certainly earn his share. The Zina of the eye is by looking, the Zina of the tongue is by talking and the heart wishes and lusts, but the sexual organ either substantiates all this or not.)” This Hadith is recorded in the Two Sahihs. Ibn Jarir recorded that Ibn Mas`ud said, “The eyes commit Zina by looking, the lips by kissing, the hands by transgressing, the feet by walking, and the sexual organ either materializes all of this or not. When one commits sexual intercourse, he will be someone who committed Zina. Otherwise, it is Al-Lamam.” Masruq and Ash-Sha`bi also held the same view. `Abdur-Rahman bin Nafi`, who is also known as Ibn Lubabah At-Ta’ifi, said, “I asked Abu Hurayrah about Allah’s statement,

(except the Lamam), and he said, `It pertains to kissing, winking one’s eye, looking and embracing. When the sexual organ meets the sexual organ in intercourse then Ghusl is obligatory, and that is Zina.”

Encouraging Repentance and forbidding Claims of Purity for Oneself.

Allah’s statement,

(verily, your Lord is of vast forgiveness.) asserts that His Mercy encompasses everything, and His forgiveness entails every type of sin, if one repents,

(Say: “O My servants who have transgressed against them- selves! Despair not of the mercy of Allah: verily, Allah forgives all sins. Truly, He is Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful.”) (39:53) Allah said,

(He knows you well when He created you from the earth,) Allah says, `He was and still is the All-Knowing Whose knowledge encompasses your affairs, statements and all of the actions that will be committed by you, even when He created your father `Adam from the earth and took his offspring from his loin, as small as ants. He then divided them into two groups, a group destined for Paradise and a group to Hellfire,’

(and when you were fetuses in your mothers’ wombs.) when He commanded the angel to record one’s provisions, age, actions and if he would be among the miserable or the happy. Allah said,

(So, ascribe not purity to yourselves.) forbidding one from ascribing purity and praising himself and thinking highly of his actions,

(He knows best him who has Taqwa.) Allah said in another Ayah,

(Have you not seen those who claim sanctity for themselves. Nay, but Allah sanctifies whom He wills, and they will not be dealt with unjustly, even equal to the extent of a Fatil.) (4:49) In his Sahih, Muslim recorded that Muhammad bin `Amr bin `Ata said, “I called my daughter, Barrah (the pious one), and Zaynab bint Abu Salamah said to me, `The Messenger of Allah forbade using this name. I was originally called Barrah and he said,

(Do not ascribe purity to yourselves; Allah knows best who the pious people among you are)’ They said, `What should we call her’ He said,

(Call her Zaynab.)” Imam Ahmad recorded a Hadith from `Abdur-Rahman bin Abi Bakrah, from his father who said, “A man praised another man before the Prophet . The Messenger of Allah said,

(Woe to you, you have cut off the neck of your friend! (He repeated this) If one of you must praise a friend of his, let him say, “I think that so-and-so is this and that; Allah knows best about him and I will never purify anyone before Allah,” if he knows his friend to be as he is describing him.)” Al-Bukhari, Muslim, Abu Dawud and Ibn Majah collected this Hadith. Imam Ahmad recorded that Hammam bin Al-Harith said, “A man came before `Uthman bin `Affan and praised him. Al-Miqdad bin Al-Aswad started throwing sand in the face of that man, saying, `The Messenger of Allah ordered us to throw sand in their faces when we see those who praise.”’ Muslim and Abu Dawud also collected this Hadith.

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Conjecture does not avail against the truth

I take refuge with Allaah from the accursed devil.

بِسْمِ اللَّهِ الرَّحْمَـنِ الرَّحِيمِ

Bismillah-ir-Rahman-ir-Raheem: In the name of Allah, the Compassionate, the Merciful.

Welcome to my blog and praise the Magnificent Lord as you enter: Allahu Akbar: Allah is the Greatest .

May the Peace and Blessing of Allah Azza wa Jal, our Lord Glorified and Praised be He, be upon our beloved Prophet, his Family, and Companions.

Conjecture does not avail against the truth.

إِنَّ الَّذِينَ لاَ يُؤْمِنُونَ بِالاٌّخِرَةِ لَيُسَمُّونَ الْمَلَـئِكَةَ تَسْمِيَةَ الاٍّنثَى

(27. Verily, those who believe not in the Hereafter, name the angels with female names.)

وَمَا لَهُم بِهِ مِنْ عِلْمٍ إِن يَتَّبِعُونَ إِلاَّ الظَّنَّ وَإِنَّ الظَّنَّ لاَ يُغْنِى مِنَ الْحَقِّ شَيْئاً

(28. But they have no knowledge thereof. They follow but conjecture, and verily, conjecture is no substitute for the truth.)

فَأَعْرِضْ عَن مَّن تَوَلَّى عَن ذِكْرِنَا وَلَمْ يُرِدْ إِلاَّ الْحَيَوةَ الدُّنْيَا

(29. Therefore withdraw from him who turns away from Our Reminder and desires nothing but the life of this world.)

ذَلِكَ مَبْلَغُهُمْ مِّنَ الْعِلْمِ إِنَّ رَبَّكَ هُوَ أَعْلَمُ بِمَن ضَلَّ عَن سَبِيلِهِ وَهُوَ أَعْلَمُ بِمَنِ اهْتَدَى

(30. That is what they could reach of knowledge. Verily, your Lord is He, Who knows best him who goes astray from His path, and He knows best him who receives guidance.)

Surah 53 An Najm Verse 27-30

Refuting the Claim of the Idolators that the Angels are Allah’s Daughters.

Allah the Exalted admonishes the idolators for calling the angels female names and claiming that they are Allah’s daughters. Allah is far removed from what they ascribe to Him. Allah the Exalted said in another Ayah,

(And they make females the angels, who themselves are servants of the Most Gracious. Did they witness their creation Their testimony will be recorded, and they will be questioned!)(43:19) Allah’s statement here,

(But they have no knowledge thereof.) meaning, they have no correct knowledge testifying to their statements. What they say is all lies, falsehood, fake and utter atheism,

(They follow but conjecture, and verily, conjecture is no substitute for the truth.) meaning, conjecture is of no benefit and never takes the place of truth. In a Hadith recorded in the Sahih, the Messenger of Allah said,

(Beware of suspicion, for suspicion is the most lying speech.)

The Necessity of turning away from the People of Misguidance.

Allah’s statement,

(Therefore withdraw from him who turns away from Our Reminder), means, stay away from those who turn away from the Truth and shun them,

(and desires nothing but the life of this world.) meaning, whose aim and knowledge are concentrated on this life; this is the goal of those who have no goodness in them,

(That is what they could reach of knowledge.) meaning, seeking this life and striving hard in its affairs is the best knowledge they have acquired. There is also the reported supplication:

(O Allah! Make not this life the greatest of our concerns nor the best knowledge that we can attain.) Allah’s statement,

(Verily, your Lord is He, Who knows best him who goes astray from His path, and He knows best him who receives guidance.) meaning, He is the Creator of all creatures and He knows whatever benefits His servants. Allah is the One Who guides whom He wills and misguides whom He wills, and all of this indicates His power, knowledge and wisdom. Certainly, He is Just and never legislates or decrees unjustly.

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The prohibition of idol worship

I take refuge with Allaah from the accursed devil.

