The death of Prophet Sulayman (Solomon), peace be upon him

I take refuge with Allaah from the accursed devil.  

بِسْمِ اللَّهِ الرَّحْمَـنِ الرَّحِيمِ 

 Bismillah-ir-Rahman-ir-Raheem: In the name of Allah, the Compassionate, the Merciful.  

Welcome to my blog and praise the Magnificent Lord as you enter: Allahu Akbar: Allah is the Greatest .

 May the Peace and Blessing of Allah Azza wa Jal, our Lord Glorified and Praised be He, be upon our beloved Prophet, his Family, and Companions. 

The Death of Prophet Sulayman (Solomon) Alaihi Salaam.

وَلِسُلَيْمَـنَ الرِّيحَ غُدُوُّهَا شَهْرٌ وَرَوَاحُهَا شَهْرٌ وَأَسَلْنَا لَهُ عَيْنَ الْقِطْرِ وَمِنَ الْجِنِّ مَن يَعْمَلُ بَيْنَ يَدَيْهِ بِإِذْنِ رَبِّهِ وَمَن يَزِغْ مِنْهُمْ عَنْ أَمْرِنَا نُذِقْهُ مِنْ عَذَابِ السَّعِيرِ

(12. And to Sulayman (We subjected) the wind, its morning was a month’s (journey), and its afternoon was a month’s (journey). And We caused a fount of Qitr to flow for him, and there were Jinn that worked in front of him, by the leave of his Lord. And whosoever of them turned aside from Our command, We shall cause him to taste of the torment of the blazing Fire.)

يَعْمَلُونَ لَهُ مَا يَشَآءُ مِن مَّحَـرِيبَ وَتَمَـثِيلَ وَجِفَانٍ كَالْجَوَابِ وَقُدُورٍ رَسِيَـتٍ اعْمَلُواْ ءَالَ دَاوُودَ شُكْراً وَقَلِيلٌ مِّنْ عِبَادِىَ الشَّكُورُ

(13. They worked for him as he desired on Maharib, Tamathil, large basins like Jawab and Qudur Rasiyat. “Work you, O family of Dawud, with thanks!” But few of My servants are grateful.)

Surah 34 Saba’, Verse 12-13

Tafsir Ibn Kathir

The Favors Given to Prophet Sulayman Aaihi Salaam

Having mentioned the blessings with which He favored Dawud, Allah follows this by mentioning what He gave to Dawud’s son Sulayman (Solomon), may peace be upon them both. He subjugated the wind to him, so that it would carry his carpet one way for a month, then back again the next month. Al-Hasan Al-Basri said, “He set out from Damascus in the morning, landed in Istakhar where he ate a meal, then flew on from Istakhar and spent the night in Kabil.” Between Damascus and Istakhar is an entire month’s travel for a swift rider, and between Istakhar and Kabul is an entire month’s travel for a swift rider.

(And We caused a fount Qitr to flow for him,) Ibn `Abbas, may Allah be plased with him, Mujahid, `Ikrimah, `Ata’ Al-Khurasani, Qatadah, As-Suddi, Malik from Zayd bin Aslam, `Abdur-Rahman bin Zayd bin Aslam and others said, “Qitr means copper.” Qatadah said, “It was in Yemen.” Allah brought forth all the things that people make for Sulayman, peace be upon him.

(and there were Jinn that worked in front of him, by the leave of his Lord.) means, `We subjugated the Jinn to work in front of him,’ by the permission of his Lord, i.e., by Allah’s decree and subjugation, they built whatever constructions he wanted, and did other work as well.

(And whosoever of them turned aside from Our command,) means, whoever among them tried to rebel and disobey,

(We shall cause him to taste of the torment of the blazing Fire.) which means, burning.

(They worked for him as he desired on Maharib, Tamathil,) Maharib refers to beautiful structures, the best and innermost part of a dwelling. Ibn Zayd said, “This means dwellings.” With regard to “Tamathil,” `Atiyah Al-`Awfi, Ad-Dahhak and As-Suddi said that Tamathil means pictures.

(large basins like Jawab and Qudur Rasiyat.) Jawab, the plural form of Jabiyah, refers to cisterns or tanks in which water is held, and Qudur Rasiyat are cauldrons that stay in one place and are not moved around because of their great size. This was the view of Mujahid, Ad-Dahhak and others.

(Work you, O family of Dawud, with thanks!) means, `We said to them: Work with thanks for the blessings that We have bestowed upon you in this world and the Hereafter.’ This indicates that thanks may be expressed by actions as much as by words and intentions. Abu `Abdur-Rahman Al-Hubuli said, “Prayer is thanks, fasting is thanks, every good deed that you do for the sake of Allah is thanks, and the best of thanks is praise.” This was recorded by Ibn Jarir. In the Two Sahihs, it is reported that the Messenger of Allah said:

(The most beloved of prayer to Allah is the prayer of Dawud. He used to sleep for half the night, stand in prayer for a third of it and sleep for a sixth of it. The most beloved of fasting to Allah is the fasting of Dawud. He used to fast for a day then not fast for a day, and he never fled the battlefield.) Ibn Abi Hatim narrated that Fudayl said concerning the Ayah:

(Work you, O family of Dawud, with thanks!) Dawud said, “O Lord! How can I thank you when thanks itself is a blessing from You” He said: “Now you have truly given thanks to Me, for you have realized that it is a blessing from Me.”

But few of My servants are grateful. This is a reflection of reality.

وَدَاوُودَ وَسُلَيْمَـنَ إِذْ يَحْكُمَانِ فِى الْحَرْثِ إِذْ نَفَشَتْ فِيهِ غَنَمُ الْقَوْمِ وَكُنَّا لِحُكْمِهِمْ شَـهِدِينَ

(78. And (remember) Dawud and Sulayman, when they gave judgement in the case of the field in which the sheep of certain people had Nafashat; and We were witness to their judgement.)

فَفَهَّمْنَـهَا سُلَيْمَـنَ وَكُلاًّ ءَاتَيْنَا حُكْماً وَعِلْماً وَسَخَّرْنَا مَعَ دَاوُودَ الْجِبَالَ يُسَبِّحْنَ وَالطَّيْرَ وَكُنَّا فَـعِلِينَ

(79. And We made Sulayman to understand (the case); and to each of them We gave wisdom (Hukm) and knowledge. And We subjected the mountains and the birds to glorify Our praises along with Dawud. And it was We Who were the doer (of all these things).)

Surah 21 Al Anbiya, Verse 78-79

Tafsir Ibn Kathir

Dawud and Sulayman and the Signs which They were given; the Story of the People whose Sheep pastured at Night in the Field

 Abu Ishaq narrated from Murrah from Ibn Mas`ud: “That crop was grapes, bunches of which were dangling.” This was also the view of Shurayh. Ibn `Abbas said: “Nafash means grazing.” Shurayh, Az-Zuhri and Qatadah said: “Nafash only happens at night.” Qatadah added, “[and] Al-Haml is grazing during the day.”

