The earth becomes the dwelling place for Adam, peace be upon him, and his progeny

I take refuge with Allaah from the accursed devil.

بِسْمِ اللَّهِ الرَّحْمَـنِ الرَّحِيمِ

Bismillah-ir-Rahman-ir-Raheem: In the name of Allah, the Compassionate, the Merciful.

Welcome to my blog and praise the Magnificent Lord as you enter: Allahu Akbar: Allah is the Greatest .

May the Peace and Blessings of Allah Azza wa Jal, our Lord Glorified and Praised be He, be upon our beloved  Prophet, his Family, and Companions.

The earth becomes the dwelling place for Adam, peace be upon him, and his progeny.

قَالَ اهْبِطُواْ بَعْضُكُمْ لِبَعْضٍ عَدُوٌّ وَلَكُمْ فِى الاٌّرْضِ مُسْتَقَرٌّ وَمَتَـعٌ إِلَى حِينٍ

(24. (Allah) said: “Get down, one of you an enemy to the other. On earth will be a dwelling place for you and an enjoyment for a time.”)

 قَالَ فِيهَا تَحْيَوْنَ وَفِيهَا تَمُوتُونَ وَمِنْهَا تُخْرَجُونَ

(25. He said: “Therein you shall live, and therein you shall die, and from it you shall be brought out (resurrected).”)

Surah 7 Al Araf verse 24-25

Tafsir Ibn Kathir

Sending Them All Down to Earth

It was said that,

(Get down), was addressed to Adam, Hawwa’, Iblis and the snake. Some scholars did not mention the snake, and Allah knows best. The enmity is primarily between Adam and Iblis, and Hawwa’ follows Adam in this regard. Allah said in Surah Ta Ha,

(“Get you down (from the Paradise to the earth), both of you, together…”) [20:123]. If the story about the snake is true, then it is a follower of Iblis. Some scholars mentioned the location on earth they were sent down, but these accounts are taken from the Israelite tales, and only Allah knows if they are true. If having known these areas was useful for the people in matters of religion or life, Allah would have mentioned them in His Book, and His Messenger would have mentioned them too. Allah’s statement,

(On earth will be a dwelling place for you and an enjoyment for a time.) means, on earth you will have dwellings and known, designated, appointed terms that have been recorded by the Pen, counted by Predestination and written in the First Record.

(He (Allah) said: “Therein you shall live, and therein you shall die, and from it you shall be brought out (resurrected).”) This Ayah is similar to Allah’s other statement,

(Thereof (the earth) We created you, and into it We shall return you, and from it We shall bring you out once again.) [20:55]. Allah states that He has made the earth a dwelling place for the Children of Adam, for the remainder of this earthly life. On it, they will live, die and be buried in their graves; and from it, they will be resurrected for the Day of Resurrection. On that Day, Allah will gather the first and last of creatures and reward or punish each according to his or her deeds.

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The Story of Adam, peace be upon him, and Iblis

I take refuge with Allaah from the accursed devil.

بِسْمِ اللَّهِ الرَّحْمَـنِ الرَّحِيمِ

Bismillah-ir-Rahman-ir-Raheem: In the name of Allah, the Compassionate, the Merciful.

Welcome to my blog and praise the Magnificent Lord as you enter: Allahu Akbar: Allah is the Greatest .

May the Peace and Blessings of Allah Azza wa Jal, our Lord Glorified and Praised be He, be upon our beloved  Prophet, his Family, and Companions.

The Story of Adam, peace be upon him, and Iblis.

وَلَقَدْ عَهِدْنَآ إِلَى ءَادَمَ مِن قَبْلُ فَنَسِىَ وَلَمْ نَجِدْ لَهُ عَزْماً

(115. And indeed We made a covenant with Adam before, but he forgot, and We found on his part no firm willpower.)

وَإِذْ قُلْنَا لِلْمَلَـئِكَةِ اسْجُدُواْ لأَدَمَ فَسَجَدُواْ إِلاَّ إِبْلِيسَ أَبَى

 (116. And (remember) when We said to the angels: “Prostrate yourselves to Adam.” They prostrated themselves (all) except Iblis; he refused.)

فَقُلْنَا يـَادَمُ إِنَّ هَـذَا عَدُوٌّ لَّكَ وَلِزَوْجِكَ فَلاَ يُخْرِجَنَّكُمَا مِنَ الْجَنَّةِ فَتَشْقَى

(117. Then We said: “O Adam! Verily, this is an enemy to you and to your wife. So let him not get you both out of Paradise, so that you will be distressed.”)

 إِنَّ لَكَ أَلاَّ تَجُوعَ فِيهَا وَلاَ تَعْرَى

 (118. “You will never be hungry therein nor naked.”)

 وَأَنَّكَ لاَ تَظْمَؤُا فِيهَا وَلاَ تَضْحَى

(119. “And you (will) suffer not from thirst therein nor from the sun’s heat.”)

 فَوَسْوَسَ إِلَيْهِ الشَّيْطَـنُ قَالَ يـَادَمُ هَلْ أَدُلُّكَ عَلَى شَجَرَةِ الْخُلْدِ وَمُلْكٍ لاَّ يَبْلَى

(120. Then Shaytan whispered to him, saying: “O Adam! Shall I lead you to the Tree of Eternity and to a kingdom that will never waste away”)

فَأَكَلاَ مِنْهَا فَبَدَتْ لَهُمَا سَوْءَتُهُمَا وَطَفِقَا يَخْصِفَانِ عَلَيْهِمَا مِن وَرَقِ الْجَنَّةِ وَعَصَى ءَادَمُ رَبَّهُ فَغَوَى

 (121. Then they both ate of the Tree, and so their private parts became manifest to them, and they began to cover themselves with the leaves of the Paradise for their covering. Thus Adam disobeyd his Lord, so he went astray.)

ثُمَّ اجْتَبَـهُ رَبُّهُ فَتَابَ عَلَيْهِ وَهَدَى

(122. Then his Lord chose him, and turned to him with forgiveness, and gave him guidance.)

Surah 20 Ta-Ha Verse 115-122

Tafsir Ibn Kathir

Ibn Abi Hatim recorded that Ibn `Abbas said, “Verily, man was named Insan only because he was given a covenant, but he forgot it (Nasiya).” `Ali bin Abi Talhah reported the same from Ibn `Abbas. Mujahid and Al-Hasan said that he forgot means, “He abandoned it.” Concerning Allah’s statement,

(And when We said to the angels: “Prostrate yourselves to Adam.”) He, Allah mentions how Adam was honored and what respect was given to him. He mentions how He favored him over many of those whom He created. A discussion of this story has already preceded in Surat Al-Baqarah, Surat Al-A`raf, Surat Al-Hijr and Surat Al-Kahf. It will also be mentioned again at the end of Surah Sad. In this story, Allah mentions the creation of Adam and that He commanded the angels to prostrate to Adam as a sign of honor and respect. He also explains the enmity of Iblis for the Children of Adam and for their father, Adam, before them. Due to this Allah says,

(They prostrated themselves (all) except Iblis; he refused.) This means that he refrained from prostrating and became arrogant.

(Then We said: “O Adam! Verily, this is an enemy to you and to your wife…”) here wife refers to Hawwa’.

(So let him not get you both out of Paradise, so that you will be distressed.) meaning, `Do not be hasty in doing something that will get you expelled from Paradise, or else you will be fatigued, discomforted and worried, seeking your sustenance. But here, in Paradise, you live a life of ease with no burdens and no difficulties.’

(Verily, you will never be hungry therein nor naked.) The reason that Allah combined hunger and nakedness is because hunger is internal humiliation, while nakedness is external humiliation.

(And you (will) suffer not from thirst therein nor from the sun’s heat.) These two characteristics are also opposites. Thirst is the internal heat and being parched from lack of water, while the suns heat is the external heat.