بِسْمِ اللَّهِ الرَّحْمَـنِ الرَّحِيمِ

Bismillah-ir-Rahman-ir-Raheem: In the name of Allah, the Compassionate, the Merciful.

Welcome to my blog and praise the Magnificent Lord as you enter: Allahu Akbar: Allah is the Greatest .

May the Peace and Blessing of Allah Azza wa Jal, our Lord Glorified and Praised be He, be upon our beloved Prophet, his Family, and Companions.

The prohibition of idol worship.

أَفَرَءَيْتُمُ اللَّـتَ وَالْعُزَّى

(19. Have you then considered Al-Lat, and Al-`Uzza.)

وَمَنَوةَ الثَّالِثَةَ الاٍّخْرَى

(20. And Manat, the other third)

أَلَكُمُ الذَّكَرُ وَلَهُ الاٍّنثَى

(21. Is it for you the males and for Him the females)

تِلْكَ إِذاً قِسْمَةٌ ضِيزَى

(22. That indeed is a division most unfair!)

إِنْ هِىَ إِلاَّ أَسْمَآءٌ سَمَّيْتُمُوهَآ أَنتُمْ وَءَابَآؤُكُم مَّآ أَنزَلَ اللَّهُ بِهَا مِن سُلْطَـنٍ إِن يَتَّبِعُونَ إِلاَّ الظَّنَّ وَمَا تَهْوَى الاٌّنفُسُ وَلَقَدْ جَآءَهُم مِّن رَّبِّهِمُ الْهُدَى

(23. They are but names which you have named – you and your fathers – for which Allah has sent down no authority. They follow but a guess and that which they themselves desire, whereas there has surely come to them the guidance from their Lord!)

أَمْ لِلإِنسَـنِ مَا تَمَنَّى

(24. Or shall man have what he wishes)

فَلِلَّهِ الاٌّخِرَةُ والاٍّولَى

(25. But to Allah belongs the last (Hereafter) and the first (the world).)

وَكَمْ مِّن مَّلَكٍ فِى السَّمَـوَتِ لاَ تُغْنِى شَفَـعَتُهُمْ شَيْئاً إِلاَّ مِن بَعْدِ أَن يَأْذَنَ اللَّهُ لِمَن يَشَآءُ وَيَرْضَى

(26. And there are many angels in the heavens, whose intercession will avail nothing, except after Allah has given leave for whom He wills and is pleased with.)

Surah 53 An Najm Verse 19-26

Tafsir Ibn Kathir

Refuting Idolatry, Al-Lat and Al-`Uzza.

Allah the Exalted rebukes the idolators for worshipping idols and taking rivals to Him. They built houses for their idols to resemble the Ka`bah built by Prophet Ibrahim, Allah’s Khalil.

(Have you then considered Al-Lat,) Al-Lat was a white stone with inscriptions on. There was a house built around Al-Lat in At-Ta’if with curtains, servants and a sacred courtyard around it. The people of At-Ta’if, the tribe of Thaqif and their allies, worshipped Al-Lat. They would boast to Arabs, except the Quraysh, that they had Al-Lat. Ibn Jarir said, “They derived Al-Lat’s name from Allah’s Name, and made it feminine. Allah is far removed from what they ascribe to Him. It was reported that Al-Lat is pronounced Al-Lat because, according to `Abdullah bin `Abbas, Mujahid, and Ar-Rabi` bin Anas, Al-Lat was a man who used to mix Sawiq (a kind of barley mash) with water for the pilgrims during the time of Jahiliyyah. When he died, they remained next to his grave and worshipped him.” Al-Bukhari recorded that Ibn `Abbas said about Allah’s statement,

(Al-Lat, and Al-`Uzza.) “Al-Lat was a man who used to mix Sawiq for the pilgrims.” Ibn Jarir said, “They also derived the name for their idol Al-`Uzza from Allah’s Name Al-`Aziz. Al-`Uzza was a tree on which the idolators placed a monument and curtains, in the area of Nakhlah, between Makkah and At-Ta’if. The Quraysh revered Al-`Uzza.” During the battle of Uhud, Abu Sufyan said, “We have Al-`Uzza, but you do not have Al-`Uzza.” Allah’s Messenger replied,

(Say, “Allah is Our Supporter, but you have no support.”) Manat was another idol in the area of Mushallal near Qudayd, between Makkah and Al-Madinah. The tribes of Khuza`ah, Aws and Khazraj used to revere Manat during the time of Jahiliyyah. They used to announce Hajj to the Ka`bah from next to Manat. Al-Bukhari collected a statement from `A’ishah with this meaning. There were other idols in the Arabian Peninsula that the Arabs revered just as they revered the Ka`bah, besides the three idols that Allah mentioned in His Glorious Book. Allah mentioned these three here because they were more famous than the others. An-Nasa’i recorded that Abu At-Tufayl said, “When the Messenger of Allah conquered Makkah, he sent Khalid bin Al-Walid to the area of Nakhlah where the idol of Al-`Uzza was erected on three trees of a forest. Khalid cut the three trees and approached the house built around it and destroyed it. When he went back to the Prophet and informed him of the story, the Prophet said to him,

(Go back and finish your mission, for you have not finished it.) Khalid went back and when the custodians who were also its servants of Al-`Uzza saw him, they started invoking by calling Al-`Uzza! When Khalid approached it, he found a naked woman whose hair was untidy and who was throwing sand on her head. Khalid killed her with the sword and went back to the Messenger of Allah , who said to him,

(That was Al-`Uzza!)” Muhammad bin Ishaq narrated, “Al-Lat belonged to the tribe of Thaqif in the area of At-Ta’if. Banu Mu`attib were the custodians of Al-Lat and its servants.” I say that the Prophet sent Al-Mughirah bin Shu`bah and Abu Sufyan Sakhr bin Harb to destroy Al-Lat. They carried out the Prophet’s command and built a Masjid in its place in the city of At-Ta’if. Muhammad bin Ishaq said that Manat used to be the idol of the Aws and Khazraj tribes and those who followed their religion in Yathrib (Al-Madinah). Manat was near the coast, close to the area of Mushallal in Qudayd. The Prophet sent Abu Sufyan Sakhr bin Harb or `Ali bin Abi Talib to demolish it. Ibn Ishaq said that Dhul-Khalasah was the idol of the tribes of Daws, Khath`am and Bajilah, and the Arabs who resided in the area of Tabalah. I say that Dhul-Khalasah was called the Southern Ka`bah, and the Ka`bah in Makkah was called the Northern Ka`bah. The Messenger of Allah sent Jarir bin `Abdullah Al-Bajali to Dhul-Khalasah and he destroyed it. Ibn Ishaq said that Fals was the idol of Tay’ and the neighboring tribes in the Mount of Tay’, such as Salma and Ajja. Ibn Hisham said that some scholars of knowledge told him that the Messenger of Allah sent `Ali bin Abi Talib to Fals and he destroyed it and found two swords in its treasure, which the Prophet then gave to `Ali as war spoils. Muhammad bin Ishaq also said that the tribes of Himyar, and Yemen in general, had a house of worship in San`a’ called Riyam. He mentioned that there was a black dog in it and that the religious men who went with Tubba` removed it, killed it and demolished the building. Ibn Ishaq said that Ruda’ was a structure of Bani Rabi`ah bin Ka`b bin Sa`d bin Zayd Manat bin Tamim, which Al-Mustawghir bin Rabi`ah bin Ka`b bin Sa`d demolished after Islam. In Sindad there was Dhul-Ka`bat, the idol of the tribes of Bakr and Taghlib, the sons of the Wa’il, and also the Iyad tribes.

