The Sacred City: Makkah.

I take refuge with Allaah, the Exalted, from the accursed devil.

بِسْمِ اللَّهِ الرَّحْمَـنِ الرَّحِيمِ

Bismillah-ir-Rahman-ir-Raheem: In the name of Allah, the Compassionate, the Merciful.

Welcome to my blog and praise the Magnificent Lord as you enter: Allahu Akbar: Allah is the Greatest .

May the Peace and Blessings of Allah Azza wa Jal, our Lord Glorified and Praised be He, be upon our beloved  Prophet, his Family, and Companions.

The Sacred City: Makkah.

إِنَّ أَوَّلَ بَيْتٍ وُضِعَ لِلنَّاسِ لَلَّذِى بِبَكَّةَ مُبَارَكاً وَهُدًى لِّلْعَـلَمِينَ

(96. Verily, the first House (of worship) appointed for mankind was that at Bakkah (Makkah), full of blessing, and a guidance for Al-`Alamin (mankind and Jinn).

فِيهِ ءَايَـتٌ بَيِّـنَـتٌ مَّقَامُ إِبْرَهِيمَ وَمَن دَخَلَهُ كَانَ ءَامِناً وَللَّهِ عَلَى النَّاسِ حِجُّ الْبَيْتِ مَنِ اسْتَطَـعَ إِلَيْهِ سَبِيلاً وَمَن كَفَرَ فَإِنَّ الله غَنِىٌّ عَنِ الْعَـلَمِينَ

(97. In it are manifest signs (for example), the Maqam (station) of Ibrahim; whosoever enters it, he attains security. And Hajj to the House is a duty that mankind owes to Allah, for those who are able to undertake the journey; and whoever disbelieves, then Allah stands not in need of any of the `Alamin.)

Surah 3 Al A Imran Verse 96-97

Tafsir Ibn Kathir

The Ka`bah is the First House of Worship.

Allah said,

(Verily, the first House appointed for mankind) for all people, for their acts of worship and religious rituals. They go around the House (in Tawaf), pray in its vicinity and remain in its area in I`tikaf.

(was that at Bakkah,) meaning, the Ka`bah that was built by Ibrahim Al-Khalil, whose religion the Jews and Christians claim they follow. However, they do not perform Hajj to the house that Ibrahim built by Allah’s command, and to which he invited the people to perform Hajj. Allah said next,

(full of blessing), sanctified,

(and a guidance for Al-`Alamin.)

Imam Ahmad recorded that Abu Dharr said; “I said, `O Allah’s Messenger! Which Masjid was the first to be built on the surface of the earth’ He said, `Al-Masjid Al-Haram (in Makkah).’ I said, `Which was built next’ He replied `Al-Masjid Al-Aqsa (in Jerusalem).’ I said, `What was the period of time between building the two’ He said, `Forty years.’ He added,

(Wherever (you may be, and) the prayer becomes due, perform the prayer there, for the whole earth was made a Masjid.)” Al-Bukhari and Muslim also collected this Hadith.

The Names of Makkah, Such As `Bakkah.

Allah said,

(was that at Bakkah), where Bakkah is one of the names of Makkah. Bakkah means, `it brings Buka’ (crying, weeping) to the tyrants and arrogant, meaning they cry and become humble in its vicinity. It was also said that Makkah was called Bakkah because people do Buka next to it, meaning they gather around it. There are many names for Makkah, such as Bakkah, Al-Bayt Al-`Atiq (the Ancient House), Al-Bayt Al-Haram (the Sacred House), Al-Balad Al-Amin (the City of Safety) and Al-Ma’mun (Security). Makkah’s names include Umm Rahm (Mother of Mercy), Umm Al-Qura (Mother of the Towns), Salah, (as well as others).

The Station of Ibrahim.

Allah’s statement,

(In it are manifest signs) (3:97), means, clear signs that Ibrahim built the Ka`bah and that Allah has honored and blessed it. Allah then said,

(the Maqam (station) of Ibrahim) When the building (the Ka`bah) was raised, Ibrahim stood on; the Maqam so that he could raise the walls higher, while his son Isma`il was handing the stones to him. We should mention that the Maqam used to be situated right next to the House. Later, and during his reign, `Umar bin Al-Khattab moved the Maqam farther to the east, so that those who go around the House in Tawaf are able to perform it easily, without disturbing those who pray next to the Maqam after finishing their Tawaf. Allah commanded us to pray next to the Maqam;

(And take you (people) the Maqam (station) of Ibrahim as a place of prayer) (2:125).