(And (remember) Dawud and Sulayman, when they gave judgement in the case of the field in which the sheep of certain people had pastured at night;) Ibn Jarir recorded that Ibn Mas`ud said: “Grapes which had grown and their bunches were spoiled by the sheep. Dawud (David) ruled that the owner of the grapes should keep the sheep. Sulayman (Solomon) said, `Not like this, O Prophet of Allah!’ [Dawud] said, `How then’ [Sulayman] said: `Give the grapes to the owner of the sheep and let him tend them until they grow back as they were, and give the sheep to the owner of the grapes and let him benefit from them until the grapes have grown back as they were. Then the grapes should be given back to their owner, and the sheep should be given back to their owner.’ This is what Allah said:

(And We made Sulayman to understand (the case).)” This was also reported by Al-`Awfi from Ibn `Abbas.

(And We made Sulayman to understand (the case); and to each of them We gave wisdom and knowledge.) Ibn Abi Hatim recorded that when Iyas bin Mu`awiyah was appointed as a judge, Al-Hasan came to him and found Iyas weeping. [Al-Hasan] said, “Why are you weeping” [Iyas] said, “O Abu Sa`id, What I heard about judges among them a judge is he, who studies a case and his judgment is wrong, so he will go to Hell; another judge is he who is biased because of his own whims and desires, so he will go to Hell; and the other judge he who studies a case and gives the right judgement, so he will go to Paradise.” Al-Hasan Al-Basari said: “But what Allah tells us about Dawud and Sulayman (peace be upon them both) and the Prophets and whatever judgements they made proves that what these people said is wrong. Allah says:

(And (remember) Dawud and Sulayman, when they gave judgement in the case of the field in which the sheep of certain people had pastured at night; and We were witness to their judgement.) Allah praised Sulayman but He did not condemn Dawud.” Then he — Al-Hasan — said, “Allah enjoins three things upon the judges: not to sell thereby for some miserable price; not to follow their own whims and desires; and not to fear anyone concerning their judgements. ” Then he recited:

(O Dawud! Verily, We have placed you as a successor on the earth; so judge you between men in truth and follow not your desire — for it will mislead you from the path of Allah.) [38:26]

(Therefore fear not men but fear Me) [5:44]

(and sell not My Ayat for a miserable price.) [5:44] I say: with regard to the Prophets (peace be upon them all), all of them were infallible and supported by Allah. With regard to others, it is recorded in Sahih Al-Bukhari from `Amir bin Al-`As that the Messenger of Allah said:

(If the judge does his best, studies the case and reaches the right conclusion, he will have two rewards. If he does his best, studies the case and reaches the wrong conclusion, he will have one reward.) This Hadith refutes the idea of Iyas, who thought that if he did his best, studied the case and reached the wrong conclusion, he would go to Hell. And Allah knows best. Similar to story in the Qur’an is the report recorded by Imam Ahmad in his Musnad from Abu Hurayrah, who said that the Messenger of Allah said:

(There were two women who each had a son. The wolf came and took one of the children, and they referred their dispute to Dawud. He ruled that the (remaining) child belonged to the older woman. They left, then Sulayman called them and said, “Give me a sword and I will divide him between the two of you.” The younger woman said, “May Allah have mercy on you! He is her child, do not cut him up!” So he ruled that the child belonged to the younger woman). This was also recorded by Al-Bukhari and Muslim in their Sahihs. An-Nasa’i also devoted a chapter to this in the Book of Judgements.

فَلَمَّا قَضَيْنَا عَلَيْهِ الْمَوْتَ مَا دَلَّهُمْ عَلَى مَوْتِهِ إِلاَّ دَابَّةُ الاٌّرْضِ تَأْكُلُ مِنسَأَتَهُ فَلَمَّا خَرَّ تَبَيَّنَتِ الْجِنُّ أَن لَّوْ كَانُواْ يَعْلَمُونَ الْغَيْبَ مَا لَبِثُواْ فِى الْعَذَابِ الْمُهِينِ

(14. Then when We decreed death for him, nothing informed them (Jinn) of his death except a little worm of the earth which kept (slowly) gnawing away at his stick. So when he fell down, the Jinn saw clearly that if they had known the Unseen, they would not have stayed in the humiliating torment.)

Surah 34 Saba’, Verse 14

Tafsir Ibn Kathir

Allah tells us how Sulayman, peace be upon him, died and how Allah concealed his death from the Jinn who were subjugated to him to do hard labor. He remained leaning on his stick, which was his staff, as Ibn `Abbas may Allah be pleased with him, Mujahid, Al-Hasan, Qatadah and others said. He stayed like that for a long time, nearly a year. When a creature of the earth, which was a kind of worm, ate through the stick, it became weak and fell to the ground. Then it became apparent that he had died a long time before. It also became clear to Jinn and men alike that the Jinn do not know the Unseen as they (the Jinn) used to imagine and tried to deceive people. This is what Allah says:

(nothing informed them (Jinn) of his death except a little worm of the earth which kept (slowly) gnawing away at his stick. So when he fell down, the Jinn saw clearly that if they had known the Unseen, they would not have stayed in the humiliating torment.) meaning, it became clear to the people that they (the Jinn) were lying.

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Sulayman (Solomon), peace be upon him, and Queen Bilqis, the Queen of Sheba.

I take refuge with Allaah from the accursed devil.  

بِسْمِ اللَّهِ الرَّحْمَـنِ الرَّحِيمِ 

 Bismillah-ir-Rahman-ir-Raheem: In the name of Allah, the Compassionate, the Merciful.  

Welcome to my blog and praise the Magnificent Lord as you enter: Allahu Akbar: Allah is the Greatest .

 May the Peace and Blessing of Allah Azza wa Jal, our Lord Glorified and Praised be He, be upon our beloved Prophet, his Family, and Companions.  

Sulayman (Solomon) Alaihi Salaam and Queen Bilqis, the Queen of Sheba.

[قَالَ سَنَنظُرُ أَصَدَقْتَ أَمْ كُنتَ مِنَ الْكَـذِبِينَ

(27. (Sulayman) said: “We shall see whether you speak the truth or you are (one) of the liars.”)

اذْهَب بِّكِتَابِى هَـذَا فَأَلْقِهْ إِلَيْهِمْ ثُمَّ تَوَلَّ عَنْهُمْ فَانْظُرْ مَاذَا يَرْجِعُونَ

(28. “Go you with this letter of mine and deliver it to them, then draw back from them and see what they return.”)

 قَالَتْ يأَيُّهَا الْمَلأُ إِنَّى أُلْقِىَ إِلَىَّ كِتَابٌ كَرِيمٌ

(29. She said: “O chiefs! Verily, here is delivered to me a noble letter, ”)

 إِنَّهُ مِن سُلَيْمَانَ وَإِنَّهُ بِسْمِ اللَّهِ الرَّحْمَـنِ الرَّحِيمِ

 (30. “Verily, it is from Sulayman, and it (reads): `In the Name of Allah, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful;’)

 أَلاَّ تَعْلُواْ عَلَىَّ وَأْتُونِى مُسْلِمِينَ

(31. `Be you not exalted against me, but come to me submitting (as Muslims).’ ”)

Surah 27 An Naml, Verse 27-31

Tafsir ibn Kathir

Allah tells us what Sulayman said to the hoopoe when he told him about the people of Saba’ and their queen:

((Sulayman) said: “We shall see whether you speak the truth or you are (one) of the liars.”) meaning, `are you telling the truth’

(or you are (one) of the liars.) meaning, `or are you telling a lie in order to save yourself from the threat I made against you’

(Go you with this letter of mine and deliver it to them then draw back from them and see what they return.) Sulayman wrote a letter to Bilqis and her people and gave it to the hoopoe to deliver. It was said that he carried it on his wings, as is the way with birds, or that he carried it in his beak. He went to their land and found the palace of Bilqis, then he went to her private chambers and threw the letter through a small window, then he stepped to one side out of good manners. Bilqis was amazed and confused when she saw that, then she went and picked up the letter, opened its seal and read it. The letter said:

(it is from Sulayman, and it (reads): `In the Name of Allah, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful; Be you not exalted against me, but come to me submitting (as Muslims).’) So she gathered her commanders and ministers and the leaders of her land, and said to them:

(“O chiefs! Verily, here is delivered to me a noble letter.”) She described it as such because of the wondrous things she had seen, that it was delivered by a bird who threw it to her, then stood aside out of good manners. This was something that no king could do. Then she read the letter to them:

(Verily, it is from Sulayman, and it (reads): `In the Name of Allah, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful; Be you not exalted against me, but come to me submitting (as Muslims).’) Thus they knew that it was from Allah’s Prophet Sulayman, upon him be peace, and that they could not match him. This letter was the utmost in brevity and eloquence, coming straight to the point.