(Then Shaytan whispered to him, saying: “O Adam! Shall I lead you to the Tree of Eternity and to a kingdom that will never waste away”) It has already been mentioned that he caused them to fall through deception.

(And he swore by Allah to them both: “Verily, I am one of the sincere well-wishers for you both.”) [7:21] It has already preceded in our discussion that Allah took a promise from Adam and his wife that although they could eat from every fruit, they could not come near a specific tree in Paradise. However, Iblis did not cease prodding them until they both had eaten from it. It was the Tree of Eternity (Shajarat Al-Khuld). This meant that anyone who ate from it would live forever and always remain. A Hadith has been narrated which mentions this Tree of Eternity. Abu Dawud At-Tayalisi reported from Abu Hurayrah that the Prophet said,

(Verily, in Paradise there is a tree which a rider can travel under its shade for one hundred years and still not have passed it. It is the Tree of Eternity.) Imam Ahmad also recorded this narration. Concerning Allah’s statement,

(Then they both ate of the tree, and so their private parts became manifest to them,) Ibn Abi Hatim recorded that Ubayy bin Ka`b said that the Messenger of Allah said,

(Verily, Allah created Adam as a tall man with an abundance of hair on his head. He looked like a clothed palm tree. Then, when he tasted (the fruit of) the tree, his clothes fell off of him. The first thing that became exposed was his private parts. So when he noticed his nakedness, he tried to run back into Paradise. However, in the process a tree caught hold of his hair (i.e. his hair was tangled in a tree), so he ripped his hair out. Then, the Most Beneficent called out to him saying, “O Adam, are you fleeing from me” When he heard the Words of the Most Beneficent, he said, “No my Lord, but I am ashamed. If I repent and recant would You let me return to Paradise” Allah replied, “Yes.”) This is the meaning of Allah’s statement,

(Then Adam received from his Lord Words. And his Lord pardoned him.) [2:37] However, this narration has a break in the chain of transmission between Al-Hasan and Ubayy bin Ka`b. Al-Hasan did not hear this Hadith from Ubayy. It is questionable as to whether this narration can be correctly attributed to the Prophet . Allah said,

(And they began to cover themselves with the leaves of the Paradise for their covering. ) Mujahid said, “They patched the leaves on themselves in the form of a garment.” Qatadah and As-Suddi both said the same. Concerning Allah’s statement,

(Thus Adam disobeyed his Lord, so he went astray. Then his Lord chose him, and turned to him with forgiveness, and gave him guidance.) Al-Bukhari recorded that Abu Hurayrah said that the Prophet said,

(Musa argued with Adam and he said to him, “Are you the one who got mankind expelled from Paradise because of your sin and you caused them grief!” Adam replied, “Are you the one whom Allah chose for His Divine Messages and His direct Speech Are you blaming me for a matter that Allah wrote upon me before He created me”) Then, the Messenger of Allah said, (Thus, Adam defeated Musa.) This Hadith has various routes of transmission in the Two Sahihs as well as the Musnad collections.

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Our father Adam, peace be upon him, and how it all began

I take refuge with Allaah from the accursed devil.

بِسْمِ اللَّهِ الرَّحْمَـنِ الرَّحِيمِ

Bismillah-ir-Rahman-ir-Raheem: In the name of Allah, the Compassionate, the Merciful.

Welcome to my blog and praise the Magnificent Lord as you enter: Allahu Akbar: Allah is the Greatest .

May the Peace and Blessings of Allah Azza wa Jal, our Lord Glorified and Praised be He, be upon our beloved  Prophet, his Family, and Companions.

Our father Adam, peace be upon him, and how it all began.

وَلَقَدْ خَلَقْنَـكُمْ ثُمَّ صَوَّرْنَـكُمْ ثُمَّ قُلْنَا لِلْمَلَـئِكَةِ اسْجُدُواْ لأَدَمَ فَسَجَدُواْ إِلاَ إِبْلِيسَ لَمْ يَكُن مِّنَ السَّـجِدِينَ

(11. And surely, We created you and then gave you shape; then We told the angels, “Prostrate yourselves to Adam,” and they prostrated, except Iblis (Shaytan), he refused to be of those who prostrated.)

Surah 7 Al Araf Verse 11

Tafsir Ibn Kathir

Prostration of the Angels to Adam and Shaytan’s Arrogance.

Allah informs the Children of Adam about the honor of their father and the enmity of Shaytan, who still has envy for them and for their father Adam. So they should beware of him and not follow in his footsteps. Allah said,

(And surely, We created you and then gave you shape; then We told the angels, “Prostrate yourselves to Adam,” and they prostrated,) This is like His saying,

(And (remember) when your Lord said to the angels: “I am going to create a man from dried (sounding) clay of altered mud. So, when I have fashioned him completely and breathed into him the soul (which I created for him), then fall (you) down prostrating yourselves unto him.”) [15:28-29]. After Allah created Adam with His Hands from dried clay of altered mud and made him in the shape of a human being, He blew life into him and ordered the angels to prostrate before him, honoring Allah’s glory and magnificence. The angels all heard, obeyed and prostrated, but Iblis did not prostrate. We explained this subject in the beginning of Surat Al-Baqarah. Therefore, the Ayah (7:11) refers to Adam, although Allah used the plural in this case, because Adam is the father of all mankind. Similarly, Allah said to the Children of Israel who lived during the time of the Prophet ,

(And We shaded you with clouds and sent down on you manna and the quail,)[2:57] This refers to their forefathers who lived during the time of Moses. But, since that was a favor given to the forefathers, and they are their very source, then the offspring have also been favored by it. This is not the case in:

(And indeed We created man out of an extract of clay (water and earth.))[23:12] For this merely means that Adam was created from clay. His children were created from Nutfah (mixed male and female sexual discharge). This last Ayah is thus talking about the origin of mankind, not that they were all created from clay, and Allah knows best.

قَالَ مَا مَنَعَكَ أَلاَّ تَسْجُدَ إِذْ أَمَرْتُكَ قَالَ أَنَاْ خَيْرٌ مِّنْهُ خَلَقْتَنِي مِن نَّارٍ وَخَلَقْتَهُ مِن طِينٍ

(12. (Allah) said: “What prevented you (O Iblis) that you did not prostrate, when I commanded you” Iblis said: “I am better than him (Adam), You created me from fire, and him You created from clay.”)

Surah 7 Al Araf Verse 12

Tafsir Ibn Kathir

 Allah said,

(What prevented you (O Iblis) that you did not prostrate) [7: 12] meaning, what stopped and hindered you from prostrating after I ordered you to do so, according to Ibn Jarir. This meaning is sound, and Allah knows best. Iblis, may Allah curse him, said,

(I am better than him (Adam)), and this excuse is worse than the crime itself! Shaytan said that he did not obey Allah because he who is better cannot prostrate to he who is less. Shaytan, may Allah curse him, meant that he is better than Adam, “So how can You order me to prostrate before him” Shaytan said that he is better than Adam because he was created from fire while, “You created him from clay, and fire is better.” The cursed one looked at the origin of creation not at the honor bestowed, that is, Allah creating Adam with His Hand and blowing life into him. Shaytan made a false comparison when confronted by Allah’s command,

 (“Then you fall down prostrate to him”)[38:72]. Therefore, Shaytan alone contradicted the angels, because he refused to prostrate. He, thus, became `Ablasa’ from the mercy, meaning, lost hope in acquiring Allah’s mercy. He committed this error, may Allah curse him, due to his false comparison. His claim that the fire is more honored than mud was also false, because mud has the qualities of wisdom, for – bearance, patience and assurance, mud is where plants grow, flourish, increase, and provide good. To the contrary, fire has the qualities of burning, recklessness and hastiness. Therefore, the origin of creation directed Shaytan to failure, while the origin of Adam led him to return to Allah with repentance, humbleness, obedience and submission to His command, admitting his error and seeking Allah’s forgiveness and pardon for it. Muslim recorded that `Aishah said that the Messenger of Allah said,

(The angels were created from light, Shaytan from a smokeless flame of fire, while Adam was created from what was described to you).

