The beginning of the prophethood of Prophet Muhammed, peace and blessings be upon him

 I take refuge with Allaah from the accursed devil.  

بِسْمِ اللَّهِ الرَّحْمَـنِ الرَّحِيمِ 

  Bismillah-ir-Rahman-ir-Raheem: In the name of Allah, the Compassionate, the Merciful.  

  Welcome to my blog and praise the Magnificent Lord as you enter: Allahu Akbar: Allah is the Greatest .

  May the Peace and Blessing of Allah Azza wa Jal, our Lord Glorified and Praised be He, be upon our beloved  Prophet, his Family, and Companions.

The beginning of the prophethood of Prophet Muhammed, peace and blessings be upon him.

اقْرَأْ بِاسْمِ رَبِّكَ الَّذِى خَلَقَ

(1. Read! In the Name of your Lord Who created.)

 خَلَقَ الإِنسَـنَ مِنْ عَلَقٍ

(2. He has created man from a clot.)

 اقْرَأْ وَرَبُّكَ الاٌّكْرَمُ

(3. Read! And your Lord is the Most Generous.)

 الَّذِى عَلَّمَ بِالْقَلَمِ

 (4. Who has taught by the pen.)

عَلَّمَ الإِنسَـنَ مَا لَمْ يَعْلَمْ

 (5. He has taught man that which he knew not.)

Surah 96 Al Alaq Verse 1-5

Tafsir Ibn Kathir

Imam Ahmad recorded that `A’ishah said: The first thing that began happening with the Messenger of Allah from the revelation was dreams that he would see in his sleep that would come true. He would not see any dream except that it would come true just like the (clearness of) the daybreak in the morning. Then seclusion became beloved to him. So, he used to go to the cave of Hira’ and devote himself to worship there for a number of nights, and he would bring provisions for that. Then he would return to Khadijah and replenish his provisions for a similar number of nights. This continued until the revelation suddenly came to him while he was in the cave of Hira’. The angel came to him while he was in the cave and said, “Read!” The Messen- ger of Allah said,

(I replied: “I am not one who reads.) Then he said, “So he (the angel) seized me and pressed me until I could no longer bear it. Then he released me and said: `Read!’ So I replied: `I am not one who reads.’ So, he pressed me a second time until I could no longer bear it. Then he released me and said:

(Read in the Name of your Lord who has created.) until he reached the Ayah,

(That which he knew not. )” So he returned with them (those Ayat) and with his heart trembling until he came (home) to Khadijah, and he said,

(Wrap me up, wrap me up!) So they wrapped him up until his fear went away. After that he told Khadijah everything that had happened (and said),

(I fear that something may happen to me.) Khadijah replied, “Never! By Allah, Allah will never disgrace you. You keep good relations with your relatives, you speak the truth, you help the poor and the destitute, you serve your guests generously, and you help the deserving, calamity afflicted people.” Khadijah then accompanied him to her cousin Waraqah bin Nawfal bin Asad bin `Abdul-`Uzza bin Qusay, who, during the period of ignorance became a Christian and used to scribe the Scriptures in Arabic. He would write from the Injil in Hebrew as much as Allah willed for him to write. He was an old man and had lost his eyesight. Khadijah said to him, “O my cousin! Listen to the story of your nephew.” Waraqah asked, “O my nephew! What have you seen” Allah’s Messenger described what he saw. Waraqah said, “This is An-Namus whom Allah had sent to Musa. I wish I was young and could live until the time when your people would drive you out.” Allah’s Messenger asked,

(Will they drive me out) Waraqah replied in the affirmative and said, “Anyone who came with something similar to what you have brought, was treated with hostility and enmity; and if I should remain alive till that day then I would firmly support you.” But Waraqah did not remain. He died and the revelation paused until Allah’s Messenger became sad according to what we were told. Due to this grief he set out a number of times with the intent of throwing himself from the mountain tops. However, every time he would reach the peak of a mountain to throw himself from it, Jibril would appear to him and say, “O Muhammad! You are truly the Messenger of Allah!” Therefore, his worry would be eased, his soul would be settled and he would return (down from the mountain). Then, when the revelation did not come again for a long time, he set out as he had done before. So when he reached the peak of the mountain, Jibril appeared to him again and said to him the same as he had said before.” This Hadith has been recorded in the Two Sahihs by way of Az-Zuhri. We have already discussed this Hadith’s chain of narration, its text and its meanings at length in the beginning of our explanation of Sahih Al-Bukhari. Therefore, whoever would like to read it, it is researched there, and all praise and blessings are due to Allah. So the first thing that was revealed of the Qur’an were these noble and blessed Ayat. They are the first mercy that Allah bestowed upon His servants and the first bounty that Allah favored them with.