(Be you not exalted against me,) Qatadah said: “Do not be arrogant with me.

(but come to me submitting (as Muslims). )” `Abdur-Rahman bin Zayd bin Aslam said: “Do not refuse or be too arrogant to come to me

(but come to me submitting (as Muslims).)”

قَالَتْ يأَيُّهَا الْمَلأ أَفْتُونِى فِى أَمْرِى مَا كُنتُ قَـطِعَةً أَمْراً حَتَّى تَشْهَدُونِ

(32. She said: “O chiefs! Advise me in case of mine. I decide no case till you are present with me.”)

قَالُواْ نَحْنُ أُوْلُواْ قُوَّةٍ وَأُولُو بَأْسٍ شَدِيدٍ وَالاٌّمْرُ إِلَيْكِ فَانظُرِى مَاذَا تَأْمُرِينَ

(33. They said: “We have great strength, and great ability for war, but it is for you to command; so think over what you will command.”)

قَالَتْ إِنَّ الْمُلُوكَ إِذَا دَخَلُواْ قَرْيَةً أَفْسَدُوهَا وَجَعَلُواْ أَعِزَّةَ أَهْلِهَآ أَذِلَّةً وَكَذلِكَ يَفْعَلُونَ

(34. She said: “Verily, kings, when they enter a town, they destroy it and make the most honorable among its people the lowest. And thus they do.”)

 وَإِنِّى مُرْسِلَةٌ إِلَيْهِمْ بِهَدِيَّةٍ فَنَاظِرَةٌ بِمَ يَرْجِعُ الْمُرْسَلُونَ

(35. “But verily, I am going to send him a present, and see with what (answer) the messengers return.”)

Surah 27 An Naml 32-35

Tafsir Ibn Kathir

When she(Bilqis) read Sulayman’s letter to them and consulted with them about this news, she said:

(“O chiefs! Advise me in (this) case of mine. I decide no case till you are present with me.”) meaning, `until you come together and offer me your advice.’

(They said: “We have great strength, and great ability for war…”) They reminded her of their great numbers, preparedness and strength, then they referred the matter to her and said:

(but it is for you to command; so think over what you will command.) meaning, `we have the power and strength, if you want to go to him and fight him.’ The matter is yours to decide, so instruct us as you see fit and we will obey. Ibn `Abbas said: “Bilqis said:

(Verily, kings, when they enter a town, they destroy it and make the most honorable amongst its people the lowest.) And Allah said:

(And thus they do. ) Then she resorted to peaceful means, seeking a truce and trying to placate Sulayman, and said:

(But verily, I am going to send him a present, and see with what the messengers return.) meaning, `I will send him a gift befitting for one of his status, and will wait and see what his response will be. Perhaps he will accept that and leave us alone, or he will impose a tax which we can pay him every year, so that he will not fight us and wage war against us.’ Qatadah said: “May Allah have mercy on her and be pleased with her — how wise she was as a Muslim and (before that) as an idolator! She understood how gift-giving has a good effect on people.” Ibn `Abbas and others said: “She said to her people, if he accepts the gift, he is a king, so fight him; but if he does not accept it, he is a Prophet, so follow him.”

فَلَمَّا جَآءَ سُلَيْمَانَ قَالَ أَتُمِدُّونَنِ بِمَالٍ فَمَآ ءَاتَـنِى اللَّهُ خَيْرٌ مِّمَّآ ءَاتَـكُمْ بَلْ أَنتُمْ بِهَدِيَّتِكُمْ تَفْرَحُونَ

(36. So, when (the messengers with the gift) came to Sulayman, he said: “Will you help me in wealth What Allah has given me is better than that which He has given you! Nay, you rejoice in your gift!”) 

ارْجِعْ إِلَيْهِمْ فَلَنَأْتِيَنَّهُم بِجُنُودٍ لاَّ قِبَلَ لَهُمْ بِهَا وَلَنُخْرِجَنَّهُم مِّنْهَآ أَذِلَّةً وَهُمْ صَـغِرُونَ

(37. “Go back to them. We verily, shall come to them with armies that they cannot resist, and we shall drive them out from there in disgrace, and they will be abased.”)

Surah 27 An Naml, Verse 36-37

More than one of the scholars of Tafsir among the Salaf and others stated that she sent him a huge gift of gold, jewels, pearls and other things. It is apparent that Sulayman, peace be upon him, did not even look at what they brought at all and did not pay any attention to it, but he turned away and said, rebuking them:

(“Will you help me in wealth”) meaning, `are you trying to flatter me with wealth so that I will leave you alone with your Shirk and your kingdom’

(What Allah has given me is better than that which He has given you!) means, `what Allah has given to me of power, wealth and troops, is better than that which you have.’

(Nay, you rejoice in your gift!) means, `you are the ones who are influenced by gifts and presents; we will accept nothing from you except Islam or the sword.’

(Go back to them) means, with their gift,

(We verily, shall come to them with armies that they cannot resist,) they have no power to match them or resist them.

(and we shall drive them out from there in disgrace,) `we shall drive them out in disgrace from their land.’

(and they will be abased.) means, humiliated and expelled. When her messengers came back to her with her undelivered gift, and told her what Sulayman said, she and her people paid heed and obeyed him. She came to him with her troops in submission and humility, honoring Sulayman and intending to follow him in Islam. When Sulayman, peace be upon him, realized that they were coming to him, he rejoiced greatly.

قَالَ يأَيُّهَا الْمَلأ أَيُّكُمْ يَأْتِينِى بِعَرْشِهَا قَبْلَ أَن يَأْتُونِى مُسْلِمِينَ

(38. He said: “O chiefs! Which of you can bring me her throne before they come to me surrendering themselves in obedience (as Muslims)”)

 قَالَ عِفْرِيتٌ مِّن الْجِنِّ أَنَاْ ءَاتِيكَ بِهِ قَبْلَ أَن تَقُومَ مِن مَّقَامِكَ وَإِنِّى عَلَيْهِ لَقَوِىٌّ أَمِينٌ

 (39. An `Ifrit from the Jinn said: “I will bring it to you before you rise from your place. And verily, I am indeed strong and trustworthy for such work.”)