Iblis was the First to use Qiyas (Analogical Comparison).

Ibn Jarir recorded that Al-Hasan commented on Shaytan’s statement,

(“You created me from fire, and him You created from clay.”) “Iblis used Qiyas [analogy], and he was the first one to do so.” This statement has an authentic chain of narration. Ibn Jarir recorded that Ibn Sirin said, “The first to use Qiyas was Iblis, and would the sun and moon be worshipped if it was not for Qiyas” This statement also has an authentic chain of narration.

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The Noble Son of Adam, peace be upon him

 I take refuge with Allaah from the accursed devil.  

بِسْمِ اللَّهِ الرَّحْمَـنِ الرَّحِيمِ 

  Bismillah-ir-Rahman-ir-Raheem: In the name of Allah, the Compassionate, the Merciful.  

 Welcome to my blog and praise the Magnificent Lord as you enter: Allahu Akbar: Allah is the Greatest .

May the Peace and Blessing of Allah Azza wa Jal, our Lord Glorified and Praised be He, be upon our beloved Prophet, his Family, and Companions.

The Noble Son of Adam, Alaihi Salaam.

وَلَقَدْ كَرَّمْنَا بَنِى ءَادَمَ وَحَمَلْنَـهُمْ فِى الْبَرِّ وَالْبَحْرِ وَرَزَقْنَـهُمْ مِّنَ الطَّيِّبَـتِ وَفَضَّلْنَـهُمْ عَلَى كَثِيرٍ مِّمَّنْ خَلَقْنَا تَفْضِيلاً

(70. And indeed We have honored the Children of Adam, and We have carried them on land and sea, and have provided them with At-Tayyibat, and have preferred them above many of those whom We have created with a marked preferment).

Surah 17 Al Isra Verse 70

Tafsir Ibn Kathir

Allah tells us how He has honored the sons of Adam and made them noble by creating them in the best and most perfect of forms, as He says:

(Verily, We created man in the best stature (mould).) (95:4) He walks upright on his two feet and eats with his hand, whilet other living creatures walk on four feet and eat with their mouths, and He has given him hearing, sight and a heart with which to understand all of that, to benefit from it, and distinguish between things to know which are good for him and which are harmful, in both worldly and religious terms.

(and We have carried them on land) means, on animals such as cattle, horses and mules, and also on the sea in ships and boats, great and small.

(and have provided them with At-Tayyibat,) meaning agricultural produce, fruits, meat, and milk with all kinds of delicious and desirable flavors and colors and beautiful appearance, and fine clothes of all kinds of shapes colors and sizes, which they make for themselves or are brought to them by others from other regions and areas.

(and have preferred them above many of those whom We have created with a marked preferment. ) means, over all living beings and other kinds of creation. This Ayah indicates that human are also preferred over the angels.

يَوْمَ نَدْعُواْ كُلَّ أُنَاسٍ بِإِمَـمِهِمْ فَمَنْ أُوتِىَ كِتَـبَهُ بِيَمِينِهِ فَأُوْلَـئِكَ يَقْرَءُونَ كِتَـبَهُمْ وَلاَ يُظْلَمُونَ فَتِيلاً

(71. (And remember) the Day when We shall call together all human beings with their (respective) Imam (i.e. the Book of deeds). So whosoever is given his record in his right hand, such will read their records, and they will not be dealt with unjustly in the least.)

 وَمَن كَانَ فِى هَـذِهِ أَعْمَى فَهُوَ فِى الاٌّخِرَةِ أَعْمَى وَأَضَلُّ سَبِيلاً

 (72. And whoever is blind in this [world] then he will be blind in the Hereafter, and most astray from the path.)

Surah 17 Al Isra Verse 71-72

Tafsir Ibn Kathir

Allah tells us that on the Day of Resurrection, he will call each people to account by its Imam. The scholars differed as to the meaning of this (i.e. Imam. Mujahid and Qatadah said that it meant each nation would be called to account by its Prophet. Some of the Salaf said this is the greatest honor for the people of Hadith, because their leader is the Prophet . Ibn Zayd said it means they would be called to account by their Book which was revealed to their Prophet with its laws. This was also the view favored by Ibn Jarir. Ibn Abi Najih narrated that Mujahid said, “With their Books.” It may be that what is meant here is what Al-`Awfi narrated from Ibn `Abbas concerning this Ayah,

((And remember) the Day when We shall call together all human beings with their (respective) Imam), which is that it refers to the Book (or record) of their deeds. This was also the view of Abu Al-`Aliyah, Al-Hasan and Ad-Dahhak. This view is the most correct, because Allah says:

(and all things We have recorded with numbers (as a record) in a Clear Book [Fi Imamin Mubin]) [36:12]

(And the Book (one’s record) will be placed, and you will see the criminals, fearful of that which is (recorded) therein) [18:49]

(And you will see each nation humbled to their knees, each nation will be called to its record (of deeds). This Day you shall be recompensed for what you used to do. This Our record speaks about you with truth. Verily, We were recording what you used to do.) (45:28-29) This does not contradict the fact that the Prophet will be brought forward when Allah judges between his Ummah, for he will inevitably be a witness against his Ummah over their deeds. But what is meant here by Imam is the Book of deeds. Allah says:

((And remember) the Day when We shall call together all human beings with their (respective) Imam. So whosoever is given his record in his right hand, such will read their records,) means, because of their happiness and joy at what is recorded therein of good deeds – they will read it and want to read it. As Allah says:

(Then as for him who will be given his record in his right hand will say: “Here! read my record!) until His saying,

(But as for him who will be given his record in his left hand,) [69:19-29]

(and they will not be dealt with unjustly in the least [Fatilan].) We have already mentioned that the Fatil is the long thread in the groove of a date-pit. Al-Hafiz Abu Bakr Al-Bazzar recorded a Hadith from Abu Hurayrah according to which the Prophet said, concerning the Ayah,

((And remember) the Day when We shall call together all human beings with their (respective) Imam.)

(One of you will be called and will be given his Book in his right hand. He will be in a good physical state, with a white face, and there will be placed on his head a crown of shining pearls. He will go to his companions and they will see him from afar, and will say, “O Allah, let him come to us and bless us with this.” Then he will come to them and will say to them, “Rejoice, for every man among you will be like this.” As for the disbeliever, his face will be black and his body will be enlarged. His companions will see him from afar and will say, “We seek refuge in Allah from this, or from the evil of this, O Allah, do not let him come to us.” “Then he will come to them and they will say, O Allah, humiliate him!” He will say, “May Allah cast you away, every man among you will be like this.”) Then Al-Bazzar said: “This was only reported through this chain.”

(And whoever is blind in this) Ibn `Abbas, Mujahid, Qatadah and Ibn Zayd said: this means in this worldly life.

(blind) means, blind to the signs and proofs of Allah.

(then he will be blind in the Hereafter,) as he was blind in this world.`

(and most astray from the path.) most astray as he was in this world. We seek refuge with Allah from that.

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The earth, a dwelling place, and the resurrection from it

بِسْمِ اللَّهِ الرَّحْمَـنِ الرَّحِيمِ  

Bismillah-ir-Rahman-ir-Raheem: In the name of Allah, the Compassionate, the Merciful.  

Welcome to my blog and praise the Magnificent Lord as you enter: Allahu Akbar: Allah is the Greatest .  

May the Peace and Blessing of Allah Azza wa Jal, our Lord Glorified and Praised be He, be upon our beloved Prophet, his Family, and Companions.