These Ayat inform of the beginning of man’s creation from a dangling clot, and that out of Allah’s generosity He taught man that which he did not know. Thus, Allah exalted him and honored him by giving him knowledge, and it is the dignity that the Father of Humanity, Adam, was distinguished with over the angels. Knowledge sometimes is in the mind, sometimes on the tongue, and sometimes in writing with the fingers. Thus, it may be intellectual, spoken and written. And while the last (written) necessitates the first two (intellectual and spoken), the reverse is not true. For this reason Allah says,

(Read! And your Lord is the Most Generous. Who has taught by the pen. He has taught man that which he knew not.) There is a narration that states, “Record knowledge by writing.” There is also a saying which states, “Whoever acts according to what he knows, Allah will make him inherit knowledge that he did not know.”

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The Prophethood of Prophet Musa (Moses), peace be upon him

 I take refuge with Allaah from the accursed devil.  

بِسْمِ اللَّهِ الرَّحْمَـنِ الرَّحِيمِ 

  Bismillah-ir-Rahman-ir-Raheem: In the name of Allah, the Compassionate, the Merciful.  

 Welcome to my blog and praise the Magnificent Lord as you enter: Allahu Akbar: Allah is the Greatest .

  May the Peace and Blessing of Allah Azza wa Jal, our Lord Glorified and Praised be He, be upon our beloved Prophet, his Family, and Companions.

The Prophethood of Prophet Musa (Moses), peace be upon him.

اذْهَبْ أَنتَ وَأَخُوكَ بِـَايَـتِى وَلاَ تَنِيَا فِى ذِكْرِى

 (42. Go you and your brother with My Ayat, and do not, you both, slacken and become weak in My remembrance.)

اذْهَبَآ إِلَى فِرْعَوْنَ إِنَّهُ طَغَى

(43. Go both of you to Fir`awn, verily, he has transgressed.)

 فَقُولاَ لَهُ قَوْلاً لَّيِّناً لَّعَلَّهُ يَتَذَكَّرُ أَوْ يَخْشَى

(44. And speak to him mildly, perhaps he may accept admonition or fear (Allah).)

Surah 20 Ta Ha Verse 42-44

(Go you and your brother with My Ayat,) This means with My proofs, evidences and miracles.

(And do not, you both, slacken and become weak in My remembrance.) `Ali bin Abi Talhah related from Ibn `Abbas that he said, “This means do not be slow.” Mujahid reported that Ibn `Abbas said, “This means do not be weak.” The meaning here is that they should not slacken in the remembrance of Allah. Rather, they both should remember Allah during their meeting with Fir`awn so that the remembrance of Allah can be an aid for them against him. The remembrance of Allah would be their strength and their power that would defeat him. Allah’s statement;

(Go both of you to Fir`awn, Verily, he has transgressed.) means that he has rebelled and become haughty and insolent against Allah and he has disobeyed Him. 

(And speak to him mildly, perhaps he may accept admonition or fear (Allah).) This Ayah contains a great lesson. Even though Fir`awn was the most insolent and arrogant of people and Musa was the friend of Allah among His creation at that time, Musa was still commanded to speak to Fir`awn with mildness and softness. Therefore, their invitation to him was with gentle, soft and easy speech that is used by one who is a close friend. This is so that the message may have more effect on the souls, and so it would have deeper and more beneficial results. This is as Allah, the Exalted, says,

(Invite (mankind) to the way of your Lord with wisdom and fair preaching, and argue with them in a way that is better.) ﴿16:125﴾ Concerning Allah’s statement,

(perhaps he may accept admonition or fear (Allah). ) This means that perhaps he will recant from that which he is in of misguidance and destruction,

(or he will fear) meaning that he will become obedient due to fear of Allah. This is as Allah says,

(For such who desires to remember or desires to show his gratitude.) ﴿25:62 ﴾ Thus, to remember means to recant from that which is dangerous, and fear means to attain obedience.

قَالاَ رَبَّنَآ إِنَّنَا نَخَافُ أَن يَفْرُطَ عَلَيْنَآ أَوْ أَن يَطْغَى

 (45. Both of them said: “Our Lord! Verily, we fear lest he should hasten to punish us or lest he should transgress.”)

 قَالَ لاَ تَخَافَآ إِنَّنِى مَعَكُمَآ أَسْمَعُ وَأَرَى

 (46. He (Allah) said: “Fear not, verily, I am with you both, hearing and seeing.”)