 قَالَ الَّذِى عِندَهُ عِلْمٌ مِّنَ الْكِتَـبِ أَنَاْ ءَاتِيكَ بِهِ قَبْلَ أَن يَرْتَدَّ إِلَيْكَ طَرْفُكَ فَلَمَّا رَءَاهُ مُسْتَقِرّاً عِندَهُ قَالَ هَـذَا مِن فَضْلِ رَبِّى لِيَبْلُوَنِى أَءَشْكُرُ أَمْ أَكْفُرُ وَمَن شَكَرَ فَإِنَّمَا يَشْكُرُ لِنَفْسِهِ وَمَن كَفَرَ فَإِنَّ رَبِّى غَنِىٌّ كَرِيمٌ

(40. One with whom was knowledge of the Scripture, said: “I will bring it to you within the twinkling of an eye!” Then when he saw it placed before him, he said: “This is by the grace of my Lord — to test me whether I am grateful or ungrateful! And whoever is grateful, truly, his gratitude is for himself; and whoever is ungrateful, certainly my Lord is Rich, Bountiful.”)

Surah 27 An Naml, Verse 38-40

Tafsir Ibn Kathir

Muhammad bin Ishaq reported from Yazid bin Ruman: “When the messengers returned with word of what Sulayman said, she said: `By Allah, I knew he was more than a king, and that we have no power to match him, and that we can gain nothing by being stubborn with him. So, she sent word to him saying: “I am coming to you with the leaders of my people to see what you will instruct us to do and what you are calling us to of your religion.” Then she issued commands that her throne, which was made of gold and inlaid with rubies, chrysolite and pearls, should be placed in the innermost of seven rooms, one within the other, and all the doors should be locked. Then she told her deputy whom she was leaving in charge, “Take care of my people and my throne, and do not let anyone approach it or see it until I come back to you.” Then she set off to meet Sulayman with twelve thousand of her commanders from the leaders of Yemen, under each of whose command were many thousands of men. Sulayman sent the Jinn to bring him news of her progress and route every day and night, then when she drew near, he gathered together the Jinns and humans who were under his control and said:

(O chiefs! Which of you can bring me her throne before they come to me surrendering themselves in obedience (as Muslims)).”

(An `Ifrit from the Jinn said: ) Mujahid said, “A giant Jinn.” Abu Salih said, “It was as if he was a mountain.”

(I will bring it to you before you rise from your place.) Ibn `Abbas, may Allah be pleased with him, said, “Before you get up from where you are sitting.” As-Suddi and others said: “He used to sit to pass judgements and rulings over the people, and to eat, from the beginning of the day until noon.”

(And verily, I am indeed strong and trustworthy for such work.) Ibn `Abbas said: “Strong enough to carry it and trustworthy with the jewels it contains. Sulayman, upon him be peace, said, “I want it faster than that.” From this it seems that Sulayman wanted to bring this throne as a demonstration of the greatness of the power and authority that Allah had bestowed upon him and the troops that He had subjugated to him. Power such as had never been given to anyone else, before or since, so that this would furnish proof of his prophethood before Bilqis and her people, because this would be a great and wondrous thing, if he brought her throne as if he were in her country, before they could come to it, although it was hidden and protected by so many locked doors. When Sulayman said, “I want it faster than that,

(One with whom was knowledge of the Scripture said: ) Ibn `Abbas said, “This was Asif, the scribe of Sulayman.” It was also narrated by Muhammad bin Ishaq from Yazid bin Ruman that he was Asif bin Barkhiya’ and he was a truthful believer who knew the Greatest Name of Allah. Qatadah said: “He was a believer among the humans, and his name was Asif.”

(I will bring it to you within the twinkling of an eye!) Meaning, lift your gaze and look as far as you can, and before you get tired and blink, you will find it before you. Then he got up, performed ablution and prayed to Allah, may He be exalted. Mujahid said: “He said, O Owner of majesty and honor.” When Sulayman and his chiefs saw it before them,

(he said: “This is by the grace of my Lord…”) meaning, `this is one of the blessings which Allah has bestowed upon me.’

(to test whether I am grateful or ungrateful! And whoever is grateful, truly, his gratitude is for himself;) This is like the Ayat:

(Whosoever does righteous good deed, it is for himself; and whosoever does evil, it is against himself.) (41:46)

(and whosoever does righteous good deed, then such will prepare a good place for themselves.) (30:44).

(and whoever is ungrateful, certainly my Lord is Rich, Bountiful.) He has no need of His servants or their worship.

(Bountiful) He is Bountiful in and of Himself, even if no one were to worship Him. His greatness does not depend on anyone. This is like what Musa said:

(If you disbelieve, you and all on earth together, then verily, Allah is Rich, Owner of all praise.) (14:8). It is recorded in Sahih Muslim:

(Allah, may He be exalted, says: “O My servants, if the first of you and the last of you, mankind and Jinn alike, were all to be as pious as the most pious among you, that would not add to My dominion in the slightest. O My servants, if the first of you and the last of you, mankind and Jinn alike, were all to be as evil as the most evil one among you, that would not detract from My dominion in the slightest. O My servants, these are deeds which I am recording for you, and I will judge you according to them, so whoever finds something good, let him praise Allah, and whoever finds otherwise, let him blame no one but himself.”)

قَالَ نَكِّرُواْ لَهَا عَرْشَهَا نَنظُرْ أَتَهْتَدِى أَمْ تَكُونُ مِنَ الَّذِينَ لاَ يَهْتَدُونَ

(41. He said: “Disguise her throne for her that we may see whether she will be guided, or she will be one of those not guided.”) 

 فَلَمَّا جَآءَتْ قِيلَ أَهَكَذَا عَرْشُكِ قَالَتْ كَأَنَّهُ هُوَ وَأُوتِينَا الْعِلْمَ مِن قَبْلِهَا وَكُنَّا مُسْلِمِينَ

 (42. So when she came, it was said, “Is your throne like this” She said: “As though it were the very same.” And he said, “Knowledge was bestowed on us before her, and we had submitted to Allah (as Muslims).”)

 وَصَدَّهَا مَا كَانَت تَّعْبُدُ مِن دُونِ اللَّهِ إِنَّهَا كَانَتْ مِن قَوْمٍ كَـفِرِينَ

(43. And Saddaha that which she used to worship besides Allah has prevented her (from Islam), for she was of a disbelieving people.)

قِيلَ لَهَا ادْخُلِى الصَّرْحَ فَلَمَّا رَأَتْهُ حَسِبَتْهُ لُجَّةً وَكَشَفَتْ عَن سَاقَيْهَا قَالَ إِنَّهُ صَرْحٌ مُّمَرَّدٌ مِّن قَوارِيرَ قَالَتْ رَبِّ إِنِّى ظَلَمْتُ نَفْسِى وَأَسْلَمْتُ مَعَ سُلَيْمَـنَ لِلَّهِ رَبِّ الْعَـلَمِينَ

(44. It was said to her: “Enter As-Sarh,” but when she saw it, she thought it was a pool, and she (tucked up her clothes) uncovering her legs. Sulayman said: “Verily, it is a Sarh Mumarrad of Qawarir.” She said: “My Lord! Verily, I have wronged myself, and I submit, together with Sulayman to Allah, the Lord of all that exits.”)