 The Earth, a Dwelling Place, and the Resurrection from It.

قَالَ اهْبِطُواْ بَعْضُكُمْ لِبَعْضٍ عَدُوٌّ وَلَكُمْ فِى الاٌّرْضِ مُسْتَقَرٌّ وَمَتَـعٌ إِلَى حِينٍ

(24. (Allah) said: “Get down, one of you an enemy to the other. On earth will be a dwelling place for you and an enjoyment for a time.”)

قَالَ فِيهَا تَحْيَوْنَ وَفِيهَا تَمُوتُونَ وَمِنْهَا تُخْرَجُونَ

(25. He said: “Therein you shall live, and therein you shall die, and from it you shall be brought out (resurrected).”)

Surah 7 Al Araf, Verse 24-25

Tafsir Ibn Kathir

It was said that,

(Get down), was addressed to Adam, Hawwa’, Iblis and the snake. Some scholars did not mention the snake, and Allah knows best. The enmity is primarily between Adam and Iblis, and Hawwa’ follows Adam in this regard. Allah said in Surah Ta Ha,

(Get you down (from the Paradise to the earth), both of you, together…”) [20:123]. If the story about the snake is true, then it is a follower of Iblis. Some scholars mentioned the location on earth they were sent down, but these accounts are taken from the Israelite tales, and only Allah knows if they are true. If having known these areas was useful for the people in matters of religion or life, Allah would have mentioned them in His Book, and His Messenger would have mentioned them too. Allah’s statement,

(On earth will be a dwelling place for you and an enjoyment for a time.) means, on earth you will have dwellings and known, designated, appointed terms that have been recorded by the Pen, counted by Predestination and written in the First Record.

(He (Allah) said: “Therein you shall live, and therein you shall die, and from it you shall be brought out (resurrected).”) This Ayah is similar to Allah’s other statement,

(Thereof (the earth) We created you, and into it We shall return you, and from it We shall bring you out once again.) [20:55]. Allah states that He has made the earth a dwelling place for the Children of Adam, for the remainder of this earthly life. On it, they will live, die and be buried in their graves; and from it, they will be resurrected for the Day of Resurrection. On that Day, Allah will gather the first and last of creatures and reward or punish each according to his or her deeds.

يَـبَنِى آدَمَ قَدْ أَنزَلْنَا عَلَيْكُمْ لِبَاسًا يُوَرِى سَوْءَتِكُمْ وَرِيشًا وَلِبَاسُ التَّقْوَى ذَلِكَ خَيْرٌ ذَلِكَ مِنْ آيَـتِ اللَّهِ لَعَلَّهُمْ يَذَّكَّرُونَ

(26. O Children of Adam! We have bestowed Libas (raiment) upon you to cover yourselves with, and as Rish (adornment); and the Libas (raiment) of Taqwa, that is better. Such are among the Ayat of Allah, that they may remember.)

Surah 7 Al-Araf,  Verse 26

Tafsir Ibn Kathir

Allah reminds His servants that He has given them Libas and Rish. Libas refers to the clothes that are used to cover the private parts, while Rish refers to the outer adornments used for purposes of beautification. Therefore, the first type is essential while the second type is complimentary. Ibn Jarir said that Rish includes furniture and outer clothes. `Abdur-Rahman bin Zayd bin Aslam commented on the Ayah,

(and the Libas (raiment) of Taqwa…) “When one fears Allah, Allah covers his errors. Hence the `Libas of Taqwa’ (that the Ayah mentions).”

يَـبَنِى آدَمَ لاَ يَفْتِنَنَّكُمُ الشَّيْطَـنُ كَمَآ أَخْرَجَ أَبَوَيْكُم مِّنَ الْجَنَّةِ يَنزِعُ عَنْهُمَا لِبَاسَهُمَا لِيُرِيَهُمَا سَوْءَتِهِمَآ إِنَّهُ يَرَاكُمْ هُوَ وَقَبِيلُهُ مِنْ حَيْثُ لاَ تَرَوْنَهُمْ إِنَّا جَعَلْنَا الشَّيَـطِينَ أَوْلِيَآءَ لِلَّذِينَ لاَ يُؤْمِنُونَ

(27. O Children of Adam! Let not Shaytan deceive you, as he got your parents out of Paradise, stripping them of their raiment, to show them their private parts. Verily, he and his tribe see you from where you cannot see them. Verily, We made the Shayatin friends of those who believe not.)

Surah 7 al Araf, Verse 27

Tafsir Ibn Kathir

Allah warns the Children of Adam against Iblis and his followers, by explaining about his ancient enmity for the father of mankind, Adam peace be upon him. Iblis plotted to have Adam expelled from Paradise, which is the dwelling of comfort, to the dwelling of hardship and fatigue (this life) and caused him to have his private part uncovered, after it had been hidden from him. This, indeed, is indicative of deep hatred (from Shaytan towards Adam and mankind). Allah said in a similar Ayah,

(Will you then take him (Iblis) and his offspring as protectors and helpers rather than Me, while they are enemies to you What an evil is the exchange for the wrongdoers.) [18:50].

وَقَالَ الشَّيْطَـنُ لَمَّا قُضِىَ الاٌّمْرُ إِنَّ اللَّهَ وَعَدَكُمْ وَعْدَ الْحَقِّ وَوَعَدتُّكُمْ فَأَخْلَفْتُكُمْ وَمَا كَانَ لِىَ عَلَيْكُمْ مِّن سُلْطَـنٍ إِلاَّ أَن دَعَوْتُكُمْ فَاسْتَجَبْتُمْ لِى فَلاَ تَلُومُونِى وَلُومُواْ أَنفُسَكُمْ مَّآ أَنَاْ بِمُصْرِخِكُمْ وَمَآ أَنتُمْ بِمُصْرِخِىَّ إِنِّى كَفَرْتُ بِمَآ أَشْرَكْتُمُونِ مِن قَبْلُ إِنَّ الظَّـلِمِينَ لَهُمْ عَذَابٌ أَلِيمٌ

(22. And Shaytan will say when the matter has been decided: “Verily, Allah promised you a promise of truth. And I too promised you, but I betrayed you. I had no authority over you except that I called you, and you responded to me. So blame me not, but blame yourselves. I cannot help you, nor can you help me. I deny your former act in associating me (Shaytan) as a partner with Allah (by obeying me in the life of the world). Verily, there is a painful torment for the wrongdoers.”)

وَأُدْخِلَ الَّذِينَ ءَامَنُواْ وَعَمِلُواْ الصَّـلِحَاتِ جَنَّـتٍ تَجْرِى مِن تَحْتِهَا الأَنْهَـرُ خَـلِدِينَ فِيهَا بِإِذْنِ رَبِّهِمْ تَحِيَّتُهُمْ فِيهَا سَلَـمٌ

(23. And those who believed and did righteous deeds, will be made to enter Gardens under which rivers flow, – to dwell therein for ever (i.e. in Paradise), with the permission of their Lord. Their greeting therein will be: “Salam (peace!).”)