We mentioned the Hadiths about this subject before, and all the thanks are due to Allah. Al-`Awfi said that, Ibn `Abbas commented on Allah’s statement,

(In it are manifest signs, the Maqam of Ibrahim;)

“Such as the Maqam and Al-Mash`ar ﴿Al-Haram﴾.” Mujahid said, “The impression of Ibrahim’s feet remains on the Maqam as a clear sign.” It was reported that `Umar bin `Abdul-`Aziz, Al-Hasan, Qatadah, As-Suddi, Muqatil bin Hayyan and others said similarly.

Al-Haram, the Sacred Area, is a Safe Area.

Allah said,

(whosoever enters it, he attains security,) (3:97) meaning, the Haram of Makkah is a safe refuge for those in a state of fear. There in its vicinity, they will be safe, just as was the case during the time of Jahiliyyah. Al-Hasan Al-Basri said, “(During the time of Jahiliyyah) a man would commit murder, then wear a piece of wool around his neck and enter the Haram. And even when the son of the murdered person would meet him, he would not make a move against him, until he left the sanctuary.” Allah said,

(Have they not seen that We have made (Makkah) a secure sanctuary, while men are being snatched away from all around them) (29:67), and,

(So let them worship (Allah) the Lord of this House (the Ka`bah). (He) Who has fed them against hunger, and has made them safe from fear) (106:3-4).

It is not allowed for anyone to hunt in the Haram or to drive game out of its den to be hunted, or cut the trees in its vicinity, or pick its grass, as the Hadiths of the Prophet and the statements of the Companions testify. The Two Sahihs recorded (this being the wording of Muslim) that Ibn `Abbas said, “On the day of the conquest of Makkah, the Messenger of Allah said,

(There is no more Hijrah (migration to Makkah), only Jihad and good intention. If you were mobilized, then march forth.)

He also said on the day of the conquest of Makkah,

(Beware! Allah made this town (Makkah) a sanctuary when He created the heavens and earth, and it is sacred by Allah’s decree until the Day of Resurrection. Fighting in Makkah was not permitted for anyone before me, and it was made legal for me for only a few hours or so on that day. No doubt it is at this moment a sanctuary by Allah’s decree until the Day of Resurrection. It is not allowed to uproot its thorny shrubs, hunt its game, pick up its lost objects, except by announcing it, or to uproot its trees.)

Al-`Abbas said, `Except the lemon grass, O Allah’s Messenger, as they use it in their houses and graves.’ The Prophet said:

(Except lemongrass).”

The Two Sahihs also recorded that Abu Shurayh Al-`Adawi said that he said to `Amr bin Sa`id while he was sending the troops to Makkah (to fight `Abdullah bin Az-Zubayr), “O Commander! Allow me to tell you what Allah’s Messenger said on the day following the conquest of Makkah. My ears heard it and my heart memorized it thoroughly, and I saw the Prophet with my own eyes when he, after glorifying and praising Allah, said,

(Allah, not the people, made Makkah a sanctuary. Therefore, anybody who has belief in Allah and the Last Day, should neither shed blood in it nor cut down its trees. If anybody argues that fighting in it is permissible on the basis that Allah’s Messenger fought in Makkah, say to him, `Allah allowed His Messenger and did not allow you.’ Allah allowed me only for a few hours on that day (of the conquest), and today its sanctity is as valid as it was before. So, those who are present, should inform those who are absent of this fact.).”

Abu Shurayh was asked, “What did `Amr reply” He said that `Amr said, “O Abu Shurayh! I know better than you in this respect; Makkah does not give protection to a sinner, a murderer or a thief.”

Jabir bin `Abdullah said, “I heard the Messenger of Allah saying,

(None of you is allowed to carry a weapon in Makkah.) Muslim recorded this Hadith.

`Abdullah bin `Adi bin Al-Hamra’ Az-Zuhri said that he heard the Messenger of Allah say while standing at Al-Hazwarah in the marketplace of Makkah,

(By Allah! You are the best of Allah’s land and the most beloved land to Allah. Had it not been for the fact that I was driven out of you, I would not have left you.)