Surah 27 An Naml, 41-44

Tafsir Ibn Kathir

When Sulayman brought the throne of Bilqis before she and her people arrived, he issued orders that some of its features should be altered, so that he could test her and see whether she recognized it and how composed she would be when she saw it. Would she hasten to say either that it was her throne or that it was not So he said:

(Disguise her throne for her that we may see whether she will be guided, or she will be one of those not guided.) Ibn `Abbas said: “Remove some of its adornments and parts.” Mujahid said: “He issued orders that it should be changed, so whatever was red should be made yellow and vice versa, and whatever was green should be made red, so everything was altered.” `Ikrimah said, “They added some things and took some things away.” Qatadah said, “It was turned upside down and back to front, and some things were added and some things were taken away.” 

(So when she came, it was said: “Is your throne like this”) Her throne, which had been altered and disguised, with some things added and others taken away, was shown to her. She was wise and steadfast, intelligent and strong-willed. She did not hasten to say that this was her throne, because it was far away from her. Neither did she hasten to say that it was not her throne, when she saw that some things had been altered and changed. She said,

((It is) as though it were the very same. ) This is the ultimate in intelligence and strong resolve.

(Knowledge was bestowed on us before her, and we had submitted to Allah.) Mujahid said, “This was spoken by Sulayman.”

(And Saddaha that which she used to worship besides Allah has prevented her, for she was of a disbelieving people.) This is a continuation of the words of Sulayman — according to the opinion of Mujahid and Sa`id bin Jubayr, may Allah be pleased with them both — i.e., Sulayman said:

(Knowledge was bestowed on us before her, and we had submitted to Allah.) and what stopped her from worshipping Allah alone was

(that which she used to worship besides Allah, for she was of a disbelieving people.) What Mujahid and Sa`id said is good; it was also the view of Ibn Jarir. Then Ibn Jarir said, “It could be that the subject of the verb.

(And Saddaha) refers to Sulayman or to Allah, so that the phrase now means:

(She would not worship anything over than Allah.)

(for she was of a disbelieving people.) I say: the opinion of Mujahid is supported by the fact that she declared her Islam after she entered the Sarh, as we shall see below.

(It was said to her: “Enter As-Sarh” but when she saw it, she thought it was a pool, and she (tucked up her clothes) uncovering her legs.) Sulayman had commanded the Shayatin to build for her a huge palace of glass beneath which water was flowing. Anyone who did not know the nature of the building would think that it was water, but in fact there was a layer of glass between a person walking and the water.

Allah says of Fir`awn — may Allah curse him — that he said to his minister Haman:

(Build me a Sarh that I may arrive at the ways.) (40:36-37) Sarh is also used to refer to the high constructed palaces in Yemen. Mumarrad means sturdily constructed and smooth.

(of Qawarir) means, made of glass, i.e., it was built with smooth surfaces. Marid is a fortress in Dawmat Al-Jandal. What is meant here is that Sulayman built a huge, lofty palace of glass for this queen, in order to show her the greatness of his authority and power. When she saw for herself what Allah had given him and how majestic his position was, she submitted to the command of Allah and acknowledged that he was a noble Prophet, so she submitted to Allah and said:

(My Lord! Verily, I have wronged myself,) meaning, by her previous disbelief and Shirk and by the fact that she and her people had worshipped the sun instead of Allah.

(and I submit, together with Sulayman to Allah, the Lord of all that exists.) meaning, following the religion of Sulayman, worshipping Allah alone with no partner or associate, Who created everything and measured it exactly according to its due measurements.

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Sulayman (Solomon), peace be upon him, crosses the valley of the ants

I take refuge with Allaah from the accursed devil.  

بِسْمِ اللَّهِ الرَّحْمَـنِ الرَّحِيمِ 

 Bismillah-ir-Rahman-ir-Raheem: In the name of Allah, the Compassionate, the Merciful.  

Welcome to my blog and praise the Magnificent Lord as you enter: Allahu Akbar: Allah is the Greatest .

 May the Peace and Blessing of Allah Azza wa Jal, our Lord Glorified and Praised be He, be upon our beloved Prophet, his Family, and Companions.  

Sulayman (Solomon), Alaihi Salaam, Crosses the Valley of the Ants.

 وَلَقَدْ ءَاتَيْنَا دَاوُودَ وَسُلَيْمَـنَ عِلْماً وَقَالاَ الْحَمْدُ لِلَّهِ الَّذِى فَضَّلَنَا عَلَى كَثِيرٍ مِّنْ عِبَادِهِ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ  

(15. And indeed We gave knowledge to Dawud and Sulayman, and they both said: “All praise be to Allah, Who has preferred us above many of His believing servants!”)  

وَوَرِثَ سُلَيْمَـنُ دَاوُودَ وَقَالَ يأَيُّهَا النَّاسُ عُلِّمْنَا مَنطِقَ الطَّيْرِ وَأُوتِينَا مِن كُلِّ شَىْءٍ إِنَّ هَـذَا لَهُوَ الْفَضْلُ الْمُبِينُ

 (16. And Sulayman inherited from Dawud. He said: “O mankind! We have been taught the language of birds, and we have been given from everything. This, verily, is an evident grace.”)

 وَحُشِرَ لِسْلَيْمَـنَ جُنُودُهُ مِنَ الْجِنِّ وَالإِنْس وَالطَّيْرِ فَهُمْ يُوزَعُونَ

 (17. And there were gathered before Sulayman his hosts of Jinn and men, and birds, and they all were set in battle order (marching forward).)

 حَتَّى إِذَآ أَتَوْا عَلَى وَادِى النَّمْلِ قَالَتْ نَمْلَةٌ يأَيُّهَا النَّمْلُ ادْخُلُواْ مَسَـكِنَكُمْ لاَ يَحْطِمَنَّكُمْ سُلَيْمَـنُ وَجُنُودُهُ وَهُمْ لاَ يَشْعُرُونَ

  (18. Till, when they came to the valley of the ants, one of the ants said: “O ants! Enter your dwellings, lest Sulayman and his armies should crush you, while they perceive not.”)

 فَتَبَسَّمَ ضَـحِكاً مِّن قَوْلِهَا وَقَالَ رَبِّ أَوْزِعْنِى أَنْ أَشْكُرَ نِعْمَتَكَ الَّتِى أَنْعَمْتَ عَلَىَّ وَعَلَى وَالِدَىَّ وَأَنْ أَعْمَلَ صَـلِحاً تَرْضَـهُ وَأَدْخِلْنِى بِرَحْمَتِكَ فِى عِبَادِكَ الصَّـلِحِينَ

(19. So he (Sulayman) smiled, amused at her speech and said: “My Lord! Grant me the power and ability that I may be grateful for Your favors which You have bestowed on me and on my parents, and that I may do righteous good deeds that will please You, and admit me by Your mercy among Your righteous servants.”)

Surah 27 An Naml, Verse 15-19

Tafsir Ibn Kathir

Here Allah tells us about the great blessings and favors which He bestowed upon two of His servants and Prophets, Dawud (David) and his son Sulayman (Solomon), peace be upon them both, and how they enjoyed happiness in this world and the Hereafter, power and authority in this world, and the position of being Prophets and Messengers. Allah says:  

(And indeed We gave knowledge to Dawud and Sulayman, and they both said: “All the praises and thanks be to Allah, Who has preferred us above many of His believing servants!”)