Refuting the Idolators Who appoint Rivals to Allah and claim that the Angels were Females.

Allah the Exalted said,

(Have you then considered Al-Lat, and Al-`Uzza. And Manat, the other third), then Allah said,

(Is it for you the males and for Him the females) Allah asked the idolators, `do you choose female offspring for Allah and give preference to yourselves with the males If you made this division between yourselves and the created, it would be,

(a division most unfair!)’ meaning, it would be an unfair and unjust division. `How is it then that you make this division between you and Allah, even though this would be foolish and unjust, if you made it between yourselves and others’ Allah the Exalted refutes such innovated lies, falsehood and atheism they invented through worshipping the idols and calling them gods,

(They are but names which you have named — you and your fathers) of your own desire,

(for which Allah has sent down no authority.) meaning, proof,

(They follow but a guess and that which they themselves desire,) they have no proof, except their trust in their forefathers who took this false path in the past, as well as, their lusts and desires to become leaders, and thereby gain honor and reverence for their forefathers,

(whereas there has surely come to them the guidance from their Lord!), meaning, Allah has sent them Messengers with the clear truth and unequivocal evidence. However, they did not adhere to or follow the guidance that came to them through the Prophets.

Wishful Thinking does not earn One Righteousness.

Allah the Exalted said,

(Or shall man have what he wishes), asserting that not everyone gets the goodness that he wishes,

(It will not be in accordance with desires (of Muslims), nor those of the People of Scripture.)(4:123) Allah says, not everyone who claims to be guided is truly guided, and not everyone gets what he wishes for himself. Imam Ahmad recorded that Abu Hurayrah said that the Messenger of Allah said,

(When one of you wishes for something, let him be careful with what he wishes for, because he does not know what part of his wish will be written for him.)Only Ahmad collected this Hadith. Allah’s statement,

(But to Allah belongs the last and the first.) meaning, all matters belong to Allah and He is the King and Owner of this world and the Hereafter, Who does what He will in both lives. Whatever He wills, occurs and whatever He does not will, never occurs.

No Interecession except with Allah’s Leave.

Allah said,

(And there are many angels in the heavens, whose intercession will avail nothing except after Allah has given leave for whom He wills and is pleased with.) As He said;

(Who is he that can intercede with Him except with His permission )(2:255) and,

(Intercession with Him profits not except for him whom He permits.) (34:23) `If this is the case with the angels who are close to Him, how can you, O ignorant ones, hope for Allah to grant you the intercession of the idols and rivals you worship with Him without having His permission or any divine legislation permitting you to worship them’ Rather, Allah has forbidden idol worshipping by the tongues of all of His Messengers and He revealed this prohibition in all of His Books.

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The declaration of innocence from shirk

I take refuge with Allaah from the accursed devil.

بِسْمِ اللَّهِ الرَّحْمَـنِ الرَّحِيمِ

Bismillah-ir-Rahman-ir-Raheem: In the name of Allah, the Compassionate, the Merciful.

Welcome to my blog and praise the Magnificent Lord as you enter: Allahu Akbar: Allah is the Greatest .

May the Peace and Blessing of Allah Azza wa Jal, our Lord Glorified and Praised be He, be upon our beloved Prophet, his Family, and Companions.

The declaration of innocence from shirk.

قُلْ يأَيُّهَا الْكَـفِرُونَ

(1. Say: “O disbelievers!”)

لاَ أَعْبُدُ مَا تَعْبُدُونَ

(2. “I worship not that which you worship.”)

وَلاَ أَنتُمْ عَـبِدُونَ مَآ أَعْبُدُ

(3. “Nor will you worship whom I worship.”)

وَلا أَنَآ عَابِدٌ مَّا عَبَدتُّمْ

(4. “And I shall not worship that which you are worshipping.”)

وَلاَ أَنتُمْ عَـبِدُونَ مَآ أَعْبُدُ

(5. “Nor will you worship that which I worship.”)

لَكُمْ دِينُكُمْ وَلِىَ دِينِ

(6. “To you be your religion, and to me my religion.”)

Surah 109 Al-Kaafiroon Verse 1-6

Tafsir Ibn Kathir

This Surah is the Surah of disavowal from the deeds of the idolators. It commands a complete disavowal of that. Allah’s statement,

(Say: “O disbelievers!”) includes every disbeliever on the face of the earth, however, this statement is particularly directed towards the disbelievers of the Quraysh. It has been said that in their ignorance they invited the Messenger of Allah to worship their idols for a year and they would (in turn) worship his God for a year. Therefore, Allah revealed this Surah and in it

He commanded His Messenger to disavow himself from their religion completely.

Allah said,

(I worship not that which you worship.) meaning, statues and rival gods.

(Nor will you worship whom I worship.) and He is Allah Alone, Who has no partner. So the word Ma (what) here means Man (who). Then Allah says,

(And I shall not worship that which you are worshipping. Nor will you worship whom I worship.) meaning, `I do not worship according to your worship, which means that I do not go along with it or follow it. I only worship Allah in the manner in which He loves and is pleased with.’ Thus, Allah says,

(Nor will you worship whom I worship.) meaning, `you do not follow the commands of Allah and His Legislation in His worship. Rather, you have invented something out of the promptings of your own souls.’ This is as Allah says,

(They follow but a guess and that which they themselves desire, whereas there has surely come to them the guidance from their Lord!) (53:23) Therefore, the disavowal is from all of what they are involved. For certainly the worshipper must have a god whom he worships and set acts of worship that he follows to get to him. So the Messenger and his followers worship Allah according to what He has legislated. This is why the statement of Islam is “There is no God worthy of being worshipped except Allah, and Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah.” This means that there is no (true) object of worship except Allah and there is no path to Him (i.e., way of worshipping Him) other than that which the Messenger came with. The idolators worship other than Allah, with acts of worship that Allah has not allowed. This is why the Messenger said to them,

(To you be your religion, and to me my religion.) This is similar to Allah’s statement,

(And if they belie you, say: “For me are my deeds and for you are your deeds! You are innocent of what I do, and I am innocent of what you do!”) (10:41) and He said,

(To us our deeds, and to you your deeds.) (28:55) Al-Bukhari said, “It has been said,

(To you be your religion.) means disbelief.

(and to me my religion.) means, Islam. This is the end of the Tafsir of Surat Qul ya Ayyuhal-Kafirun.

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The reaction of the disbelievers to the call of submission to the Almighty, Exalted and Praised Be He

I take refuge with Allaah from the accursed devil.

بِسْمِ اللَّهِ الرَّحْمَـنِ الرَّحِيمِ

Bismillah-ir-Rahman-ir-Raheem: In the name of Allah, the Compassionate, the Merciful.

Welcome to my blog and praise the Magnificent Lord as you enter: Allahu Akbar: Allah is the Greatest .

May the Peace and Blessing of Allah Azza wa Jal, our Lord Glorified and Praised be He, be upon our beloved Prophet, his Family, and Companions.

The reaction of the disbelievers to the call of submission to the Almighty, Exalted and Praised Be He.