Imam Ahmad collected this Hadith and this is his wording. At-Tirmidhi, An-Nasa’i and Ibn Majah also collected it. At-Tirmidhi said, “Hasan Sahih.”

The Necessity of Performing Hajj.

Allah said,

(And Hajj to the House is a duty that mankind owes to Allah, for those who are able to undertake the journey)(3:97).

This Ayah established the obligation of performing Hajj. There are many Hadiths that mention it as one of the pillars and fundamentals of Islam, and this is agreed upon by the Muslims. According to texts and the consensus of the scholars, it is only obligatory for the adult Muslim to perform it once during his lifetime. Imam Ahmad recorded that Abu Hurayrah said that the Messenger of Allah once gave a speech in which he said,

(O people! Hajj has been enjoined on you, therefore, perform Hajj.)

A man asked, “Is it every year, O Allah’s Messenger” The Prophet remained silent until the man repeated the question three times and he then said,

(Had I said yes, it would have become an obligation and you would not have been able to fulfill it.) He said next,

(Leave me as I leave you, those before you were destroyed because of their many questions and disputing with their Prophets. If I command you with something, perform it as much as you can. If I forbid something for you, then refrain from it.) Muslim recorded similarly.

Meaning of `Afford’ in the Ayah.

There are several categories of “the ability to under take the journey”. There is the physical ability of the person himself and the ability that is related to other things as mentioned in the books of jurisprudence. Abu `Isa At-Tirmidhi recorded that Ibn `Umar said, “A man stood up and asked the Messenger of Allah , `O Messenger of Allah! Who is the pilgrim’ He said, `He who has untidy hair and clothes.’ Another man asked, `Which Hajj is better, O Messenger of Allah’ He said, `The noisy (with supplication to Allah) and bloody (with sacrifice).’ Another man asked, `What is the ability to undertake the journey, O Messenger of Allah’ He said, `Having provision and a means of transportation.”’ This is the narration that Ibn Majah collected. Al-Hakim narrated that Anas said that the Messenger of Allah was asked about Allah’s statement,

(for those who are able to undertake the journey;) (3:97) “What does `able to undertake the journey’ mean” The Prophet answered, “Having sufficient provision and a means of transportation.” Al-Hakim stated that this Hadith’s chain of narration is authentic, following the guidelines of Muslim in his Sahih, but the Two Sahihs did not collect it. Ahmad recorded that Ibn `Abbas said that the Messenger of Allah said,

(Whoever intends to perform Hajj, let him rush to perform it.) Abu Dawud also collected this Hadith.

The One who Denies the Necessity of Hajj Becomes a Disbeliever.

Allah said,

(…and whoever disbelieves, then Allah stands not in need of any of the `Alamin) (3:97).

Ibn `Abbas, Mujahid and several others commented on this Ayah, “Whoever denies the necessity of Hajj becomes disbeliever, and Allah is far Richer than to need him.” Al-Hafiz Abu Bakr Al-Isma`ili recorded that `Umar bin Al-Khattab said, “Whoever can afford Hajj but did not perform it, there is no difference in his case if he dies while Jew or Christian.” This has an authentic chain of narration leading to `Umar.

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Facing the Qiblah, direction of the prayer, of Makkah

I take refuge with Allaah, the Exalted, from the accursed devil.

بِسْمِ اللَّهِ الرَّحْمَـنِ الرَّحِيمِ

Bismillah-ir-Rahman-ir-Raheem: In the name of Allah, the Compassionate, the Merciful.

Welcome to my blog and praise the Magnificent Lord as you enter: Allahu Akbar: Allah is the Greatest .

May the Peace and Blessings of Allah Azza wa Jal, our Lord Glorified and Praised be He, be upon our beloved  Prophet, his Family, and Companions.

Facing the Qiblah, direction of the prayer, of Makkah.

 وَلِلَّهِ الْمَشْرِقُ وَالْمَغْرِبُ فَأَيْنَمَا تُوَلُّواْ فَثَمَّ وَجْهُ اللَّهِ إِنَّ اللَّهَ وَسِعٌ عَلِيمٌ

(115. And to Allah belong the east and the west, so wherever you turn (yourselves or your faces) there is the Face of Allah (and He is High above, over His Throne). Surely, Allah is Sufficient (for His creatures’ needs), Knowing.)