 (And Sulayman inherited from Dawud.) means, in kingship and prophethood. What is meant here is not wealth, because if that were the case, Sulayman would not have been singled out from among the sons of Dawud, as Dawud had one hundred wives. Rather what is meant is the inheritance of kingship and prophethood, for the wealth of the Prophets cannot be inherited, as the Messenger of Allah said:

(We Prophets cannot be inherited from; whatever we leave behind is charity.) And Sulayman said:

(O mankind! We have been taught the language of birds, and we have been given from everything.) Here Sulayman was speaking of the blessings that Allah bestowed upon him, by giving him complete authority and power, whereby mankind, the Jinn and the birds were subjugated to him. He also knew the language of the birds and animals, which is something that had never been given to any other human being — as far as we know from what Allah and His Messenger told us. Allah enabled Sulayman to understand what the birds said to one another as they flew through the air, and what the different kinds of animals said. Sulayman said:

(We have been taught the language of birds, and we have been given from everything.) i.e., all things that a king needs.

(This, verily, is an evident grace.) means, `this is clearly the blessings of Allah upon us.’

(And there were gathered before Sulayman his hosts of Jinn and men, and birds, and they all were set in battle order.) means, all of Sulayman’s troops of Jinn, men and birds were gathered together, and he rode with them in a display of might and glory, with people marching behind him, followed by the Jinn, and the birds flying above his head. When it was hot, they would shade him with their wings.

(and they all were set in battle order.) The first and the last of them were brought together, so that none of them would step out of place. Mujahid said: “Officials were appointed to keep each group in order, and to keep the first and the last together so that no one would step out of line — just as kings do nowadays.”

(Till, when they came to the valley of the ants,) meaning, when Sulayman, the soldiers and the army with him crossed the valley of the ants,

(one of the ants said: “O ants! Enter your dwellings, lest Sulayman and his armies should crush you, while they perceive not.”) Sulayman, peace be upon him, understood what the ant said,

(So he smiled, amused at her speech and said: “My Lord! Grant me the power and ability that I may be grateful for Your favors which You have bestowed on me and on my parents, and that I may do righteous good deeds that will please You, ) meaning: `inspire me to give thanks for the blessings that You have bestowed upon me by teaching me to understand what the birds and animals say, and the blessings that You have bestowed upon my parents by making them Muslims who believe in You.’

(and that I may do righteous good deeds that will please You,) means, `deeds that You love which will earn Your pleasure.’

(and admit me by Your mercy among Your righteous servants.) means, `when You cause me to die, then join me with the righteous among Your servants, and the Higher Companion among Your close friends.’

[وَتَفَقَّدَ الطَّيْرَ فَقَالَ مَالِيَ لاَ أَرَى الْهُدْهُدَ أَمْ كَانَ مِنَ الْغَآئِبِينَ

(20. He inspected the birds, and said: “What is the matter that I see not the hoopoe Or is he among the absentees”)

لأُعَذِّبَنَّهُ عَذَاباً شَدِيداً أَوْ لاّذْبَحَنَّهُ أَوْ لَيَأْتِيَنِّى بِسُلْطَـنٍ مُّبِينٍ

 (21. “I will surely punish him with a severe torment or slaughter him, unless he brings me a clear reason.”)

Surah 27 An Naml, Verse 20-21

Tafsir Ibn Kathir

Mujahid, Sa`id bin Jubayr and others narrated from Ibn `Abbas and others that the hoopoe was an expert who used to show Sulayman where water was if he was out in open land and needed water. The hoopoe would look for water for him in the various strata of the earth, just as a man looks at things on the surface of the earth, and he would know just how far below the surface the water was. When the hoopoe showed him where the water was, Sulayman would command the Jinn to dig in that place until they brought water from the depths of the earth. One day Sulayman went to some open land and checked on the birds, but he could not see the hoopoe.

(and (Sulayman) said: “What is the matter that I see not the hoopoe Or is he among the absentees”) One day `Abdullah bin `Abbas told a similar story, and among the people was a man from the Khawarij whose name was Nafi` bin Al-Azraq, who often used to raise objections to Ibn `Abbas. He said to him, “Stop, O Ibn `Abbas; you will be defeated (in argument) today!” Ibn `Abbas said: “Why” Nafi` said: “You are telling us that the hoopoe can see water beneath the ground, but any boy can put seed in a trap and cover the trap with dirt, and the hoopoe will come and take the seed, so the boy can catch him in the trap.” Ibn `Abbas said, “If it was not for the fact that this man would go and tell others that he had defeated Ibn `Abbas in argument, I would not even answer.” Then he said to Nafi`: “Woe to you! When the decree strikes a person, his eyes become blind and he loses all caution.” Nafi` said: “By Allah I will never dispute with you concerning anything in the Qur’an.

(I will surely punish him with a severe torment) Al-A`mash said, narrating from Al-Minhal bin `Amr from Sa`id that Ibn `Abbas said: “He meant, by plucking his feathers.” `Abdullah bin Shaddad said: “By plucking his feathers and exposing him to the sun.” This was also the view of more than one of the Salaf, that it means plucking his feathers and leaving him exposed to be eaten by ants.

(or slaughter him,) means, killing him.

(unless he brings me a clear reason.) i.e., a valid excuse. Sufyan bin `Uyaynah and `Abdullah bin Shaddad said: “When the hoopoe came back, the other birds said to him: “What kept you Sulayman has vowed to shed your blood.” The hoopoe said: “Did he make any exception [did he say `unless’]” They said, “Yes, he said:

(I will surely punish him with a severe torment or slaughter him, unless he brings me a clear reason.) The hoopoe said, “Then I am saved.”

فَمَكَثَ غَيْرَ بَعِيدٍ فَقَالَ أَحَطتُ بِمَا لَمْ تُحِطْ بِهِ وَجِئْتُكَ مِن سَبَإٍ بِنَبَإٍ يَقِينٍ

 (22. But (the hoopoe) stayed not long, he said: “I have grasped which you have not grasped and I have come to you from Saba’ with true news.”)

 إِنِّى وَجَدتُّ امْرَأَةً تَمْلِكُهُمْ وَأُوتِيَتْ مِن كُلِّ شَىْءٍ وَلَهَا عَرْشٌ عَظِيمٌ

(23. “I found a woman ruling over them, she has been given all things, and she has a great throne.”)

وَجَدتُّهَا وَقَوْمَهَا يَسْجُدُونَ لِلشَّمْسِ مِن دُونِ اللَّهِ وَزَيَّنَ لَهُمُ الشَّيْطَـنُ أَعْمَـلَهُمْ فَصَدَّهُمْ عَنِ السَّبِيلِ فَهُمْ لاَ يَهْتَدُونَ

 (24. “I found her and her people worshipping the sun instead of Allah, and Shaytan has made their deeds fair seeming to them to prevent them from the way, so they have no guidance.”)

أَلاَّ يَسْجُدُواْ للَّهِ الَّذِى يُخْرِجُ الْخَبْءَ فِى السَّمَـوَتِ وَالاٌّرْضِ وَيَعْلَمُ مَا تُخْفُونَ وَمَا تُعْلِنُونَ

  (25. So they do not prostrate themselves before Allah, Who brings to light what is hidden in the heavens and the earth, and knows what you conceal and what you reveal.)

 اللَّهُ لاَ إِلَـهَ إِلاَّ هُوَ رَبُّ الْعَرْشِ الْعَظِيمِ

(26. Allah, La ilaha illa Huwa, the Lord of the Supreme Throne!”)