Surah 14 Ibrahim, Verse 22-23

Tafsir Ibn Kathir

Allah narrates to us what Iblis will say to his followers after Allah finishes with the judgement between His servants, sending the believers to the gardens of Paradise and the disbelievers to the lows (of the Fire). Iblis, may Allah curse him, will stand and address the latter, in order to add depression to their depression, sorrow to their sorrow and grief to their grief. He will declare,

`(Verily, Allah promised you a promise of truth.) by the words of His Messengers that if you follow them, you will gain safety and deliverance. Truly, Allah’s promise was true and correct news, while I promised you then betrayed you.’ Allah said in another Ayah,

(He (Shaytan) makes promises to them, and arouses in them false desires; and Shaytan’s promises are nothing but deceptions.) [4:120]

(I had no authority over you) Shaytan will say, `I had no proof for what I called you to, nor evidence for what I promised you,

(except that I called you, and you responded to me.) even though the Messengers establish the proof and unequivocal evidences against you and affirmed the truth of what they were sent to you with. But you disobeyed the Messengers and ended up earning this fate,

(So blame me not,) today,

(but blame yourselves.), because it is your fault for defying the proofs and following me in the falsehood that I called you to.’ Shaytan will say next,

(I cannot help you), I cannot benefit, save, or deliver you from what you are suffering,

(nor can you help me.), nor can you save me and deliver me from the torment and punishment I am suffering,

(I deny your former act of associating me (Shaytan) as a partner with Allah.) or because you associated me with Allah before,’ according to Qatadah. Ibn Jarir commented; “I deny being a partner with Allah, the Exalted and Most Honored.”

(Verily, the wrongdoers), who deviate from truth and follow falsehood, will earn a painful torment. It appears that this part of the Ayah narrates the speech that Shaytan will deliver to the people of the Fire after they enter it, as we stated. `Amir Ash-Sha`bi said, “On the Day of Resurrection, two speakers will address the people. Allah the Exalted will say to `Isa, son of Maryam,

(Did you say unto men: “Worship me and my mother as two gods besides Allah”) [5:116] until,

(Allah will say: “This is a Day on which the truthful will profit from their truth.”)[5:119] Shaytan, may Allah curse him, will stand and address the people,

(I had no authority over you except that I called you, and you responded to me.) Allah next mentioned the final destination of the miserable ones, who earned the disgrace and torment and having to listen to Shaytan address them, then He mentioned the final destination of the happy ones,

(And those who believed and did righteous deeds, will be made to enter Gardens under which rivers flow,) wherever they wish them to flow and wherever they may be,

(to dwell therein for ever,) and will never transfer or be transferred from it,

(with the permission of their Lord. Their greeting therein will be: “Salam (peace!). ”) Allah said in other Ayat,

(Till, when they reach it, and its gates will be opened and its keepers will say: “Salamun `Alaykum (peace be upon you!)”) [39:73]

(And angels shall enter unto them from every gate (saying): “Salamun `Alaykum (peace be upon you!).”) [13:23-24]

(Therein they shall be met with greetings and the word of peace and respect.) [25:75]

(Their way of request therein will be Subhanaka Allahumma (glory to you, O Allah) and Salam (peace!) will be their greetings therein (Paradise)! And the close of their request will be: Al-Hamdu Lillahi Rabbil-‘Alamin [all praise to Allah the Lord of that exists].)[10:10]

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The expulsion of Iblis, the Devil, the fall of Adam, may peace be upon him, and forgiveness

بِسْمِ اللَّهِ الرَّحْمَـنِ الرَّحِيمِ  

Bismillah-ir-Rahman-ir-Raheem: In the name of Allah, the Compassionate, the Merciful.  

Welcome to my blog and praise the Magnificent Lord as you enter: Allahu Akbar: Allah is the Greatest .  

May the Peace and Blessing of Allah Azza wa Jal, our Lord Glorified and Praised be He, be upon our beloved Prophet, his Family, and Companions.

The Expulsion of Iblis, the Devil, and the Fall of Adam Alaihi Salaam and the Prayer for Forgiveness.

قَالَ اخْرُجْ مِنْهَا مَذْءُومًا مَّدْحُورًا لَّمَن تَبِعَكَ مِنْهُمْ لأَمْلأَنَّ جَهَنَّمَ مِنكُمْ أَجْمَعِينَ

(18. (Allah) said (to Iblis): “Get out from this (Paradise), Madh’uman Madhura. Whoever of them (mankind) will follow you, then surely, I will fill Hell with you all.”)

Surah 7 Al Araf, Verse 18

Tafsir Ibn Kathir

Allah emphasized His cursing, expelling, banishing and turning Shaytan away from the uppermost heights, saying; Ibn Jarir said, “As for Madh’um, it is disgraced.” And he said, “Madhur is the distanced, that is, he is banished and expelled.” `Abdur-Rahman bin Zayd bin Aslam said, “We do not know of any who is Madh’uh and Madhmum except for one.” Sufyan Ath-Thawri narrated from Abu Ishaq from At-Tamimi from Ibn `Abbas,

(Get out from this (Paradise), Madh’uman Madhura) “despised.” `Ali bin Abi Talhah reported that Ibn `Abbas commented on,

(Get out from this (Paradise), Madh’uman Madhura) [7:18] “Belittled and despised”, while As-Suddi commented, “Hateful and expelled.” Qatadah commented, “Cursed and despised”, while Mujahid said, “Expelled and banished.” Ar-Rabi` bin Anas said that `Madh’um’ means banished, while, `Madhura’ means belittled. Allah said,

(Whoever of them (mankind) will follow you, then surely, I will fill Hell with you all.) This is similar to

((Allah) said: “Go, and whosoever of them follows you, surely, Hell will be the recompense of you (all) an ample recompense. And gradually delude those whom you can among them with your voice, make assaults on them with your cavalry and your infantry, share with them wealth and children, and make promises to them.” But Shaytan promises them nothing but deceit. “Verily, My servants — you have no authority over them. And All-Sufficient is your Lord as a Guardian.”) [17:63-65]

وَيَــَادَمُ اسْكُنْ أَنتَ وَزَوْجُكَ الْجَنَّةَ فَكُلاَ مِنْ حَيْثُ شِئْتُمَا وَلاَ تَقْرَبَا هَـذِهِ الشَّجَرَةَ فَتَكُونَا مِنَ الظَّـلِمِينَ

(19. “And O Adam! Dwell you and your wife in Paradise, and eat thereof as you both wish, but approach not this tree otherwise you both will be of the wrongdoers.)

 فَوَسْوَسَ لَهُمَا الشَّيْطَـنُ لِيُبْدِيَ لَهُمَا مَا وُورِيَ عَنْهُمَا مِن سَوْءَتِهِمَا وَقَالَ مَا نَهَـكُمَا رَبُّكُمَا عَنْ هَـذِهِ الشَّجَرَةِ إِلاَ أَن تَكُونَا مَلَكَيْنِ أَوْ تَكُونَا مِنَ الْخَـلِدِينَ

(20. Then Shaytan whispered suggestions to them both in order to uncover that which was hidden from them of their private parts (before); he said: “Your Lord did not forbid you this tree save you should become angels or become of the immortals.”)

وَقَاسَمَهُمَآ إِنِّي لَكُمَا لَمِنَ النَّـصِحِينَ

(21. And he Qasamahuma: “Verily, I am one of the sincere well-wishers for you both.”)

Surah 7 Al Araf , Verse 19-21

Tafsir Ibn Kathir

Allah states that He allowed Adam and his wife to dwell in Paradise and to eat from all of its fruits, except one tree. We have already discussed this in Surat Al-Baqarah. Thus, Shaytan envied them and plotted deceitfully, whispering and suggesting treachery. He wished to rid them of the various favors and nice clothes that they were enjoying.

(He (Shaytan) said) uttering lies and falsehood,

(“Your Lord did not forbid you this tree save you should become angels…”) meaning, so that you do not become angels or dwell here for eternity. Surely, if you eat from this tree, you will attain both, he said. In another Ayah,

(Shaytan whispered to him, saying: “O Adam! Shall I lead you to the Tree of Eternity and to a kingdom that will never waste away”) [20:120].

And he Qasamahuma), swore to them both by Allah, saying,

(“Verily, I am one of the sincere well-wishers for you both.”) for I was here before you and thus have better knowledge of this place. It is a fact that the believer in Allah might sometimes become the victim of deceit. Qatadah commented on this Ayah, “Shaytan swore by Allah, saying, `I was created before you, and I have better knowledge than you. Therefore, follow me and I will direct you.”’