فَأْتِيَاهُ فَقُولاَ إِنَّا رَسُولاَ رَبِّكَ فَأَرْسِلْ مَعَنَا بَنِى إِسْرَءِيلَ وَلاَ تُعَذِّبْهُمْ قَدْ جِئْنَـكَ بِـَايَةٍ مِّن رَّبِّكَ وَالسَّلَـمُ عَلَى مَنِ اتَّبَعَ الْهُدَى

 (47. “So go you both to him, and say: ‘Verily, we are both Messengers of your Lord, so let the Children of Israel go with us, and torment them not; indeed, we have come with a sign from your Lord! And peace will be upon him who follows the guidance!”)

إِنَّا قَدْ أُوحِىَ إِلَيْنَآ أَنَّ الْعَذَابَ عَلَى مَن كَذَّبَ وَتَوَلَّى

(48. `Truly, it has been revealed to us that the torment will be for him who denies, and turns away.`”)

Surah 20 Ta Ha Verse 45-48

Tafsir Ibn Kathir

Allah, the Exalted, informs that Musa and Harun pleaded to Allah, expressing their grievance to him:

(Verily, we fear lest he should hasten to punish us or lest he should transgress.) They meant that Fir`awn might seize them unexpectedly with a punishment, or transgress against them by tormenting them, when they actually did not deserve it. Ad-Dahhak reported from Ibn `Abbas that he said that transgress here means, “To exceed the bounds.”

(He (Allah) said: “Fear not, verily, I am with you both, hearing and seeing.”) meaning; “Do not fear him (Fir`awn), for verily, I am with you and I hear your speech and his speech as well. I see your place and I see his place as well. Nothing is hidden from Me of your affair. Know that his forehead is in My Hand, and he does not speak, breathe, or use any force, except by My leave and after My command. I am with you by My protection, My help and My support.”

(So go you both to him, and say: “Verily, we are both Messengers of your Lord…”)

Concerning his statement,

(indeed, We have come with a sign from your Lord!) meaning with evidence and a miracle from your Lord.

(And peace will be upon him who follows the guidance!) meaning, `peace be upon you if you follow the guidance.’ Because of this, when the Messenger of Allah wrote a letter to Heraclius, the emperor of Rome, beginning with,

(In the Name of Allah, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful. From Muhammad, the Messenger of Allah, to Heraclius the emperor of Rome. Peace be upon him who follows the guidance. Thus, to proceed: Verily, I invite you with the invitation of Islam. So accept Islam and you will be safe, and Allah will give you a double reward.) Due to this, Musa and Harun said to Fir`awn,

(And peace will be upon him who follows the guidance! Truly, it has been revealed to us that the torment will be for him who denies, and turns away.) In His flawless revelation, Allah has revealed to us that torment is prepared exclusively for those who reject the signs of Allah and turn away from His obedience. As Allah says,

(Then for him who transgressed all bounds, and preferred the life of this world, Verily, his abode will be Hellfire.) ﴿79:37-39﴾ Allah, the Exalted, also says,

Therefore I have warned you of a blazing Fire. None shall enter it save the most wretched. Who denies and turns away.) ﴿92:14-16﴾ Allah also says,

(So he neither believed nor prayed! But on the contrary, he belied and turned away.) ﴿75:31-32﴾ This means that he denied with his heart and turned away by his actions.

 قَالَ فَمَن رَّبُّكُمَا يمُوسَى

(49. Fir`awn said: “Who then, O Musa, is the Lord of you two”)

قَالَ رَبُّنَا الَّذِى أَعْطَى كُلَّ شَىءٍ خَلْقَهُ ثُمَّ هَدَى

(50. Musa ﴾said: “Our Lord is He Who gave to each thing its form and nature, then guided it aright.”)

قَالَ فَمَا بَالُ الْقُرُونِ الاٍّولَى

(51. Fir`awn  ﴾said: “What about the generations of old”)

  قَالَ عِلْمُهَا عِندَ رَبِّى فِى كِتَـبٍ لاَّ يَضِلُّ رَبِّى وَلاَ يَنسَى

(52. Musa said: “The knowledge thereof is with my Lord, in a Record. My Lord neither errs nor forgets.”)

Surah 20 Ta Ha Verse 49-52

Tafsir Ibn Kathir

 Allah, the Exalted, informs about Fir`awn that he said to Musa, in his rejection of the existence of a Supreme Maker and Creator, Who is the God of everything and his own Lord and Owner:

(Who then, O Musa, is the Lord of you two) meaning “Who is the one who called you forth and sent you For verily, I do not know him and I have not given you any god other than myself.”