وَقَالَ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُواْ لَن نُّؤْمِنَ بِهَـذَا الْقُرْءَانِ وَلاَ بِالَّذِى بَيْنَ يَدَيْهِ وَلَوْ تَرَى إِذِ الظَّـلِمُونَ مَوْقُوفُونَ عِندَ رَبِّهِمْ يَرْجِعُ بَعْضُهُمْ إِلَى بَعْضٍ الْقَوْلَ يَقُولُ الَّذِينَ اسْتُضْعِفُواْ لِلَّذِينَ اسْتَكْبَرُواْ لَوْلاَ أَنتُمْ لَكُنَّا مُؤْمِنِينَ

(31. And those who disbelieve say: “We believe not in this Qur’an nor in that which was before it.” But if you could see when the wrongdoers are made to stand before their Lord, how they will cast the (blaming) word one to another! Those who were deemed weak will say to those who were arrogant: “Had it not been for you, we should certainly have been believers!”)

قَالَ الَّذِينَ اسْتَكْبَرُواْ لِلَّذِينَ اسْتُضْعِفُواْ أَنَحْنُ صَدَدنَـكُمْ عَنِ الْهُدَى بَعْدَ إِذْ جَآءَكُمْ بَلْ كُنتُمْ مُّجْرِمِينَ

(32. And those who were arrogant will say to those who were deemed weak: “Did we keep you back from guidance after it had come to you Nay, but you were criminals.”)

وَقَالَ الَّذِينَ اسْتُضْعِفُواْ لِلَّذِينَ اسْتَكْبَرُواْ بَلْ مَكْرُ الَّيْلِ وَالنَّهَارِ إِذْ تَأْمُرُونَنَآ أَن نَّكْفُرَ بِاللَّهِ وَنَجْعَلَ لَهُ أَندَاداً وَأَسَرُّواْ النَّدَامَةَ لَمَّا رَأَوُاْ اْلَعَذَابَ وَجَعَلْنَا الاٌّغْلَـلَ فِى أَعْنَاقِ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُواْ هَلْ يُجْزَوْنَ إِلاَّ مَا كَانُواْ يَعْمَلُونَ

(33. Those who were deemed weak will say to those who were arrogant: “Nay, but it was your plotting by night and day, when you ordered us to disbelieve in Allah and set up rivals to Him!” And each of them (parties) will conceal their own regrets, when they behold the torment. And We shall put iron collars round the necks of those who disbelieved. Are they requited aught except what they used to do)

Surah 34 Saba Verse 31-33

Tafsir Ibn Kathir

Allah tells us about the excessive wrongdoing and stubbornness of the disbelievers, and their insistence on not believing in the Holy Qur’an and what it tells them about the Resurrection. Allah says:

(And those who disbelieve say: “We believe not in this Qur’an nor in that which was before it.”) Allah threatens them and warns them of the humiliating position they will be in before Him, arguing and disputing with one another:

(how they will cast the (blaming) word one to another! Those who were deemed weak) this refers to the followers —

to those who were arrogant — this refers to the leaders and masters —

(Had it not been for you, we should certainly have been believers!) meaning, `if you had not stopped us, we would have followed the Messengers and believed in what they brought.’ Their leaders and masters, those who were arrogant, will say to them:

(Did we keep you back from guidance after it had come to you) meaning, `we did nothing more to you than to call you, and you followed us without any evidence or proof, and you went against the evidence and proof which the Messengers brought because of your own desires; it was your own choice.’ They will say:

(“…Nay, but you were criminals.” Those who were deemed weak will say to those who were arrogant: “Nay, but it was your plotting by night and day…”) meaning, `you used to plot against us night and day, tempting us with promises and false hopes, and telling us that we were truly guided and that we were following something, but all of that was falsehood and manifest lies.’ Qatadah and Ibn Zayd said:

(Nay, but it was your plotting by night and day,) means, “You plotted by night and day.” Malik narrated something similar from Zayd bin Aslam.

(when you ordered us to disbelieve in Allah and set up rivals to Him!) means, `to set up gods as equal to Him, and you created doubts and confusion in our minds, and you fabricated far-fetched ideas with which to lead us astray.’

(And each of them (parties) will conceal their own regrets, when they behold the torment.) means, both the leaders and the followers will feel regret for what they did previously.

(And We shall put iron collars round the necks of those who disbelieved.) This is a chain which will tie their hands to their necks.

(Are they requited aught except what they used to do) means, they will be punished according to their deeds: the leaders will be punished according to what they did, and the followers will be punished according to what they did.

(He will say: “For each one there is double (torment), but you know not.”) (7:38). Ibn Abi Hatim recorded that Abu Hurayrah, may Allah be pleased with him, said, “The Messenger of Allah said:

(When the people of Hell are driven towards it, it will meet them with its flames, then the Fire will burn their faces and the flesh will all fall to their hamstrings.)”

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Allah, Exalted and Praised Be He, sent the Prophet Muhammed, peace and blessings be upon him, as a giver of glad tidings and a warner to all mankind

I take refuge with Allaah from the accursed devil.

بِسْمِ اللَّهِ الرَّحْمَـنِ الرَّحِيمِ

Bismillah-ir-Rahman-ir-Raheem: In the name of Allah, the Compassionate, the Merciful.

Welcome to my blog and praise the Magnificent Lord as you enter: Allahu Akbar: Allah is the Greatest .

May the Peace and Blessing of Allah Azza wa Jal, our Lord Glorified and Praised be He, be upon our beloved Prophet, his Family, and Companions.

Allah, Exalted and Praised Be He, sent the Prophet Muhammed, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, as a giver of glad tidings and a warner to all mankind.

وَمَآ أَرْسَلْنَـكَ إِلاَّ كَآفَّةً لِّلنَّاسِ بَشِيراً وَنَذِيراً وَلَـكِنَّ أَكْثَرَ النَّاسِ لاَ يَعْلَمُونَ

(28. And We have not sent you except as a giver of glad tidings and a warner to all mankind, and most of men know not.)

وَيَقُولُونَ مَتَى هَـذَا الْوَعْدُ إِن كُنتُمْ صَـدِقِينَ

(29. And they say: “When is this promise if you are truthful”)

قُل لَّكُم مِّيعَادُ يَوْمٍ لاَّ تَسْتَـَخِرُونَ عَنْهُ سَاعَةً وَلاَ تَسْتَقْدِمُونَ

(30. Say: “The appointment to you is for a Day, which you cannot put back for an hour nor put forward.”)

Surah 34 Saba Verse 28-30

Tafsir Ibn Kathir

(And We have not sent you except as a giver of glad tidings and a warner to all mankind,) i.e., to all of creation among those who are accountable for their deeds. This is like the Ayah:

(Say: “O mankind! Verily, I am sent to you all as the Messenger of Allah.”) (7:158)

(Blessed be He Who sent down the Criterion to His servant that he may be a warner to the all creatures.) (25:1)

a giver of glad tidings and a warner means, to bring the glad tidings of Paradise to those who obey you and to warn of the fire of Hell to those who disobey you. This is like the Ayat:

(and most of men know not.)