فَدَلَّـهُمَا بِغُرُورٍ فَلَمَّا ذَاقَا الشَّجَرَةَ بَدَتْ لَهُمَا سَوْءَتُهُمَا وَطَفِقَا يَخْصِفَانِ عَلَيْهِمَا مِن وَرَقِ الْجَنَّةِ وَنَادَاهُمَا رَبُّهُمَآ أَلَمْ أَنْهَكُمَا عَن تِلْكُمَا الشَّجَرَةِ وَأَقُل لَّكُمَآ إِنَّ الشَّيْطَـنَ لَكُمَا عَدُوٌّ مُّبِينٌ

(22. So he misled them with deception. Then when they tasted of the tree, that which was hidden from them of their shame (private parts) became manifest to them and they began to cover themselves with the leaves of Paradise. And their Lord called out to them (saying): “Did I not forbid you that tree and tell you: Verily, Shaytan is an open enemy unto you”)

 قَالاَ رَبَّنَا ظَلَمْنَآ أَنفُسَنَا وَإِن لَّمْ تَغْفِرْ لَنَا وَتَرْحَمْنَا لَنَكُونَنَّ مِنَ الْخَـسِرِينَ

 (23. They said: “Our Lord! We have wronged ourselves. If You forgive us not, and bestow not upon us Your mercy, we shall certainly be of the losers.”)

Surah 7 Al Araf, Verse 22-23

Tafsir Ibn Kathir

Ubayy bin Ka`b said, “Adam was a tall man, about the height of a palm tree, and he had thick hair on his head. When he committed the error that he committed, his private part appeared to him while before, he did not see it. So he started running in fright through Paradise, but a tree in Paradise took him by the head. He said to it, `Release me,’ but it said, `No, I will not release you.’ So his Lord called him, `O Adam! Do you run away from Me’ He said, `O Lord! I felt ashamed before You.”’ Ibn Jarir and Ibn Marduwyah collected this statement using several chains of narration from Al-Hasan from Ubayy bin Ka`b who narrated it from the Prophet . However, relating the Hadith to Ubayy is more correct. Ibn `Abbas commented on the Ayah,

(And they began to cover themselves with the leaves of Paradise.) “Using fig leaves.” This statement has an authentic chain of narration leading to Ibn `Abbas. Mujahid said that they began to cover themselves with the leaves of Paradise, “Making them as a dress (or garment).” Commenting on Allah’s statement,

(Stripping them of their raiment) [7:27] Wahb bin Munabbih said, “The private parts of Adam and Hawwa’ had a light covering them which prevented them from seeing the private parts of each other. When they ate from the tree, their private parts appeared to them.” Ibn Jarir reported this statement with an authentic chain of narration. Abdur-Razzaq reported from Qatadah, “Adam said, `O Lord! What if I repented and sought forgiveness’ Allah said, `Then, I will admit you into Paradise.’ As for Shaytan, he did not ask for forgiveness, but for respite. Each one of them was given what he asked for.” Ad-Dahhak bin Muzahim commented,

(“Our Lord! We have wronged ourselves. If You forgive us not, and bestow not upon us Your mercy, we shall certainly be of the losers.”) “These are the words that Adam received from his Lord.”

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Adam, may peace be upon him, enters and exits paradise

بِسْمِ اللَّهِ الرَّحْمَـنِ الرَّحِيمِ  

Bismillah-ir-Rahman-ir-Raheem: In the name of Allah, the Compassionate, the Merciful.  

Welcome to my blog and praise the Magnificent Lord as you enter: Allahu Akbar: Allah is the Greatest .  

May the Peace and Blessing of Allah Azza wa Jal, our Lord Glorified and Praised be He, be upon our beloved Prophet, his Family, and Companions.

Adam, Alaihi Salaam, Enters and Exists Paradise.

وَقُلْنَا يَاءَادَمُ اسْكُنْ أَنْتَ وَزَوْجُكَ الْجَنَّةَ وَكُلاَ مِنْهَا رَغَدًا حَيْثُ شِئْتُمَا وَلاَ تَقْرَبَا هَـذِهِ الشَّجَرَةَ فَتَكُونَا مِنَ الْظَّـلِمِينَ

(35. And We said: “O Adam! Dwell you and your wife in the Paradise and eat both of you freely with pleasure and delight, of things therein wherever you will, but come not near this tree or you both will be of the Zalimin (wrongdoers). ”)

فَأَزَلَّهُمَا الشَّيْطَـنُ عَنْهَا فَأَخْرَجَهُمَا مِمَّا كَانَا فِيهِ وَقُلْنَا اهْبِطُواْ بَعْضُكُمْ لِبَعْضٍ عَدُوٌّ وَلَكُمْ فِى الأَرْضِ مُسْتَقَرٌّ وَمَتَـعٌ إِلَى حِينٍ

(36. Then the Shaytan made them slip therefrom (the Paradise), and got them out from that in which they were. We said: “Get you down, all, with enmity between yourselves. On earth will be a dwelling place for you and an enjoyment for a time.”)

Surah 2 Al Baqarah, Verse 35-36

Tafsir Ibn Kathir

Allah honored Adam by commanding the angels to prostrate before him, so they all complied except for Iblis. Allah then allowed Adam to live and eat wherever and whatever he wished in Paradise. Al-Hafiz Abu Bakr bin Marduwyah reported Abu Dharr saying, “I said, `O Messenger of Allah! Was Adam a Prophet’ He said,

(Yes. He was a Prophet and a Messenger to whom Allah spoke directly), meaning

((O Adam!) Dwell you and your wife in the Paradise.)”

The Ayah (2:35) indicates that Hawwa’ was created before Adam entered Paradise, as Muhammad bin Ishaq stated. Ibn Ishaq said, “After Allah finished criticizing Iblis, and after teaching Adam the names of everything, He said,

(O Adam! Inform them of their names) until,

(Verily, You are the Knower, the Wise.)

Then Adam fell asleep, as the People of the Book and other scholars such as Ibn `Abbas have stated, Allah took one of Adam’s left ribs and made flesh grow in its place, while Adam was asleep and unaware. Allah then created Adam’s wife, Hawwa’, from his rib and made her a woman, so that she could be a comfort for him. When Adam woke up and saw Hawwa’ next to him, it was claimed, he said, `My flesh and blood, my wife.’ Hence, Adam reclined with Hawwa’. When Allah married Adam to Hawwa’ and gave him comfort, Allah said to him directly,

(“O Adam! Dwell you and your wife in the Paradise and eat both of you freely with pleasure and delight, of things therein wherever you will, but come not near this tree or you both will be of the Zalimin (wrongdoers).”).”

Allah’s statement to Adam,

(but come not near this tree) is a test for Adam. There are conflicting opinions over the nature of the tree mentioned here. Some said that it was the grape tree, barley, date tree, fig tree, and so forth. Some said that it was a certain tree, and whoever eats from it will be relieved of the call of nature. It was also said that it was a tree from which the angels eat so that they live for eternity. Imam Abu Ja`far bin Jarir said, “The correct opinion is that Allah forbade Adam and his wife from eating from a certain tree in Paradise, but they ate from it. We do not know which tree that was, because Allah has not mentioned anything in the Qur’an or the authentic Sunnah about the nature of this tree. It was said that it was barley, grape, or a fig tree. It is possible that it was one of those trees. Yet, this is knowledge that does not bring any benefit, just as being ignorant in its nature does no harm. Allah knows best.” This is similar to what Ar-Razi stated in his Tafsir, and this is the correct opinion. Allah’s statement,

(Then the Shaytan made them slip therefrom) either refers to Paradise, and in this case, it means that Shaytan led Adam and Hawwa’ away from it, as `Asim bin Abi An-Najud recited it. It is also possible that this Ayah refers to the forbidden tree. In this case, the Ayah would mean, as Al-Hasan and Qatadah stated, “He tripped them.” In this case,

(Then the Shaytan made them slip therefrom)

means, “Because of the tree”, just as Allah said,

(And got them out from that in which they were) meaning, the clothes, spacious dwelling and comfortable sustenance.