((Musa) said: “Our Lord is He Who gave to each thing its form and nature, then guided it aright.”) `Ali bin Abi Talhah related that Ibn `Abbas said, “He is saying that He created a mate for everything.” Ad-Dahhak said that Ibn `Abbas said, “He made the man a man, and the donkey a donkey and the sheep a sheep.” Layth bin Abi Sulaym reported from Mujahid that he said, “He gave everything its form.” Ibn Abi Najih said that Mujahid said, “He fashioned the creation of every moving creature.” Sa`id bin Jubayr said concerning His statement,

((Who) gave to each thing its form and nature, then guided it aright.) “He gave each of His creatures what is suitable for its creation.” Therefore, He did not give man the form of a wild beast, nor did He give wild beasts the form of the dog. Likewise, the dog’s form is not like the sheep’s. He also gave creature a suitable spouse, and He influenced everything towards that mate. There is no species of creation that is exactly like another species. They are different in their actions, their forms, their sustenance and their mating. Some of the scholars of Tafsir have said that this statement, “He gave to each thing its form and nature, then guided it aright,” is similar to Allah’s statement,

(And Who has measured; and then guided.) ﴿87:3﴾ This means He measured out an ordained amount (of sustenance, actions, etc.) and then guided His creatures to it. He wrote the deeds, the appointed times of death and the provisions. Then, the creatures traverse upon that and they are not able to avoid it, nor are they able to abandon it. In this Ayah Musa is saying that our Lord is the One Who created the creation, measured out its ordainment and compelled the creatures to that which He wanted.

((Fir`awn) said: “What about the generations of old”) The most correct opinion concerning the meaning of this, is that when Musa informed Fir`awn that his Lord Who sent him is the One Who creates, sustains, ordains and guides, Fir`awn began to argue, using the previous generations as a proof. He was referring to those people of old who did not worship Allah. In other words, “If the matter is as you say, then what happened to those people They did not worship your Lord. Instead they worshipped other gods besides Him.” Musa said to him, in response to this, that if they did not worship Allah, then Allah knows precisely what happened to them and He will give them just recompense for their deeds, as is written in Allah’s Book (of decrees). This Book is called Al-Lawh Al-Mahfuz (The Preserved Tablet) and it is the Book of Deeds.

(My Lord neither errs nor forgets.) This means that nothing eludes Him and He does not miss anything, whether it is small or great. He does not forget anything and His Most Exalted knowledge is described as encompassing everything. Blessed be He, the Exalted, the Most Holy and free of any imperfections. The knowledge that creatures have has two deficiencies. The first is that it does not completely encompass anything, and the second is that the creature is prone to forget after knowing. Therefore, Allah has declared Himself above such deficiencies.

الَّذِى جَعَلَ لَكُمُ الاٌّرْضَ مَهْداً وَسَلَكَ لَكُمْ فِيهَا سُبُلاً وَأَنزَلَ مِنَ السَّمَآءِ مَآءً فَأَخْرَجْنَا بِهِ أَزْوَاجاً مِّن نَّبَـتٍ شَتَّى

 (53. Who has made earth for you like a bed; and has opened ways for you therein, and has sent down water (rain) from the sky. And We have brought forth with it various kinds of vegetation.)

 كُلُواْ وَارْعَوْا أَنْعَـمَكُمْ إِنَّ فِى ذلِكَ لأيَـتٍ لاٌّوْلِى النُّهَى

(54. Eat and pasture your cattle; verily, in this are Ayat for men of understanding.)

مِنْهَا خَلَقْنَـكُمْ وَفِيهَا نُعِيدُكُمْ وَمِنْهَا نُخْرِجُكُمْ تَارَةً أُخْرَى

(55. Thereof We created you, and into it We shall return you, and from it We shall bring you out once again.)

 وَلَقَدْ أَرَيْنَـهُ ءَايَـتِنَا كُلَّهَا فَكَذَّبَ وَأَبَى

(56. And indeed We showed him (Fir`awn) all Our Ayat, but he denied and refused.)

Surah 20 Ta Ha Verse 53-56

Tafsir Ibn Kathir

This is from the completion of Musa’s speech concerning the description of His Lord when Fir`awn asked him about Him. He (Musa) said,

(He Who gave to each thing its form and nature, then guided it aright.) Then, Fir`awn attempted to present some argumentative rebuttal during Musa’s reply. Yet, Musa continued by saying, “He is the One Who made the earth as a bed for you.” Some recited the word as Mihadan and others recited it as Mahdan, which means `a place of rest that you settle down upon.’ It also may mean `that which you stand upon, sleep upon or travel upon its back.’

(and has opened ways for you therein.) This means, `He made roads for you to walk upon their shoulders.’ This is just as He, the Exalted, said,

(And placed therein broad highways for them to pass through, that they may be guided.) ﴿21:31

(and has sent down water from the sky. And We have brought forth with it various kinds of vegetation.) referring to the various species of plants, such as vegetation and fruits. Some are sour, some are sweet, some are bitter and there are other kinds as well.