Surah 2 Al Baqarah Verse 115

Tafsir Ibn Kathir

This ruling brought comfort to the Messenger of Allah and his Companions, who were driven out of Makkah and had to depart from the area of Al-Masjid Al-Haram. In Makkah, the Messenger of Allah used to pray in the direction of Bayt Al-Maqdis, while the Ka`bah was between him and the Qiblah. When the Messenger migrated to Al-Madinah, he faced Bayt Al-Maqdis for sixteen or seventeen months, and then Allah directed him to face Al-Ka`bah in prayer. This is why Allah said,

(And to Allah belong the east and the west, so wherever you turn (yourselves or your faces) there is the Face of Allah (and He is High above, over His Throne)).

`Ali bin Abi Talhah said that Ibn `Abbas said, “The first part of the Qur’an that was abrogated was about the Qiblah. When the Messenger of Allah migrated to Al-Madinah, which was inhabited by the Jews, he was at first commanded to face Bayt Al-Maqdis. The Jews were happy, and the Messenger of Allah faced Bayt Al-Maqdis for some ten months. However, the Messenger of Allah liked to face the Qiblah of Ibrahim (Al-Ka`bah at Makkah), and he used to look to the sky and supplicate. So Allah revealed,

(Verily, We have seen the turning of your (Muhammad’s) face towards the heaven) until,

(turn your faces (in prayer) in that direction) (2:144).

The Jews were disturbed by this development and said, `What made them change the direction of the Qiblah that they used to face’ Allah revealed,

(Say (O Muhammad ): “To Allah belong both, east and the west”) and,

(So wherever you turn (yourselves or your faces) there is the Face of Allah (and He is High above, over His Throne)).”

`Ikrimah said that Ibn `Abbas said,

(So wherever you turn (yourselves or your faces) there is the Face of Allah (and He is High above, over His Throne)) means, “Allah’s direction is wherever you face, east or west.” Mujahid said that,

(So wherever you turn (yourselves or your faces) there is the Face of Allah (and He is High above, over His Throne))

means, “Wherever you may be, you have a Qiblah to face, that is, Al-Ka`bah.”

However, it was said that Allah sent down this Ayah before the order to face the Ka`bah. Ibn Jarir said, “Others said that this Ayah was revealed to the Messenger of Allah permitting the one praying voluntary prayers to face wherever they wish in the east or west, while traveling, when in fear and when facing the enemy.” For instance, Ibn `Umar used to face whatever direction his animal was headed and proclaim that the Messenger of Allah did the same, explaining the Ayah,

(So wherever you turn (yourselves or your faces) there is the Face of Allah).”

That Hadith was also collected by Muslim, At-Tirmidhi, An-Nasa’i, Ibn Abi Hatim, Ibn Marduwyah, and its origin is in the Two Sahihs from Ibn `Umar and `Amr bin Rabi`ah without mentioning the Ayah. In his Sahih, Al-Bukhari recorded that Nafi` said that whenever Ibn `Umar was asked about the prayer during times of fear, he used to describe it and would then say, “When the sense of fear is worse than that, pray while standing, or while riding, whether facing the Qiblah or not.” Nafi` then said, “I think Ibn `Umar mentioned that from the Prophet .” It was also said that the Ayah was revealed about those who are unable to find the correct direction of the Qiblah in the dark or due to cloudy skies and, thus, prayed in a direction other than the Qiblah by mistake.

The Qiblah for the People of Al-Madinah is what is between the East and the West .

In his Tafsir of this Ayah (2:115), Al-Hafiz Ibn Marduwyah recorded that Abu Hurayrah said that the Messenger of Allah said,

(What is between the east and the west is the Qiblah for the people of Al-Madinah, Ash-Sham and `Iraq.)

At-Tirmidhi and Ibn Majah recorded this Hadith with the wording,

(What is between the east and the west is a Qiblah.)

Ibn Jarir said, “The meaning of Allah’s statement;

(Surely, Allah is Sufficient (for His creatures’ needs), Knowing) is that Allah encompasses all His Creation by providing them with sufficient needs and by His generosity and favor. His statement,

(Knowing) means He is knowledgeable of their deeds and nothing escapes His watch, nor is He unaware of anything. Rather, His knowledge encompasses everything.”