(And most of mankind will not believe even if you desire it eagerly. ) (12:103)

(And if you obey most of those on the earth, they will mislead you far away from Allah’s path) (6:116). Muhammad bin Ka`b said concerning the Ayah:

(And We have not sent you except to all mankind) meaning, to all the people. Qatadah said concerning this Ayah, “Allah, may He be exalted, sent Muhammad to both the Arabs and the non-Arabs, so the most honored of them with Allah is the one who is most obedient to Allah.” In the Two Sahihs it was reported that Jabir, may Allah be pleased with him said, “The Messenger of Allah said:

(I have been given five things which were not given to any of the Prophets before me. I have been aided by fear (the distance of ) a month’s journey. The entire earth has been made a Masjid and a means of purification for me, so that when the time for prayer comes, any man of my Ummah should pray. The spoils of war have been made permissible for me, whereas they were not permitted for any before me. I have been given the power of intercession; and the Prophets before me were sent to their own people, but I have been sent to all of mankind.)” It was also recorded in the Sahih that the Messenger of Allah said:

(I have been sent to the black and the red.) Mujahid said, “This means to the Jinn and to mankind.” Others said that it meant the Arabs and the non-Arabs. Both meanings are correct.

(And they say: “When is this promise if you are truthful”) This is like the Ayah:

(Those who believe not therein seek to hasten it, while those who believe are fearful of it, and know that it is the very truth…) (42:18) Then Allah says:

(Say: “The appointment to you is for a Day, which you cannot for an hour move back nor forward.”) meaning, `you have an appointed time which is fixed and cannot be changed or altered. When it comes, you will not be able to put it back or bring it forward,’ as Allah says:

(Verily, the term of Allah when it comes, cannot be delayed) (71:4).

(And We delay it only for a term (already) fixed. On the Day when it comes, no person shall speak except by His leave. Some among them will be wretched and (others) blessed.) (11:104-105).

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Allah, the Almighty, the All-Wise, has no partner in anything whatsoever

I take refuge with Allaah from the accursed devil.

بِسْمِ اللَّهِ الرَّحْمَـنِ الرَّحِيمِ

Bismillah-ir-Rahman-ir-Raheem: In the name of Allah, the Compassionate, the Merciful.

Welcome to my blog and praise the Magnificent Lord as you enter: Allahu Akbar: Allah is the Greatest .

May the Peace and Blessing of Allah Azza wa Jal, our Lord Glorified and Praised be He, be upon our beloved Prophet, his Family, and Companions.

Allah, the Almighty, the All-Wise, has no partner in anything whatsoever.

قُلْ مَن يَرْزُقُكُمْ مِّنَ السَّمَـوَتِ وَالاٌّرْضِ قُلِ اللَّهُ وَإِنَّآ أَوْ إِيَّاكُمْ لَعَلَى هُدًى أَوْ فِى ضَلَـلٍ مُّبِينٍ

(24. Say: “Who gives you provision from the heavens and the earth” Say: “Allah. And verily, (either) we or you are rightly guided or in plain error.”)

قُل لاَّ تُسْـَلُونَ عَمَّآ أَجْرَمْنَا وَلاَ نُسْـَلُ عَمَّا تَعْمَلُونَ

(25. Say: “You will not be asked about our sins, nor shall we be asked of what you do.”)

قُلْ يَجْمَعُ بَيْنَنَا رَبُّنَا ثُمَّ يَفْتَحُ بَيْنَنَا بِالْحَقِّ وَهُوَ الْفَتَّاحُ الْعَلِيمُ

(26. Say: “Our Lord will assemble us all together, then He will judge between us with truth. And He is the Just Judge, the All-Knower of the true state of affairs.”)

– قُلْ أَرُونِىَ الَّذيِنَ أَلْحَقْتُمْ بِهِ شُرَكَآءَ كَلاَّ بَلْ هُوَ اللَّهُ الْعَزِيزُ الْحْكِيمُ

(27. Say: “Show me those whom you have joined with Him as partners. Nay! But He is Allah, the Almighty, the All-Wise.”)

Surah 34 Saba Verse 24-27

Tafsir Ibn Kathir

Allah tells us that He is unique in His power of creation and His giving of provision, and that He is unique in His divinity also. As they used to admit that no one in heaven or on earth except Allah gave them provision, i.e., by sending down water and causing crops to grow, so they should also realize that there is no god worthy of worship besides Him.

(And verily, (either) we or you are rightly guided or in plain error.) `One of the two sides must be speaking falsehood, and one must be telling the truth. There is no way that you and we could both be following true guidance, or could both be misguided. Only one of us can be correct, and we have produced the proof of Tawhid which indicates that your Shirk must be false.’ Allah says:

(And verily, (either) we or you are rightly guided or in plain error.) Qatadah said, “The Companions of Muhammad said this to the idolators: `By Allah, we and you cannot be following the same thing, only one of us can be truly guided.”’ `Ikrimah and Ziyad bin Abi Maryam said, “It means: we are rightly guided and you are in plain error.”

(Say: “You will not be asked about our sins, nor shall we be asked of what you do.”) This indicates disowning them, saying, `you do not belong to us and we do not belong to you, because we call people to Allah, to believe that He is the Only God and to worship Him alone. If you respond, then you will belong to us and we to you, but if you reject our call, then we have nothing to do with you and you have nothing to do with us.’ This is like the Ayat:

(And if they deny you, say: “For me are my deeds and for you are your deeds! You are innocent of what I do, and I am innocent of what you do!”) (10:41)

(Say: “O disbelievers! I worship not that which you worship, Nor will you worship that which I worship. And I shall not worship that which you are worshipping. Nor will you worship that which I worship. To you be your religion, and to me my religion.”) (104:1-6).

(Say: “Our Lord will assemble us all together…”) means, `on the Day of Resurrection, He will bring all of creation together in one arena, then He will judge between us with truth, i.e., with justice.’ Each person will be rewarded or punished according to his deeds; if they are good, then his end will be good, and if they are bad, then his end will be bad. On that Day they will know who has attained victory, glory and eternal happiness, as Allah says:

(And on the Day when the Hour will be established — that Day shall (all men) be separated. Then as for those who believed and did righteous good deeds, such shall be honored and made to enjoy luxurious life (forever) in a Garden of Delight. And as for those who disbelieved and denied Our Ayat, and the meeting of the Hereafter, such shall be brought forth to the torment.) (30:14-16). Allah says:

(And He is the Just Judge, the All-Knower of the true state of affairs.)

(Say: “Show me those whom you have joined with Him as partners…”) means, `show me those gods whom you made as rivals and equals to Allah.’

Nay means, He has no peer, rival, partner or equal. Allah says:

But He is Allah, meaning, the One and Only God Who has no partner.

the Almighty, the All-Wise. means, the Owner of might with which He subjugates and controls all things, the One Who is Wise in all His Words and deeds, Laws and decrees. Blessed and exalted and sanctified be He far above all that they say. And Allah knows best.

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The Gods that are called upon besides Allah, the Exalted and Praised, are helpless

I take refuge with Allaah from the accursed devil.

بِسْمِ اللَّهِ الرَّحْمَـنِ الرَّحِيمِ

Bismillah-ir-Rahman-ir-Raheem: In the name of Allah, the Compassionate, the Merciful.

Welcome to my blog and praise the Magnificent Lord as you enter: Allahu Akbar: Allah is the Greatest .

May the Peace and Blessing of Allah Azza wa Jal, our Lord Glorified and Praised be He, be upon our beloved Prophet, his Family, and Companions.

The Gods that are called upon besides Allah, the Exalted and Praised, are helpless.