Surah 27 An Naml 22-26

Tafsir Ibn Kathir

Allah says:

(But (the hoopoe) stayed not long,) meaning, he was absent for only a short time. Then he came and said to Sulayman:

(I have grasped which you have not grasped) meaning, `I have come to know something that you and your troops do not know.’

(and I have come to you from Saba’ with true news.) meaning, with true and certain news. Saba’ (Sheba) refers to Himyar, they were a dynasty in Yemen. Then the hoopoe said:

(I found a woman ruling over them,) Al-Hasan Al-Basri said, “This is Bilqis bint Sharahil, the queen of Saba’.” Allah’s saying:

(she has been given all things,) means, all the conveniences of this world that a powerful monarch could need.

(and she has a great throne.) meaning, a tremendous chair adorned with gold and different kinds of jewels and pearls. The historians said, “This throne was in a great, strong palace which was high and firmly constructed. In it there were three hundred and sixty windows on the east side, and a similar number on the west, and it was constructed in such a way that each day when the sun rose it would shine through one window, and when it set it would shine through the opposite window. And the people used to prostrate to the sun morning and evening. This is why the hoopoe said:

(I found her and her people worshipping the sun instead of Allah, and Shaytan has made their deeds fair seeming to them, and has prevented them from the way,) meaning, from the way of truth, 

(so they have no guidance.) Allah’s saying: 

(and Shaytan has made their deeds fair seeming to them, and has prevented them from the way, so they have no guidance, so they do not prostrate themselves before Allah.) They do not know the way of truth, prostrating only before Allah alone and not before anything that He has created, whether heavenly bodies or anything else. This is like the Ayah: 

 (And from among His signs are the night and the day, and the sun and the moon. Prostrate yourselves not to the sun nor to the moon, but prostrate yourselves to Allah Who created them, if you indeed worship Him.) (41:37)

(Who brings to light what is hidden in the heavens and the earth,) `Ali bin Abi Talhah reported that Ibn `Abbas said: “He knows everything that is hidden in the heavens and on earth.” This was also the view of `Ikrimah, Mujahid, Sa`id bin Jubayr, Qatadah and others. His saying:

(and knows what you conceal and what you reveal.) means, He knows what His servants say and do in secret, and what they say and do openly. This is like the Ayah:

(It is the same whether any of you conceals his speech or declares it openly, whether he be hid by night or goes forth freely by day) (13:10). His saying:

(Allah, La ilaha illa Huwa, the Lord of the Supreme Throne!) means, He is the One to be called upon, Allah, He is the One other than Whom there is no god, the Lord of the Supreme Throne, and there is none greater than Him in all of creation. Since the hoopoe was calling to what is good, and for people to worship and prostrate to Allah alone, it would have been forbidden to kill him. Imam Ahmad, Abu Dawud and Ibn Majah recorded that Abu Hurayrah, may Allah be pleased with him, said that the Prophet forbade killing four kinds of animals: ants, bees, hoopoes and the sparrow hawks. Its chain of narration is Sahih.

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Sulayman (Solomon), peace be upon him, the son of Dawood (David), peace be upon him

 

I take refuge with Allaah from the accursed devil.

بِسْمِ اللَّهِ الرَّحْمَـنِ الرَّحِيمِ  

Bismillah-ir-Rahman-ir-Raheem: In the name of Allah, the Compassionate, the Merciful.  

Welcome to my blog and praise the Magnificent Lord as you enter: Allahu Akbar: Allah is the Greatest .  

May the Peace and Blessing of Allah Azza wa Jal, our Lord Glorified and Praised be He, be upon our beloved Prophet, his Family, and Companions.

Sulayman (Solomon) Alaihi Salaam, the son of Dawood (David) Alaihi Salaam.

وَوَهَبْنَا لِدَاوُودَ سُلَيْمَـنَ نِعْمَ الْعَبْدُ إِنَّهُ أَوَّابٌ

(30. And to Dawud We gave Sulayman. How excellent a servant! Verily, he was ever turning in repentance (to Us)!)

 إِذْ عُرِضَ عَلَيْهِ بِالْعَشِىِّ الصَّـفِنَـتُ الْجِيَادُ

(31. When there were displayed before him, in the afternoon, well trained horses of the highest breed.)

فَقَالَ إِنِّى أَحْبَبْتُ حُبَّ الْخَيْرِ عَن ذِكْرِ رَبِى حَتَّى تَوَارَتْ بِالْحِجَابِ

 (32. He said: “I did love the good instead of remembering my Lord,” till the time was over, and (the sun) had hidden in the veil (of night).)

رُدُّوهَا عَلَىَّ فَطَفِقَ مَسْحاً بِالسُّوقِ وَالاٌّعْنَاقِ

(33. Then he said: “Bring them back to me.” Then he began to pass his hand over their legs and their necks.)

Surah 38 Sad, Verse 30-33

Tafsir Ibn Kathir

Allah tells us that he gave Sulayman to Dawud as a Prophet, as He says elsewhere:

(And Sulayman inherited Dawud) (27:1). meaning, he inherited prophethood from him. Dawud had other sons besides Sulayman, for he had one hundred free wives.

(How excellent a servant! Verily, he was ever oft-returning in repentance (to Us)!) This is praise for Sulayman, because he was very much obedient, worshipping Allah much and always turning to Allah in repentance.

(When there were displayed before him, in the afternoon, well trained horses of the highest breed.) means, these well trained horses were shown to Sulayman, peace be upon him, in his capacity as king and ruler. Mujahid said, “They were the kind of horses which stand on three legs and raise the fourth, and they were swift horses.” This was also the view of several others among the Salaf. Abu Dawud recorded that `A’ishah, may Allah be pleased with her, said, “The Messenger of Allah came back from the campaign of Tabuk or Khaybar, and there was a curtain covering her room. The wind came and lifted the curtain, revealing some toys belonging to `A’ishah, may Allah be pleased with her. The Prophet said:

(What is this, O `A’ishah) She, may Allah be pleased with her, said, “My toys.” Among them he saw a horse with two wings made of cloth. He said:

(What is this that I see in the midst of them) She, may Allah be pleased with her, said, “A horse.” The Messenger of Allah said,

(And what is this on it) She, may Allah be pleased with her, said, “Wings.” The Messenger of Allah said,

(A horse with two wings) She, may Allah be pleased with her, said, “Did you not hear that Sulayman, peace be upon him, had a horse that had wings” She, may Allah be pleased with her, said, “The Messenger of Allah smiled so broadly that I could see his molars.”

(He (Sulayman) said: “I did love the good (i.e., horses) instead of remembering my Lord” till the time was over, and (the sun) had hidden in the veil (of night)) More than one of the Salaf and scholars of Tafsir mentioned that he was so busy looking at the horses that he missed the time of `Asr prayer. He did not miss it deliberately, but because of forgetfulness, as happened to the Prophet on the day of Khandaq, when he was too busy to pray `Asr and he prayed it after the sun had set. This was recorded in the Two Sahihs with more than one chain of narration, including the report from Jabir, may Allah be pleased with him, who said, “On the day of Khandaq, `Umar, may Allah be pleased with him, came after the sun had set and started cursing the disbelievers of the Quraysh. He said, `O Messenger of Allah, I could not pray `Asr until the sun had almost set.’ The Messenger of Allah said,

(By Allah, I did not pray it either.)” He (Jabir) said, “So we got up and went to Buthan. Allah’s Prophet performed ablution for the prayer and we too performed ablution. He prayed `Asr after the sun had set, then he prayed Maghrib after that.”