(We said: “Get you down, all, with enmity between yourselves. On earth will be a dwelling place for you and an enjoyment for a time.”) meaning, dwelling, sustenance and limited life, until the commencement of the Day of Resurrection.

Ibn Abi Hatim narrated that Ubayy bin Ka`b said that the Messenger of Allah said,

(Allah created Adam tall, with thick hair, just as a date tree with full branches. When Adam ate from the forbidden tree, his cover fell off, and the first thing that appeared was his private area. When he saw his private area, he ran away in Paradise and his hair got caught in a tree. He tried to free himself and Ar-Rahman called him, ‘O Adam! Are you running away from Me’ When Adam heard the words of Ar-Rahman (Allah), he said, ‘No, O my Lord! But I am shy.’)

Al-Hakim recorded that Ibn `Abbas said, “Adam was allowed to reside in Paradise during the time period between the `Asr (Afternoon) prayer, until sunset.” Al-Hakim then commented this is “Sahih according to the Two Shaykhs (Al-Bukhari and Muslim), but they did not include it in their collections.” Also, Ibn Abi Hatim recorded Ibn `Abbas saying, “Allah sent Adam to earth to an area called, Dahna, between Makkah and At-Ta’if.” Al-Hasan Al-Basri said that Adam was sent down to India, while Hawwa’ was sent to Jeddah. Iblis was sent down to Dustumaysan, several miles from Basra. Further, the snake was sent down to Asbahan. This was reported by Ibn Abi Hatim. Also, Muslim and An-Nasa’i recorded that Abu Hurayrah said that the Messenger of Allah said,

(Friday is the best day on which the sun has risen. On Friday, Allah created Adam, admitted him into Paradise, and expelled him from it.)

If one asks, “If the Paradise that Adam was thrown out of was in heaven, as the majority of the scholars assert, then is it possible for Iblis to enter Paradise, although he was expelled from it by Allah’s decision (when he refused to prostrate before Adam)”

Basically, the response to this would be that the Paradise which Adam was in, was in the heavens, not on the earth, as we explained in the beginning of our book Al-Bidayah wan-Nihayah.

The majority of scholars said that Shaytan was originally prohibited from entering Paradise, but there were times when he sneaked into it in secret. For instance, the Tawrah stated that Iblis hid inside the snake’s mouth and entered Paradise. Some scholars said that it is possible that Shaytan led Adam and Hawwa’ astray on his way out of Paradise. Some scholars said that he led Adam and Hawwa’ astray when he was on earth, while they were still in heaven, as stated by Az-Zamakhshari. 

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The Honoring of Adam, may peace be upon him

بِسْمِ اللَّهِ الرَّحْمَـنِ الرَّحِيمِ  

Bismillah-ir-Rahman-ir-Raheem: In the name of Allah, the Compassionate, the Merciful.  

Welcome to my blog and praise the Magnificent Lord as you enter: Allahu Akbar: Allah is the Greatest .  

May the Peace and Blessing of Allah Azza wa Jal, our Lord Glorified and Praised be He, be upon our beloved Prophet, his Family, and Companions.

The Honoring of Adam Alaihi Salaam.

وَإِذْ قُلْنَا لِلْمَلَـئِكَةِ اسْجُدُواْ لاًّدَمَ فَسَجَدُواْ إِلاَّ إِبْلِيسَ أَبَى وَاسْتَكْبَرَ وَكَانَ مِنَ الْكَـفِرِينَ

(34. And (remember) when We said to the angels: “Prostrate yourselves before Adam.” And they prostrated except Iblis (Shaytan), he refused and was proud and was one of the disbelievers (disobedient to Allah).)

Surah 2 Al Baqarah, Verse 34

Tafsir Ibn Kathir

This Ayah mentions the great honor that Allah granted Adam, and Allah reminded Adam’s offspring of this fact. Allah commanded the angels to prostrate before Adam, as this Ayah and many Hadiths testify, such as the Hadith about the intercession that we discussed. There is a Hadith about the supplication of Musa, “O my Lord! Show me Adam who caused us and himself to be thrown out of Paradise.” When Musa met Adam, he said to him, “Are you Adam whom Allah created with His Own Hands, blew life into and commanded the angels to prostrate before” Iblis was among Those ordered to prostrate before Adam, although He was not an Angel.

When Allah commanded the angels to prostrate before Adam, Iblis was included in this command. Although Iblis was not an angel, he was trying – and pretending – to imitate the angels’ behavior and deeds, and this is why he was also included in the command to the angels to prostrate before Adam. Satan was criticized for defying that command.

Similarly, Muhammad bin Ishaq reported that Ibn `Abbas said, “Before he undertook the path of sin, Iblis was with the angels and was called `Azazil.’ He was among the residents of the earth and was one of the most active worshippers and knowledgeable persons among the angels. This fact caused him to be arrogant. Iblis was from a genus called Jinn.”

Qatadah commented on Allah’s statement,

(And (remember) when We said to the angels: “Prostrate yourselves before Adam.”)

“The obedience was for Allah and the prostration was before Adam. Allah honored Adam and commanded the angels to prostrate before him.” Some people said that this prostration was just a prostration of greeting, peace and honor, hence Allah’s statement,

(And he (Prophet Yusuf) raised his parents to the throne and they fell down before him prostrate. And he said: “O my father! This is the interpretation of my dream aforetime! My Lord has made it come true!”) (12:100)

The practice of prostrating was allowed for previous nations, but was repealed for ours. Mu`adh said to the Prophet , “I visited Ash-Sham and found that they used to prostate before their priests and scholars. You, O Messenger of Allah, are more deserving of prostration.” The Prophet said,

(No. If I was to command any human to prostrate before another human, I would command the wife to prostrate before her husband because of the enormity of his right on her.)

Ar-Razi agreed with this view. Also, Qatadah said about Allah’s statement,

(And they prostrated except Iblis (Shaytan), he refused and was proud and was one of the disbelievers (disobedient to Allah).)

“Iblis, the enemy of Allah, envied Adam because Allah honored Adam. He said, `I was created from fire, and he was created from clay.’ Therefore, the first error ever committed was arrogance, for the enemy of Allah was too arrogant to prostrate before Adam.” I – Ibn Kathir – say, the following is recorded in the Sahih,

(No person who has the weight of a mustard seed of arrogance in his heart shall enter Paradise.)

Iblis had disbelief, arrogance, and rebellion, all of which caused him to be expelled from the holy presence of Allah, and His mercy. 

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Adam, may peace be on him, learns the names of everything

بِسْمِ اللَّهِ الرَّحْمَـنِ الرَّحِيمِ  

Bismillah-ir-Rahman-ir-Raheem: In the name of Allah, the Compassionate, the Merciful.  

Welcome to my blog and praise the Magnificent Lord as you enter: Allahu Akbar: Allah is the Greatest .  

May the Peace and Blessing of Allah Azza wa Jal, our Lord Glorified and Praised be He, be upon our beloved Prophet, his Family, and Companions.

Adam, Alaihi Salaam, Learns the Names of Everything.

وَعَلَّمَ ءَادَمَ الأَسْمَآءَ كُلَّهَا ثُمَّ عَرَضَهُمْ عَلَى الْمَلَـئِكَةِ فَقَالَ أَنبِئُونِى بِأَسْمَآءِ هَـؤُلاَءِ إِن كُنتُمْ صَـدِقِينَ

(31. And He taught Adam all the names (of everything), then He showed them to the angels and said, “Tell Me the names of these if you are truthful.”)