(Eat and pasture your cattle (therein);) meaning, `something that is food for you and a palatable fruit for you, and something that is for your cattle as fodder for them, both green and dry.’

(Verily, in this are Ayat.) This means proofs, signs and evidences.

(for men of understanding.) meaning those who possess correct and upright intelligence realizing that there is no god worthy of worship except Allah, and there is no true Lord other than Him.

(Thereof We created you, and into it we shall return you, and from it We shall bring you out once again.) meaning, `the earth is your beginning. For your father, Adam, was created with dirt from the surface of the earth. You also will be returned to the earth. This means that you will become dirt when you die and decay.’ The statement, “And from it We shall bring you out once again,” means,

(On the Day when He will call you, and you will answer with His praise and obedience, and you will think that you have stayed (in this world) but a little while!) ﴿17:52 ﴾ This Ayah is similar to Allah’s statement,

(He said: “Therein you shall live, and therein you shall die, and from it you shall be brought out.”) ﴿7:25

(And indeed We showed him (Fir`awn) all Our Ayat, but he denied and refused.) This means that the proofs, signs and evi- dences were establi- shed against Fir`awn and he saw them with his own eyes, but he still denied and rejec- ted them due to his disbelief, abstinence and transgression. This is as Allah, the Exalted, says,

(And they belied them wrongfully and arrogantly, though they themselves were convinced thereof.) ﴿27:14

 قَالَ أَجِئْتَنَا لِتُخْرِجَنَا مِنْ أَرْضِنَا بِسِحْرِكَ يمُوسَى

(57. He (Fir`awn) said: “Have you come to drive us out of our land with your magic, O Musa”)

فَلَنَأْتِيَنَّكَ بِسِحْرٍ مِّثْلِهِ فَاجْعَلْ بَيْنَنَا وَبَيْنَكَ مَوْعِداً لاَّ نُخْلِفُهُ نَحْنُ وَلاَ أَنتَ مَكَاناً سُوًى

 (58. “Then verily, we can produce magic the like thereof; so appoint a meeting between us and you, which neither we nor you shall fail to keep, in an open place where both shall have a just and equal chance.”)

قَالَ مَوْعِدُكُمْ يَوْمُ الزِّينَةِ وَأَن يُحْشَرَ النَّاسُ ضُحًى

(59. (Musa) said: “Your appointed meeting is the day of the festival, and let the people assemble when the sun has risen (forenoon).”)

Surah 20 Ta Ha Verse 57-59

Tafsir Ibn Kathir

Allah, the Exalted, informs of what Fir`awn said to Musa when he showed him the great proof. This great sign to Fir`awn was Musa casting down his stick which became a huge snake, and his pulling his hand out from under his arm while it was glowing white without any illness. At this, Fir`awn said, “This is magic that you have brought to us to bewitch us and conquer the people, so that they will follow you. Then you will outnumber us.” Fir`awn then said, “Your plan will not work. We have magic just like yours, so do not let yourself be deceived by that what you are doing.”

(so appoint a meeting between us and you,) Meaning, `a day that we can come together to present some of our magic to confront yours. It will be at a specified place and time.’ With this, Musa said to them,

(Your appointed meeting is the day of festival,) That was the day of their celebration and their New Year’s festivity. It was a holiday for them when they took vacation from their work and came together for a large gathering. This day was selected so that all of the people could witness the power of Allah to do whatever He wills. They would see the miracles of the prophets and the futility of magic to contest the supernatural prophetic powers. This is why Musa said,

(and let the people assemble) meaning all of them.

(when the sun has risen (forenoon).) meaning in the morning, just before noon. In this way the contest will be most visible, well lit, apparent and obvious in plain view. This is the way of the Prophets. Their work is always clear and apparent. It is never something hidden, or something for sale. This is why he did not say that the meeting should be at night, but rather, it was to be held during the bright part of the day. Ibn `Abbas said, “The day of their festivity was the day of `Ashura’.” As-Suddi, Qatadah and Ibn Zayd said, “It was the day of their great celebration.” Sa`id bin Jubayr said, “It was the day of their great bazzar.” These statements are not contradictory. I say that Allah destroyed Fir`awn and his armies on a day similar to this, just as is confirmed in the Sahih. `Abdur-Rahman bin Zayd bin Aslam said, “It was a flat place where all of the people were on the same level, having an equal view of the event. There was nothing there that would obstruct the view so that some people could see what others did not.”

The Prophethood of Nuh (Noah) Alaihi Salaam

بِسْمِ اللَّهِ الرَّحْمَـنِ الرَّحِيمِ  

Bismillah-ir-Rahman-ir-Raheem: In the name of Allah, the Compassionate, the Merciful.  