(Then he (Sulayman) said: “Bring them (horses) back to me.” Then he began to pass his hand over their legs and their necks.) Al-Hasan Al-Basri said, “He said, `No, by Allah, you will not keep me from worshipping my Lord again,’ then he ordered that they should be slaughtered.” This was also the view of Qatadah. As-Suddi said, “Their necks and hamstrings were struck with swords.” `Ali bin Abi Talhah reported that Ibn `Abbas, may Allah be pleased with him, said, “He began patting the horses’ heads and legs out of love for them.” This is the view that was favored by Ibn Jarir. He said, “Because he would not punish an animal by cutting its hamstrings or destroy his own wealth for no other reason than that he had been distracted from his prayer by looking at it, and it was not the animals’ fault. ” This view which Ibn Jarir thought more correct is subject to further review, because such action may have been permissible according to their law, especially since he got angry for the sake of Allah for being distracted by these horses until the time for prayer had lapsed. Then, since he dispensed with them for the sake of Allah, Allah compensated him with something better, the wind which blew gently by his order wherever he willed. Its morning lasted a month’s (journey), and its afternoon lasted a month’s (journey). This was faster and better than horses.

Imam Ahmad recorded that Abu Qatadah and Abu Ad-Dahma’, who traveled a lot to the Ka`bah, said, “We met a man from among the bedouins who said to us: `The Messenger of Allah took my hand and started teaching me some of that which Allah had taught him. He said,

(You do not give up anything for the sake of Allah, but Allah will give you something better than it.)”’

وَلَقَدْ فَتَنَّا سُلَيْمَـنَ وَأَلْقَيْنَا عَلَى كُرْسِيِّهِ جَسَداً ثُمَّ أَنَابَ

(34. And indeed, We tried Sulayman and We placed on his throne Jasad (a body), and he returned.)

قَالَ رَبِّ اغْفِرْ لِى وَهَبْ لِى مُلْكاً لاَّ يَنبَغِى لاًّحَدٍ مِّن بَعْدِى إِنَّكَ أَنتَ الْوَهَّابُ

 (35. He said: “My Lord! Forgive me, and bestow upon me a kingdom such as shall not belong to any other after me. Verily, You are the Bestower.”)

فَسَخَّرْنَا لَهُ الرِّيحَ تَجْرِى بِأَمْرِهِ رُخَآءً حَيْثُ أَصَابَ

(36. So, We subjected to him the wind; it blew gently by his order wherever he willed,)

 وَالشَّيَـطِينَ كُلَّ بَنَّآءٍ وَغَوَّاصٍ

 (37. And the Shayatin, from every kind of builder and diver,)

وَءَاخَرِينَ مُقَرَّنِينَ فِى الاٌّصْفَادِ

 (38. And also others bound in fetters.)

هَـذَا عَطَآؤُنَا فَامْنُنْ أَوْ أَمْسِكْ بِغَيْرِ حِسَابٍ

 (39. [Allah said to Sulayman]: “This is Our gift, so spend you or withhold, no account will be asked of you.”)

وَإِنَّ لَهُ عِندَنَا لَزُلْفَى وَحُسْنَ مَـَابٍ

(40. And verily, for him is a near access to Us, and a good (final) return.)

Surah 38 Sad, Verse 34-40

Tafsir Ibn Kathir

Allah says,

(And indeed, We tried Sulayman) meaning, `We tested him.’

(and We placed on his throne Jasad (a body)).

(and he returned.) means, after this test, he turned back to Him and asked for forgiveness and to be given a kingdom such as shall not belong to any other after him.

(He said: “My Lord! Forgive me, and bestow upon me a kingdom such as shall not belong to any other after me. Verily, You are the Bestower.”) Some of them said, “No one after me will have the right to ask Allah for such a kingdom.” This is the apparent meaning from the context of the Ayah, and several Hadiths with a similar meaning have been narrated from the Messenger of Allah . In his Tafsir of this Ayah, Al-Bukhari recorded that Abu Hurayrah, may Allah be pleased with him, said that the Prophet said:

(An `Ifrit from among the Jinn came and bothered me last night- or he said something similar -Trying to stop me from praying. Allah enabled me to overpower him, and I wanted to tie him to one of the pillars in the Masjid so that you could see him this morning. Then I remembered what my brother Sulayman said, (My Lord! Forgive me and bestow upon me a kingdom such as shall not belong to any other after me)) Rawh said, “so he let him go, humiliated.” ) This was also recorded by Muslim and An-Nasa’i. In his Sahih, Muslim recorded that Abu Ad-Darda’, may Allah be pleased with him, said, “The Messenger of Allah stood up to pray and we heard him say,

(I seek refuge with Allah from you.) Then he said,

(I curse you with the curse of Allah.) three times, and he stretched out his hand as if he was reaching out to take something. When he finished his prayer, we said, `O Messenger of Allah, we heard you say something in your prayer which we have never heard you say before, and we saw you stretching out your hand.’ He said:

(The enemy of Allah Iblis came with a flame of fire to throw in my face, so I said, “I seek refuge with Allah from you” three times, then I said, “I curse you with the complete curse of Allah,” but he did not back off. I said it three times. Then I wanted to seize him. By Allah, if it were not for the words of our brother Sulayman, he would have been chained up and he would have become a plaything for the children of the people of Al-Madinah.)” Allah says:

(So, We subjected to him the wind; it blew gently by his order wherever he willed.) Al-Hasan Al-Basri, may Allah have mercy on him, said, “When Sulayman, peace be upon him, slaughtered the horses out of anger for the sake of Allah, Allah compensated him with something better and swifter, the wind whose morning was a month’s (journey), and its afternoon was a month’s (journey).”

(wherever he willed.) means, wherever in the world he wanted.

(And also the Shayatin, from every kind of builder and diver,) means, among them were some whom he used to build high rooms, images, basins as large as reservoirs, and cauldrons fixed (in their places), and other difficult tasks which humans were unable to do. And there was another group, who dived into the sea recovering pearls, jewels and other precious things which cannot be found anywhere else.

(And also others bound in fetters.) means, tied up in chains. These were the ones who had rebelled and refused to work, or else their work was bad and they were wrongdoers.

([Allah said to Sulayman]: “This is Our Gift, so spend you or withhold, no account will be asked of you.”) means, `this that We have given to you of kingship and perfect power, as you asked for, you may give to whomsoever you wish and deny to whomsoever you wish, and you will not be brought to account. Whatever you do is permissible for you, so however you judge, it will be right.’ It was reported in the Two Sahihs that when the Messenger of Allah was given the choice between being a servant and a Messenger — who does what he is commanded to do and distributes things among the people as Allah commands him to do — or being a Prophet and a king, who can give to whomever he wishes and withhold from whomever he wishes without being held accountable for anything, he chose the former. He consulted with Jibril, peace be upon him, who said, “Be humble.” So he chose the former because it has a greater value before Allah and brings a higher status in the Hereafter, even though the second option, prophethood combined with kingship, is also a great thing both in this world and in the Hereafter, when Allah tells us what He gave to Sulayman, peace be upon him, in this world, He tells us that he will have a great share with Allah on the Day of Resurrection. He says:

(And verily, for him is a near access to Us, and a good (final) return.) meaning, in this world and the Hereafter.

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