 قَالُواْ سُبْحَـنَكَ لاَ عِلْمَ لَنَآ إِلاَّ مَا عَلَّمْتَنَآ إِنَّكَ أَنتَ الْعَلِيمُ الْحَكِيمُ

(32. They (angels) said: “Glory is to You, we have no knowledge except what you have taught us. Verily, You are the Knower, the Wise.”)

قَالَ يَـاءَادَمُ أَنبِئْهُم بِأَسْمَآئِهِمْ فَلَمَّآ أَنبَأَهُم بِأَسْمَآئِهِم قَالَ أَلَمْ أَقُل لَّكُمْ إِنِّي أَعْلَمُ غَيْبَ السَّمَـوَاتِ وَالاٌّرْضِ وَأَعْلَمُ مَا تُبْدُونَ وَمَا كُنتُمْ تَكْتُمُونَ

(33. He said: “O Adam! Inform them of their names,” and when he had informed them of their names, He said: “Did I not tell you that I know the Ghayb (unseen) in the heavens and the earth, and I know what you reveal and what you have been concealing”)

Surah 2 al Baqarah, Verse 31-33

Tafsir Ibn Kathir

Allah stated the virtue of Adam above the angels, because He taught Adam, rather than them, the names of everything. This occurred after they prostrated to him. This discussion precedes that event here, only to show the importance of his position, and the absence of the angels’ knowledge about creating the Khalifah when they asked about it. So Allah informed the angels that He knows what they do not know, and then He mentioned this to show them Adam’s superiority over them in knowledge. Allah said,

(And He taught Adam all the names (of everything)).

Ad-Dahhak said that Ibn `Abbas commented on the Ayah;

(And He taught Adam all the names (of everything)) “Meaning, the names that people use, such as human, animal, sky, earth, land, sea, horse, donkey, and so forth, including the names of the other species.” Ibn Abi Hatim and Ibn Jarir reported that `Asim bin Kulayb narrated from Sa`id bin Ma`bad that Ibn `Abbas was questioned,

(And He taught Adam all the names (of everything)) “Did Allah teach him the names of the plate and the pot” He said, “Yes, and even the terms for breaking wind!”

Allah taught Adam the names of everything, their proper names, the names of their characteristics, and what they do, just as Ibn `Abbas stated about the terms for passing gas.

In his Sahih, Al-Bukhari explained this Ayah in the Book of Tafsir with a report from Anas bin Malik who said that the Messenger of Allah said,

(The believers will gather on the Day of Resurrection and will say, `We should seek a means of intercession with our Lord’ They will go to Adam and say, `O Adam! You are the father of all mankind, Allah created you with His Own Hand, ordered the angels to prostrate for you and taught you the names of everything. Will you not intercede for us with your Lord, so that he relieve us from this gathering place’ On that Adam will reply, `I cannot do what you have asked’. He will have remembered his error and will be embarrassed, saying, `Go to Nuh, for he is the first of Allah’s Messengers whom Allah sent to the people of the earth.’

They will go to Nuh and ask him. He will say, `I cannot do what you have asked.’ He will recall asking Allah what he was not to know, and will also be embarrassed. He will say, `Go to Khalil Ar-Rahman.’

They will go to Ibrahim and he will also say, `I cannot do what you have asked.’ He will say, `Go to Musa, a servant to whom Allah spoke directly and gave the Tawrah.’

Musa will say, `I cannot do what you have asked.’ He will remember that he killed a person without justification and will be embarrassed before his Lord. He will say, `Go to `Isa, Allah’s servant and Messenger and His Word and a spirit of His.’ They will go to `Isa and he will say, `I will not do what you asked.

Go to Muhammad, a servant whose previous and latter errors were forgiven.’

They will come to me, and I will go to Allah and seek His permission and He will give me His permission. When I gaze at my Lord, I will prostrate myself and Allah will allow me to remain like that as much as He will. Then I will be addressed, `O Muhammad! Raise your head; ask, for you will be given what you ask, and intercede, for your intercession will be accepted.’ I will raise my head and thank and praise Allah with such praise as He will inspire me. I will intercede and He will grant me a quantity of people that He will admit into Paradise. I will go back to Him, and when I see my Lord, I will intercede and He will allow me a quantity that He will admit into Paradise. I will do that for a third and then a fourth time. I will say, `There are no more people left in Hell except those whom the Qur’an has incarcerated and have thus acquired eternity in Hell.’) This Hadith was collected by Muslim, An-Nasa’i and Ibn Majah. The reason why we mentioned this Hadith here is the Prophet’s statement,

(They will go to Adam and say, `O Adam! You are the father of all mankind, and Allah created you with His Own Hand, ordered the angels to prostrate for you, and taught you the names of everything). This part of the Hadith testifies to the fact that Allah taught Adam the names of all creatures.

This is why Allah said,

(Then He showed them to the angels) meaning, the objects or creations. `Abdur-Razzaq narrated that Ma`mar said that Qatadah said, “Allah paraded the objects before the angels,

(And said, “Tell Me the names of these if you are truthful”).”

Allah’s statement means, “Tell Me the names of what I paraded before you, O angels who said,

(Will You place therein those who will make mischief therein and shed blood).

You asked, `Are You appointing a Khalifah from us or from other creations We praise and glorify You.

Therefore, Allah said, “If you say the truth, that if I appoint a non-angel Khalifah on the earth, he and his offspring will disobey Me, commit mischief and shed blood, but if I designate you the Khalifahs you will obey Me, follow My command and honor and glorify Me. However, since you do not know the names of the objects I paraded before you, then you have even less knowledge of what will occur on the earth that does not exist yet.”

(They (angels) said: “Glory is to You, we have no knowledge except what you have taught us. Verily, it is You, the Knower, the Wise.”).

Here the angels are praising Allah’s holiness, and perfection above every kind of deficiency, affirming that no creature could ever acquire any part of Allah’s knowledge, except by His permission, nor could anyone know anything except what Allah teaches them. This is why they said,

(“Glory is to You, we have no knowledge except what you have taught us. Verily You are the Knower, the Wise) meaning, Allah is knowledgeable of everything, Most Wise about His creation, and He makes the wisest decisions, and He teaches and deprives whom He wills from knowledge. Verily, Allah’s wisdom and justice in all matters is perfect.

Allah said,

(He said: “O Adam! Inform them of their names,” and when he had informed them of their names, He said: “Did I not tell you that I know the Ghayb (unseen) in the heavens and the earth, and I know what you reveal and what you have been concealing”)

Zayd bin Aslam said, “You are Jibril, you are Mika’il, you are Israfil, until he mentioned the name of the crow.” Mujahid said that Allah’s statement,

(He said: “O Adam! Inform them of their names,”) “The name of the pigeon, the crow and everything.” Statements of a similar meaning were reported from Sa`id bin Jubayr, Al-Hasan, and Qatadah. When Adam’s virtue over the angels became apparent, as he mentioned the names that Allah taught him, Allah said to the angels,

(Did I not tell you that I know the Ghayb (unseen) in the heavens and the earth, and I know what you reveal and what you have been concealing)

This means, “Did I not state that I know the seen and unseen matters. ” Similarly, Allah said,

(And I know what you reveal and what you have been concealing).

It is reported from Ad-Dahhak that Ibn `Abbas said that,

(And I know what you reveal and what you have been concealing) means, “`I know the secrets, just as I know the apparent things, such as, what Iblis concealed in his heart of arrogance and pride.” Abu Ja`far Ar-Razi narrated that Ar-Rabi` bin Anas said that,

(And I know what you reveal and what you have been concealing) means, “The apparent part of what they said was: `Do you create in it that which would commit mischief and shed blood’ The hidden meaning was: `We have more knowledge and honor than any creation our Lord would create.’ But they came to know that Allah favored Adam above them regarding knowledge and honor.”

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