Welcome to my blog and praise the Magnificent Lord as you enter: Allahu Akbar: Allah is the Greatest .  

May the Peace and Blessing of Allah Azza wa Jal, our Lord Glorified and Praised be He, be upon our beloved Prophet, his Family, and Companions.

The Prophethood of Nuh (Noah) Alaihi Salaam.

إِنَّآ أَرْسَلْنَا نُوحاً إِلَى قَوْمِهِ أَنْ أَنذِرْ قَوْمَكَ مِن قَبْلِ أَن يَأْتِيَهُمْ عَذَابٌ أَلِيمٌ

(1. Verily, We sent Nuh to his people (saying): “Warn your people before there comes to them a painful torment.”)

 قَالَ يقَوْمِ إِنِّى لَكُمْ نَذِيرٌ مُّبِينٌ

(2. He said: “O my people! Verily, I am a plain warner to you,”)

 أَنِ اعْبُدُواْ اللَّهَ وَاتَّقُوهُ وَأَطِيعُونِ

(3. “That you should worship Allah, and have Taqwa of Him, and obey me,”)

يَغْفِرْ لَكُمْ مِّن ذُنُوبِكُمْ وَيُؤَخِّرْكُمْ إِلَى أَجَلٍ مُّسَمًّى إِنَّ أَجَلَ اللَّهِ إِذَا جَآءَ لاَ يُؤَخَّرُ لَوْ كُنتُمْ تَعْلَمُونَ

 (4. “He will forgive you of your sins and respite you to an appointed term. Verily, the term of Allah when it comes, cannot be delayed, if you but know.”)

Surah 71 Nuh, Verse 1-4

Tafsir Ibn Kathir

Allah says concerning Nuh that He sent him to his people commanding him to warn them of the punishment of Allah before it befell them. He was to tell them that if they would repent and turn to Allah, then the punishment would be lifted from them. Due to this Allah says,

(Warn your people before there comes to them a painful torment.” He said: “O my people! Verily, I am a plain warner to you.”) meaning, clarity of the warning, making the matter apparent and clear.

(That you should worship Allah, and have Taqwa of Him,) meaning, `abandon those things that He has forbidden and avoid that which He has declared to be sinful.’

(and obey me,) `In that which I command you to do and that which I forbid you from.’

(He will forgive you of your sins) meaning, `if you do what I command you to do and you believe in what I have been sent with to you, then Allah will forgive you for your sins. ‘

(and respite you to an appointed term.) meaning, `He will extend your life span and protect you from the torment that He would have made befall you if you did not stay away from His prohibitions.’ This Ayah is used as proof by those who say that obedience (to Allah), righteousness and maintaining the family ties truly increase the life span of a person. This is like that which has been reported in the Hadith,

(Maintaining the family ties increases the life span.) Concerning Allah’s statement,

(Verily, the term of Allah when it comes, cannot be delayed, if you but know.) means, hasten to the obedience (of Allah) before the coming of His vengeance. For verily, if He commands that to happen, it cannot be repulsed or prevented. For He is the Great One Who compels everything, and He is the Almighty Whose might all of creation succumbs to.

قَالَ رَبِّ إِنِّى دَعَوْتُ قَوْمِى لَيْلاً وَنَهَاراً

(5. He said: O my Lord! Verily, I have called to my people night and day,) 

فَلَمْ يَزِدْهُمْ دُعَآئِى إِلاَّ فِرَاراً

(6. But all my calling added nothing but to (their) flight.)

وَإِنِّى كُلَّمَا دَعَوْتُهُمْ لِتَغْفِرَ لَهُمْ جَعَلُواْ أَصَـبِعَهُمْ فِى ءَاذَنِهِمْ وَاسْتَغْشَوْاْ ثِيَابَهُمْ وَأَصَرُّواْ وَاسْتَكْبَرُواْ اسْتِكْبَاراً

 (7. And verily, every time I called unto them that You might forgive them, they thrust their fingers into their ears, covered themselves up with their garments, and persisted, and magnified themselves in pride.)

ثُمَّ إِنِّى دَعَوْتُهُمْ جِهَـراً

(8. Then verily, I called to them openly (aloud).)

ثُمَّ إِنِّى أَعْلَنْتُ لَهُمْ وَأَسْرَرْتُ لَهُمْ إِسْرَاراً

(9. Then verily, I proclaimed to them in public, and I have appealed to them in private.)