قُلِ ادْعُواْ الَّذِينَ زَعَمْتُمْ مِّن دُونِ اللَّهِ لاَ يَمْلِكُونَ مِثُقَالَ ذَرَّةٍ فِى السَّمَـوَتِ وَلاَ فِى الاٌّرْضِ وَمَا لَهُمْ فِيهِمَا مِن شِرْكٍ وَمَا لَهُ مِنْهُمْ مِّن ظَهِيرٍ

(22. Say: “Call upon those whom you assert besides Allah, they possess not even the weight of a speck of dust, either in the heavens or on the earth, nor have they any share in either, nor there is for Him any supporter from among them. ”)

وَلاَ تَنفَعُ الشَّفَـعَةُ عِندَهُ إِلاَّ لِمَنْ أَذِنَ لَهُ حَتَّى إِذَا فُزِّعَ عَن قُلُوبِهِمْ قَالُواْ مَاذَا قَالَ رَبُّكُمْ قَالُواْ الْحَقَّ وَهُوَ الْعَلِىُّ الْكَبِيرُ

(23. Intercession with Him profits not except for him whom He permits. So much so that when fear is banished from their hearts, they say: “What is it that your Lord has said” They say the truth. And He is the Most High, the Most Great.)

Surah 34 Saba Verse 22-23

Tafsir Ibn Kathir

Allah states clearly that He is the One and Only God, the Self-Sufficient Master, Who has no peer or partner; He is independent in His command and there is no one who can share or dispute with Him in that, or overturn His command. So, He says:

(Say: “Call upon those whom you assert besides Allah…”) meaning, the gods who are worshipped besides Allah.

(they possess not even the weight of a speck of dust, either in the heavens or on the earth,) This is like the Ayah:

(And those, whom you invoke or call upon instead of Him, own not even a Qitmir) (35:13).

nor have they any share in either, means, they do not possess anything, either independently or as partners.

(nor there is for Him any supporter from among them. ) means, nor does Allah have among these rivals any whose support He seeks in any matter; on the contrary, all of creation is in need of Him and is enslaved by Him. Then Allah says:

(Intercession with Him profits not except for him whom He permits.) meaning, because of His might, majesty and pride, no one would dare to intercede with Him in any matter, except after being granted His permission to intercede. As Allah says:

(Who is he that can intercede with Him except with His permission) (2:255),

(And there are many angels in the heavens, whose intercession will avail nothing except after Allah has given leave for whom He wills and is pleased with.) (53:26)

(and they cannot intercede except for him with whom He is pleased. And they stand in awe for fear of Him) (21:28). It was reported in the Two Sahihs through more than one chain of narration that the Messenger of Allah , who is the leader of the sons of Adam and the greatest intercessor before Allah, will go to stand in Al-Maqam Al-Mahmud (the praised position) to intercede for all of mankind when their Lord comes to pass judgement upon them. He said:

(Then I will prostrate to Allah, may He be exalted, and He will leave me (in that position), as long as Allah wills, and He will inspire me to speak words of praise which I cannot mention now. Then it will be said, “O Muhammad, raise your head. Speak, you will be heard; ask, you will be given; intercede, your intercession will be accepted…”)

(So much so that when fear is banished from their hearts, they say: “What is it that your Lord has said” They say the truth.) This also refers to the great degree of His might and power. When He speaks words of revelation, the inhabitants of the heavens hear what He says, and they tremble with fear (of Allah) so much that they swoon. This was the view of Ibn Mas`ud, may Allah be pleased with him, Masruq and others.

(So much so that when fear is banished from their hearts,) means, when the fear leaves their hearts. Ibn `Abbas, Ibn `Umar, Abu `Abdur-Rahman As-Sulami, Ash-Sha`bi, Ibrahim An-Nakha`i, Ad-Dhahhak, Al-Hasan and Qatadah said concerning the Ayah,

(So much so that when fear is banished from their hearts, they say: “What is it that your Lord has said” They say the truth.) “When the fear is lifted from their hearts.” When this happens, some of them say to others, “What did your Lord say” Those (angels) who are carrying the Throne tell those who are next to them, then they in turn pass it on to those who are next to them, and so on, until the news reaches the inhabitants of the lowest heaven. Allah says,

They say the truth. meaning, they report what He said, without adding or taking away anything.

(And He is the Most High, the Most Great.) In his Tafsir of this Ayah in his Sahih, Al-Bukhari recorded that Abu Hurayrah, may Allah be pleased with him said, “The Prophet of Allah said:

(When Allah decrees a matter in heaven, the angels beat their wings in submission to His Words, making a sound like a chain striking a smooth rock. When the fear is banished from their hearts, they say, “What is it that your Lord has said” They say the truth, and He is the Most High, the Most Great. Then the one who is listening out hears that, and those who are listening out are standing one above the other) — Sufyan (one of the narrators) demonstrated with his hand, holding it vertically with the fingers outspread. (So he hears what is said and passes it on to the one below him, and that one passes it to the one who is below him, and so on until it reaches the lips of the soothsayer or fortune-teller. Maybe a meteor will hit him before he can pass anything on, or maybe he will pass it on before he is hit. He tells a hundred lies alongside it, but it will be said, “Did he not tell us that on such and such a day, such and such would happen” So they believe him because of the one thing which was heard from heaven.)” This was recorded by Al-Bukhari, not by Muslim. Abu Dawud, At-Tirmidhi and Ibn Majah also recorded it. And Allah knows best.

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The kings and people of the Yemen

I take refuge with Allaah from the accursed devil.  

بِسْمِ اللَّهِ الرَّحْمَـنِ الرَّحِيمِ 

 Bismillah-ir-Rahman-ir-Raheem: In the name of Allah, the Compassionate, the Merciful.  

Welcome to my blog and praise the Magnificent Lord as you enter: Allahu Akbar: Allah is the Greatest .

 May the Peace and Blessing of Allah Azza wa Jal, our Lord Glorified and Praised be He, be upon our beloved Prophet, his Family, and Companions.  

The kings and people of the Yemen.

لَقَدْ كَانَ لِسَبَإٍ فِى مَسْكَنِهِمْ ءَايَةٌ جَنَّتَانِ عَن يَمِينٍ وَشِمَالٍ كُلُواْ مِن رِّزْقِ رَبِّكُمْ وَاشْكُرُواْ لَهُ بَلْدَةٌ طَيِّبَةٌ وَرَبٌّ غَفُورٌ

(15. Indeed there was for Saba’ a sign in their dwelling place — two gardens on the right and on the left; (and it was said to them:) “Eat of the provision of your Lord, and be grateful to Him.” A fair land and an Oft-Forgiving Lord!)

فَأَعْرَضُواْ فَأَرْسَلْنَا عَلَيْهِمْ سَيْلَ الْعَرِمِ وَبَدَّلْنَـهُمْ بِجَنَّـتِهِمْ جَنَّتَيْنِ ذَوَاتَىْ أُكُلٍ خَمْطٍ وَأَثْلٍ وَشَىْءٍ مِّن سِدْرٍ قَلِيلٍ

(16. But they turned away, so We sent against them flood released from the dam, and We converted their two gardens into gardens producing bitter bad fruit, and Athl, and some few lote trees.)

 ذَلِكَ جَزَيْنَـهُمْ بِمَا كَفَرُواْ وَهَلْ نُجْزِى إِلاَّ الْكَفُورَ

(17. Like this We requited them because they were ungrateful disbelievers. And never do We requite in such a way except those who are ungrateful (disbelievers).)