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The Sacred City: Makkah

 I take refuge with Allaah from the accursed devil.  

بِسْمِ اللَّهِ الرَّحْمَـنِ الرَّحِيمِ 

  Bismillah-ir-Rahman-ir-Raheem: In the name of Allah, the Compassionate, the Merciful.  

  Welcome to my blog and praise the Magnificent Lord as you enter: Allahu Akbar: Allah is the Greatest .

  May the Peace and Blessing of Allah Azza wa Jal, our Lord Glorified and Praised be He, be upon our beloved  Prophet, his Family, and Companions.

The Sacred City: Makkah

لاَ أُقْسِمُ بِهَـذَا الْبَلَدِ

(1. Nay! I swear by this city;)

 وَأَنتَ حِلٌّ بِهَـذَا الْبَلَدِ

 (2. And you are free in this city.)

وَوَالِدٍ وَمَا وَلَدَ

 (3. And by the begetter and that which he begot.)

 لَقَدْ خَلَقْنَا الإِنسَـنَ فِى كَبَدٍ

 (4. Verily, We have created man in Kabad.)

 أَيَحْسَبُ أَن لَّن يَقْدِرَ عَلَيْهِ أَحَدٌ

 (5. Does he think that none can overcome him)

يَقُولُ أَهْلَكْتُ مَالاً لُّبَداً

 (6. He says: “I have wasted wealth in abundance!”)

 أَيَحْسَبُ أَن لَّمْ يَرَهُ أَحَدٌ

 (7. Does he think that none sees him)

 أَلَمْ نَجْعَل لَّهُ عَيْنَيْنِ

(8. Have We not made for him two eyes)

وَلِسَاناً وَشَفَتَيْنِ

 (9. And a tongue and two lips)

 وَهَدَيْنَـهُ النَّجْدَينِ

 (10. And shown him the two ways)

Surah 90 Al Balad Verse 1-10

Tafsir Ibn Kathir

Here Allah has sworn by Makkah, the Mother of the Towns, addressing its resident (during the non-sacred months,) free in this city in order to draw his attention to the significance of its sanctity when its people are in the state of sanctity. Khusayf reported from Mujahid;

(Nay! I swear by this city;) “The word “La” (Nay) refers to the refutation against them (Quraish). I swear by this city.” Shabib bin Bishr narrated from `Ikrimah, from Ibn `Abbas that he said,

(Nay! I swear by this city;) “This means Makkah.” Concerning the Ayah:

(And you are free in this city.) he (Ibn `Abbas) said, “O Muhammad! It is permissable for you to fight in it.” Similar was reported from Sa`id bin Jubayr, Abu Salih, `Atiyah, Ad-Dahhak, Qatadah, As-Suddi and Ibn Zayd. Al-Hasan Al-Basri said, “Allah made it lawful (to fight in) for him (the Prophet ) for one hour of a day.” The meaning of what they have said was mentioned in a Hadith that is agreed- upon as being authentic. In it the Prophet said,

(Verily, Allah made this city sacred on the Day that He created the heavens and the earth. Therefore, it is sacred by the sanctity of Allah until the Day of Judgement. Its trees should not be uprooted, and its bushes and grasses should not be removed. And it was only made lawful for me (to fight in) for one hour of a day. Today its sanctity has been restored just as it was sacred yesterday. So, let the one who is present inform those who are absent.) In another wording of this Hadith, he said,

(So, if anyone tries to use the fighting of the Messenger (to conquer Makkah) as an excuse (to fight there), then tell him that Allah permitted it for His Messenger and He has not permitted it for you.) Concerning Allah’s statement,

(And by the begetter and that which he begot.) Mujahid, Abu Salih, Qatadah, Ad-Dahhak, Sufyan Ath-Thawri, Sa`id bin Jubayr, As-Suddi, Al-Hasan Al-Basri, Khusayf, Shurahbil bin Sa`d and others have said, “Meaning, by the begetter, Adam, and that which he begot is his children.” This view that Mujahid and his companions have chosen is good and strong. This is supported by the fact that Allah swears by the Mother of the Towns, which are dwellings. Then after it He swears by the dwellers therein, who is Adam, the father of mankind, and his children. Abu `Imran Al-Jawni said, “It refers to Ibrahim and his progeny.” Ibn Jarir recorded this statement as did Ibn Abi Hatim. Ibn Jarir preferred the view that it is general and it refers to every father and his children. This meaning is also acceptable. Allah then says,