 فَقُلْتُ اسْتَغْفِرُواْ رَبَّكُمْ إِنَّهُ كَانَ غَفَّاراً

(10. I said (to them): Ask forgiveness from your Lord, verily, He is Oft-Forgiving;)

 يُرْسِلِ السَّمَآءَ عَلَيْكُمْ مُدْرَاراً

(11. He will send rain to you Midrar,)

 وَيُمْدِدْكُمْ بِأَمْوَلٍ وَبَنِينَ وَيَجْعَل لَّكُمْ جَنَّـتٍ وَيَجْعَل لَّكُمْ أَنْهَاراً

(12. And give you increase in wealth and children, and bestow on you gardens and bestow on you rivers.)

 مَّا لَكُمْ لاَ تَرْجُونَ لِلَّهِ وَقَاراً

(13. What is the matter with you, that you do not hope for any Waqar from Allah)

وَقَدْ خَلَقَكُمْ أَطْوَاراً

(14. While He has created you (in) Atwar (stages).)

أَلَمْ تَرَوْاْ كَيْفَ خَلَقَ اللَّهُ سَبْعَ سَمَـوَتٍ طِبَاقاً

(15. See you not how Allah has created the seven heavens in tiers)

وَجَعَلَ الْقَمَرَ فِيهِنَّ نُوراً وَجَعَلَ الشَّمْسَ سِرَاجاً

 (16. And has made the moon a light therein, and made the sun a lamp)

وَاللَّهُ أَنبَتَكُمْ مِّنَ الاٌّرْضِ نَبَاتاً

(17. And Allah has brought you forth from the (dust of) earth)

ثُمَّ يُعِيدُكُمْ فِيهَا وَيُخْرِجُكُمْ إِخْرَاجاً

(18. Afterwards He will return you into it (the earth), and bring you forth.)

وَاللَّهُ جَعَلَ لَكُمُ الاٌّرْضَ بِسَاطاً

(19. And Allah has made for you the earth a wide expanse.)

لِّتَسْلُكُواْ مِنْهَا سُبُلاً فِجَاجاً

(20. That you may go about therein in broad roads.)

Surah 71 Nuh, Verse 5-20

Tafsir Ibn Kathir

Allah tells about His servant and Messenger, Nuh, and that he complained to his Lord about the response he received from his people, and how he was patient with them for this long period of time — which was nine hundred and fifty years. He complained due to his explaining and clarifying matters for them and his calling them to guidance and the straightest path. So he (Nuh) said,

(O my Lord! Verily, I have called to my people night and day,) meaning, `I did not abandon calling them night and day, carrying out Your command and in obediance to You.’

(But all my calling added nothing but to (their) flight.) meaning, `the more I called them to come to the truth, the more they fled from it and avoided it.’

(And verily, every time I called unto them that You might forgive them, they thrust their fingers into their ears, covered themselves up with their garments,) meaning, `they closed up their ears so that they could not hear what I was calling them to.’ This is similar to what Allah said about the disbelievers of the Quraysh.

(And those who disbelieve say: “Listen not to this Qur’an, and make noise in the midst of its (recitation) that you may overcome.”) (41:26)

(covered themselves up with their garments,) Ibn Jarir recorded from Ibn `Abbas that he said, “They concealed themselves under false pretences from him so that he would not recognize them.” Sa`id bin Jubayr and As-Suddi both said, “They covered their heads so that they could not hear what he was saying.”

(and persisted,) meaning, they continued in what they were upon of associating partners with Allah and great disbelief.

(and magnified themselves in pride.) meaning, they were turned away from following the truth and submitting to it.

(Then verily, I called to them openly.) meaning, openly among the people.

(Then verily, I proclaimed to them in public,) meaning, with open speech and a raised voice.

(and I have appealed to them in private.) meaning, in discussions with them. So he tried various types of propagation to be more effective with them. 

(I said: Ask forgiveness from your Lord, verily, He is Oft-Forgiving;) meaning, `return to Him and turn away from what you are involved in. Repent to Him soon, for verily, He is Most Accepting of the repentance of those who turn to Him in repentance. He will accept repentance no matter what the sin is, even if it is disbelief and polytheism.’ Thus, he said,

(I said: Ask forgiveness from your Lord, verily, He is Oft-Forgiving; He will send rain to you Midrar ,  Nuh complains about his Encounter with His People Allah tells about His servant and Messenger, Nuh, and that he complained to his Lord about the response he received from his people, and how he was patient with them for this long period of time — which was nine hundred and fifty years. He complained due to his explaining and clarifying matters for them and his calling them to guidance and the straightest path. So he (Nuh) said,

(O my Lord! Verily, I have called to my people night and day,) meaning, `I did not abandon calling them night and day, carrying out Your command and in obediance to You.’

(But all my calling added nothing but to (their) flight.) meaning, `the more I called them to come to the truth, the more they fled from it and avoided it.’