Surah 34 Saba, Verse 15-17

Tafsir Ibn Kathir

Saba’ refers to the kings and people of the Yemen. At-Tababa`ah (Tubba`) [surname of the ancient kings of Yemen] were part of them, and Bilqis, the queen who met Sulayman, peace be upon him, was also one of them. They lived a life of enviable luxury in their land with plentiful provision, crops and fruits. Allah sent them messengers telling them to eat of His provision and give thanks to Him by worshipping Him alone, and they followed that for as long as Allah willed, then they turned away from that which they had been commanded to do. So they were punished with a flood which scattered them throughout the lands around Saba’ in all directions, as we will see in detail below, if Allah wills. In Him we put our trust. Ibn Jarir recorded that Farwah bin Musayk Al-Ghutayfi, may Allah be pleased with him, said, “A man said, `O Messenger of Allah! Tell me about Saba’ — what was it, a land or a woman’ He said:

(It was neither a land nor a woman. It was a man who had ten children, six of whom went Yemen and four of whom went Ash-Sham. Those who went Ash-Sham were Lakhm, Judham, `Amilah and Ghassan. Those who went south were Kindah, Al-Ash`ariyyun, Al-Azd, Madhhij, Himyar and Anmar.) A man asked, `Who are Anmar’ He said:

(Those among whom are Khath`am and Bajilah. )” This was recorded by At-Tirmidhi in his Jami` [Sunan] in more detail than this; then he said, “This is a Hasan Gharib Hadith.” The genealogists — including Muhammad bin Ishaq — said, “The name of Saba’ was `Abd Shams bin Yashjub bin Ya`rub bin Qahtan; he was called Saba’ because he was the first Arab tribe to disperse. He was also known as Ar-Ra’ish, because he was the first one to take booty in war and give it to his people, so he was called Ar-Ra’ish; because the Arabs call wealth Rish or Riyash. They differ over Qahtan, about whom there were three views. (The first) he descended from the line of Iram bin Sam bin Nuh, then there were three different views over how he descended from him. (The second) was that he was descended from `Abir, another name for Hud, peace be upon him, then there were also three different views over exactly how he descended from him. (The third) was that he was descended from Isma`il bin Ibrahim Al-Khalil, peace be upon him, then there were also three different views over exactly how he descended from him. This was discussed in full detail by Imam Al-Hafiz Abu `Umar bin `Abdul-Barr An-Namari, may Allah have mercy on him, in his book Al-Musamma Al-Inbah `Ala Dhikr Usul Al-Qaba’il Ar-Ruwat. The meaning of the Prophet’s words,

(He was a man among the Arabs.) means that he was one of the original Arabs, who were before Ibrahim, peace be upon him, and were descendants of Sam bin Nuh (Shem, the son of Noah). According to the third view mentioned above, he descended from Ibrahim, peace be upon him, but this was not a well-known view among them. And Allah knows best. But in Sahih Al-Bukhari, it is reported that the Messenger of Allah passed by a group of people from (the tribe of) Aslam who were practicing archery, and he said,

(Shoot, O sons of Isma`il, for your father was an archer.) Aslam was a tribe of the Ansar, and the Ansar — both Aws and Khazraj — were from Ghassan, from the Arabs of Yemen from Saba’, who settled in Yathrib when Saba’ was scattered throughout the land when Allah sent against them the flood released from the dam. A group of them also settled in Syria, and they were called Ghassan for the name of the water beside which they camped — it was said that it was in the Yemen, or that it was near Al-Mushallal, as Hassan bin Thabit, may Allah be pleased with him, said in one of his poems. The meaning of his words: “If you ask, then we are the community of the noble descendants, our lineage is Al-Azd and our water is Ghassan.”

(He had ten sons among the Arabs.) means that these ten were of his lineage, and that the origins of the Arab tribes of the Yemen go back to him, not that they were his sons born of his loins. There may have been two or three generations between him and some of them, or more or less, as is explained in detail in the books of genealogy. The meaning of the words,

(Six of whom went south and four of whom went north. ) is that after Allah sent against them the flood released from the dam, some of them stayed in their homeland, whilst others left to go elsewhere.

The Dam of Ma’arib and the Flood

The story of the dam is about the water which used to come to them from between two mountains, combined with the floods from rainfall and their valleys. Their ancient kings built a huge, strong dam and the water reached a high level between these two mountains. Then they planted trees and got the best fruits that could ever be harvested, plentiful and beautiful. A number of the Salaf, including Qatadah, mentioned that a woman could walk beneath the trees, carrying a basket or vessel — such as is used for gathering fruit — on her head. And that the fruit would fall from the trees and fill the basket without any need for her to make the effort to pick the fruit, because it was so plentiful and ripe. This was the dam of Ma’arib, a land between which and San`a’ was a journey of three days. Others said that in their land there were no flies, mosquitoes or fleas, or any kind of vermin. This was because the weather was good and the people were healthy, and Allah took care of them so that they would single out and worship Him alone, as He says:

( Indeed there was for Saba` (Sheba) a sign in their dwelling place) Then He explains this by saying:

(two gardens on the right and on the left;) meaning, the two sides where the mountains were, and their land was in between them.

((and it was said to them: ) “Eat of the provision of your Lord, and be grateful to Him.” A fair land and an Oft-Forgiving Lord!) means, `He would forgive you if you continue to worship Him alone.

(But they turned away,) means, from worshipping Allah alone and from giving thanks to Him for the blessings that He had bestowed upon them, and they started to worship the sun instead of Allah, as the hoopoe told Sulayman, peace be upon him:

(“I have come to you from Saba’ (Sheba) with true news. I found a woman ruling over them, she has been given all things, and she has a great throne. I found her and her people worshipping the sun instead of Allah, and Shaytan has made their deeds fair seeming to them, and has barred them from the way, so they have no guidance.”) (27:22-24)

(so We sent against them flood released from the dam,) Some, including Ibn `Abbas, Wahb bin Munabbih, Qatadah and Ad-Dahhak said that when Allah wanted to punish them by sending the flood upon them, he sent beasts from the earth to the dam, large rats, which made a hole in it. Wahb bin Munabbih said, “They found it written in their Scriptures that the dam would be destroyed because of these large rats. So they brought cats for a while, but when the decree came to pass, the rats overran the cats and went into the dam, making a hole in it, and it collapsed.” Qatadah and others said, “The large rat is the desert rat. They gnawed at the bottom of the dam until it became weak, then the time of the floods came and the waters hit the structure and it collapsed. The waters rushed through the bottom of the valley and destroyed everything in their path — buildings, trees, etc.” As the water drained from the trees that were on the mountains, to the right and the left, those trees dried up and were destroyed. Those beautiful, fruit-bearing trees were replaced with something altogether different, as Allah says:

(and We converted their two gardens into gardens producing bitter bad fruit (ukul khamt),) Ibn `Abbas, Mujahid, `Ikrimah, `Ata’ Al-Khurasani, Qatadah and As-Suddi said, “It refers to Arak (Zingiber officinale) and bitter bad fruit.”

and Athl, Al- Awfi and Ibn Abba0s said that this means tamarisk. Others said that it means a tree that resembles a tamarisk, and it was said that it was the gum acacia or mimosa. And Allah knows best.

and some few lote trees. Because the lote trees were the best of the trees with which the garden was replaced, there were only a few of them.

and some few lote trees. This is what happened to those two gardens after they had been so fruitful and productive, offering beautiful scenes, deep shade and flowing rivers: they were replaced with thorny trees, tamarisks and lote trees with huge thorns and little fruit. This was because of their disbelief and their sin of associating others with Allah, and because they denied the truth and turned towards falsehood. Allah said:

(Like this We requited them because they were ungrateful disbelievers. And never do We requite in such a way except those who are ungrateful.) meaning, `We punished them for their disbelief.’ Mujahid said, “He does not punish anyone except the disbelievers.” Al-Hasan Al-Basri said, “Allah the Almighty has spoken the truth: no one will be punished in a manner that befits the sin except the ungrateful disbelievers.”