(And verily, every time I called unto them that You might forgive them, they thrust their fingers into their ears, covered themselves up with their garments,) meaning, `they closed up their ears so that they could not hear what I was calling them to.’ This is similar to what Allah said about the disbelievers of the Quraysh.

(I said: Ask forgiveness from your Lord, verily, He is Oft-Forgiving;) meaning, `return to Him and turn away from what you are involved in. Repent to Him soon, for verily, He is Most Accepting of the repentance of those who turn to Him in repentance. He will accept repentance no matter what the sin is, even if it is disbelief and polytheism.’ Thus, he said,

(I said: Ask forgiveness from your Lord, verily, He is Oft-Forgiving; He will send rain to you Midrar,) meaning, continuous rain. Thus, it is recommended to recite this Surah in the prayer for rain due to this Ayah. This has been reported from the Commander of the faithful, `Umar bin Al-Khattab. He ascended the Minbar to perform the prayer for rain, and he did not do more than seeking Allah’s forgiveness and reciting the Ayat that mention seeking Allah’s forgiveness.

(I said: Ask forgiveness from your Lord, verily, He is Oft-Forgiving; He will send rain to you Midrar,) Then he (`Umar) said, “Verily, I have sought rain with the keys of the sky which cause the rain to descend.” Ibn `Abbas and others have said, “It (Midrar) means some of it (rain) following others.” Among these Ayat: Concerning Allah’s statement,

(And give you increase in wealth and children, and bestow on you gardens and bestow on you rivers.) meaning, `if you repent to Allah, seek His forgiveness and obey Him, He will increase your provisions for you and provide you with water from the blessings of the sky. He will cause the blessings of the earth and crops to grow for you. He will increase your live stock animals for you and give you more wealth and children. This means that He will give you more wealth, more children and gardens with various types of fruits. He will cause rivers to flow among these gardens.’ This is the position of the invitation with encouragement. Then He made it balanced for them by using intimidation. He said,

(What is the matter with you, that you do not hope for any Waqar from Allah) meaning, great majesty. This has been said by Ibn `Abbas, Mujahid and Ad-Dahhak. Ibn `Abbas said, “That you all do not magnify Allah in the proper manner that He deserves to be magnified. Meaning, you do not fear His punishment and His vengeance.”

(While He has created you (in) Atwar (stages).) It has been said that this means from a drop of sperm, then from a hanging clot, then from a lump of flesh. Ibn `Abbas, `Ikrimah, Qatadah, Yahya bin Rafi`, As-Suddi and Ibn Zayd, all said this. Concerning Allah’s statement,

(See you not how Allah has created the seven heavens in tiers) meaning, one above another. Can this be comprehended simply by hearing it only or is it of the matters that actually can be perceived with the senses which are known about the movements (of the heavenly bodies) and the eclipses. It is known that they (the scholars) have many different opinions about these matters that we will not discuss here. The only intent here is that Allah

(Allah has created the seven heavens in tiers and has made the moon a light therein, and made the sun a lamp) meaning, He made a distinction between them (the sun and moon) in reference to their lighting. He made each one of them in a set manner with a distinct quality so that the night and day may be known. They (the night and day) are known by the rising and setting of the sun. He also determined fixed stations and positions for the moon, and He made its light vary so that sometimes it increases until it reaches a maximum, then it begins to decrease until it is completely veiled. This shows the passing of months and years. This is as Allah said,

(It is He Who made the sun a shining thing and the moon as a light and measured out for its stages that you might know the number of years and the reckoning. Allah did not create this but in truth. He explains the Ayat in detail for people who have knowledge.) (10:5) Concerning Allah’s statement,

(And Allah has brought you forth from the (dust of) earth) This (Nabat) is a verbal noun (for emphasis) and its usage here is most excellent.

(Afterwards He will return you into it (the earth),) (71:18) meaning, when you die.

(And bring you forth.) meaning, on the Day of Judgement He will repeat your creation just as He first originated you.

(And Allah has made for you the earth a wide expanse.) meaning, He spread it out, leveled it, settled it, and stabilized it with firm and lofty mountains.

(That you may go about therein in broad roads.) meaning, He created it so that you may settle in it and travel in it wherever you wish, from its different sides, areas and regions. All of this is from what Nuh informed them of concerning Allah’s power and His greatness in creating the heavens and the earth. It demostrates the favor that He did for them by making both heavenly benefits and earthly benefits. For He is the Creator and the Sustainer Who made the heaven as a building and the earth as a bed, and He enlarged His provisions for His creatures. Therefore, He is the One Who it is obligatory to worship, and accept as One God. No one should be associated with Him as a partner, because He has no equal, peer, rival, coequal, mate, son, minister or advisor, rather He is the Most High, the Most Great.

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