وَجَعَلْنَا بَيْنَهُمْ وَبَيْنَ الْقُرَى الَّتِى بَارَكْنَا فِيهَا قُرًى ظَـهِرَةً وَقَدَّرْنَا فِيهَا السَّيْرَ سِيرُواْ فِيهَا لَيَالِىَ وَأَيَّاماً ءَامِنِينَ

(18. And We placed, between them and the towns which We had blessed, towns easy to be seen, and We made the stages (of journey) between them easy (saying): “Travel in them safely both by night and day.”) 

فَقَالُواْ رَبَّنَا بَـعِدْ بَيْنَ أَسْفَارِنَا وَظَلَمُواْ أَنفُسَهُمْ فَجَعَلْنَـهُمْ أَحَادِيثَ وَمَزَّقْنَـهُمْ كُلَّ مُمَزَّقٍ إِنَّ فِى ذَلِكَ لاّيَـتٍ لِّكُلِّ صَبَّارٍ شَكُورٍ

(19. But they said: “Our Lord! Make the stages between our journey longer,” and they wronged themselves; so We made them as tales (in the land), and We dispersed them all totally. Verily, in this are indeed signs for every steadfast, grateful (person).)

Surah 34 Saba, Verse 18-19

Tafsir Ibn Kathir

Allah tells us about the blessings which the people of Saba’ enjoyed, and the luxuries and plentiful provision which was theirs in their land, with its secure dwellings and towns which were joined to one another, with many trees, crops and fruits. When they traveled, they had no need to carry provisions or water with them; wherever they stopped, they would find water and fruits, so they could take their noontime rest in one town, and stay overnight in another, according to their needs on their journey. Allah says:

(And We placed, between them and the towns which We had blessed,) Mujahid, Al-Hasan, Sa`id bin Jubayr and Malik, who narrated it from Zayd bin Aslam, and Qatadah, Ad-Dahhak, As-Suddi, Ibn Zayd and others — all said that this means the towns of Syria. It means they used to travel from Yemen to Syria via towns easy to be seen and connected to one another. Al-`Awfi reported that Ibn `Abbas said, “`The towns which We had blessed by putting Jerusalem among them.”

towns easy to be seen, meaning, clear and visible, known to travelers, so they could take their noontime rest in one town and stay overnight in another. Allah says:

(and We made the stages (of journey) between them easy) meaning, `We made it in a way that met the needs of the travelers.’

(Travel in them safely both by night and day.) means, those who travel in them will be safe both by night and by day.

(But they said: “Our Lord! Make the stages between our journey longer,” and they wronged themselves;) They failed to appreciate this blessing, as Ibn `Abbas, Mujahid, Al-Hasan and others said: “They wanted to travel long distances through empty wilderness where they would need to carry provisions with them and would have to travel through intense heat in a state of fear.”

(so We made them as tales (in the land), and We dispersed them all totally.) means, `We made them something for people to talk about when they converse in the evening, how Allah plotted against them and dispersed them after they had been together living a life of luxury, and they were scattered here and there throughout the land.’ So, the Arabs say of a people when they are dispersed, “They have been scattered like Saba’,” in all directions.

(Verily, in this are indeed signs for every steadfast, grateful.) In the punishment which these people suffered, the way in which their blessings and good health were turned into vengeance for their disbelief and sins, is a lesson and an indication for every person who is steadfast in the face of adversity and grateful for blessings. Imam Ahmad recorded that Sa`d bin Abi Waqqas, may Allah be pleased with him, said, “The Messenger of Allah said:

(I am amazed at what Allah has decreed for the believer; if something good befalls him, He praises his Lord and gives thanks, and if something bad befalls him, he praises his Lord and has patience. The believer will be rewarded for everything, even the morsel of food which he lifts to his wife’s mouth.)” This was also recorded by An-Nasa’i in Al-Yawm wal-Laylah. There is a corroborating report in the Two Sahihs, where a Hadith narrated by Abu Hurayrah, may Allah be pleased with him, says:

(How amazing is the affair of the believer! Allah does not decree anything for him but it is good for him. If something good happens to him, he gives thanks, and that is good for him; if something bad happens to him, he bears it with patience, and that is good for him. This is not for anyone except the believer.)” It was reported that Qatadah said:

(Verily, in this are indeed signs for every steadfast, grateful.) It was Mutarrif who used to say: “How blessed is the grateful, patient servant. If he is given something, he gives thanks, and if he is tested, he bears it with patience.”

وَلَقَدْ صَدَّقَ عَلَيْهِمْ إِبْلِيسُ ظَنَّهُ فَاتَّبَعُوهُ إِلاَّ فَرِيقاً مِّنَ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ

(20. And indeed Iblis did prove true his thought about them, and they followed him, all except a group of true believers.)

 وَمَا كَانَ لَهُ عَلَيْهِمْ مِّن سُلْطَـنٍ إِلاَّ لِنَعْلَمَ مَن يُؤْمِنُ بِالاٌّخِرَةِ مِمَّنْ هُوَ مِنْهَا فِى شَكٍّ وَرَبُّكَ عَلَى كُلِّ شَىْءٍ حَفُيظٌ

 (21. And he had no authority over them, — except that We might test him who believes in the Hereafter, from him who is in doubt about it. And your Lord is Watchful over everything.)

Surah 34 Saba, Verse 20-21

Tafsir Ibn Kathir

Having mentioned Saba’ and how they followed their desires, and the Shaytan, Allah tells us about their counterparts among those who follow Iblis and their own desires, and who go against wisdom and true guidance. Allah says:

(And indeed Iblis did prove true his thought about them,) Ibn `Abbas, may Allah be pleased with him, and others said that this Ayah is like the Ayah where Allah tells us about how Iblis refused to prostrate to Adam, peace be upon him, then said:

(See this one whom You have honored above me, if You give me respite to the Day of Resurrection, I will surely seize and mislead his offspring all but a few!) (17:62)

(Then I will come to them from before them and behind them, from their right and from their left, and You will not find most of them as thankful ones.) (7:17) And there are many Ayat which refer to this matter.

(And he (Iblis) had no authority over them, ) Ibn `Abbas, may Allah be pleased with him said, “This means, he had no proof.

(except that We might test him who believes in the Hereafter, from him who is in doubt about it.) means, `We gave him power over them only to show who believes in the Hereafter and that it will come to pass.’ The people will be brought to account and rewarded or punished accordingly, so that he will worship his Lord properly in this world — and to distinguish these believers from those who are in doubt about the Hereafter.

(And your Lord is a Watchful over everything.) means, despite His watching, those who follow Iblis go astray, but by His watching and care, the believers who follow the Messengers are saved.

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