(Verily, We have created man in Kabad.) Ibn Abi Najih and Jurayj reported from `Ata, from Ibn `Abbas concerning the phrase `in Kabad’, “He was created while in hardship. Don’t you see him” Then he mentioned his birth and the sprouting of his teeth. Mujahid said,

(in Kabad.) “A drop of sperm, then a clot, then a lump of flesh, enduring in his creation.” Mujahid then said, “This is similar to Allah’s statement,

(His mother bears him with hardship. And she brings him forth with hardship.) (46:15) and she breast-feeds him with hardship, and his livelihood is a hardship. So he endures all of this.” Sa`id bin Jubayr said,

(Verily, We have created man in Kabad.) “In hardship and seeking livelihood.” `Ikrimah said, “In hardship and long-suffering.” Qatadah said, “In difficulty.” It is reported from Al-Hasan that he said, “Enduring the hardships of the world by life and the severity of the Hereafter.”

Allah says,

(Does he think that none can overcome him) Al-Hasan Al-Basri said,

(Does he think that none can overcome him) “Meaning no one is able to take his wealth.” Qatadah said,

(Does he think that none can overcome him) “The Son of Adam thinks that he will not be asked about this wealth of his — how he earned and how he spent it.” Allah said:

(He says: “I have wasted wealth in abundance!”) This means, the Son of Adam says, “I spent an abundance of wealth.” Mujahid, Al-Hasan, Qatadah, As-Suddi and others have said this.

(Does he think that none sees him) Mujahid said, “Does he think that Allah, the Mighty and Majestic, does not see him.” Others among the Salaf have said similar to this. Allah said;

(Have We not made for him two eyes) meaning, for him to see with them.

(And a tongue) meaning, for him to speak with, and so that he can express that which is inside of him.

(and two lips) In order to help him with speaking, eating food, and beautifying his face and his mouth.

(And shown him the two ways) This refers to the two paths. Sufyan Ath-Thawri narrated from `Asim, from Zirr, from `Abdullah bin Mas`ud that he said,

(And shown him the two ways) “The good and the evil.” Similar to this has been reported from `Ali, Ibn `Abbas, Mujahid, `Ikrimah, Abu Wa’il, Abu Salih, Muhammad bin Ka`b, Ad-Dahhak, and `Ata’ Al-Khurasani among others. Similar to this Ayah is Allah’s statement,

(Verily, We have created man from Nutfah Amshaj, in order to try him: so We made him hearer and seer. Verily, We showed him the way, whether he be grateful or ungrateful.) (76:2-3)

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Pilgrimage a duty to Allah, Glorified and Praised

Bismillah-ir-Rahman-ir-Raheem: In the name of Allah, the Compassionate, the Merciful.

Welcome to my blog and praise the Magnificent Lord as you enter: Allahu Akbar: Allah is the Greatest .

May the Peace and Blessing of Allah Azza wa Jal, our Lord Glorified and Praised be He, be upon our beloved Prophet, his Family, and Companions.

Pilgrimage to the First House of Worship is a duty to Allah, Glorified and Praised

إِنَّ أَوَّلَ بَيْتٍ وُضِعَ لِلنَّاسِ لَلَّذِى بِبَكَّةَ مُبَارَكاً وَهُدًى لِّلْعَـلَمِينَ

(96. Verily, the first House (of worship) appointed for mankind was that at Bakkah (Makkah), full of blessing, and a guidance for Al-`Alamin (mankind and Jinn)).

 فِيهِ ءَايَـتٌ بَيِّـنَـتٌ مَّقَامُ إِبْرَهِيمَ وَمَن دَخَلَهُ كَانَ ءَامِناً وَللَّهِ عَلَى النَّاسِ حِجُّ الْبَيْتِ مَنِ اسْتَطَـعَ إِلَيْهِ سَبِيلاً وَمَن كَفَرَ فَإِنَّ الله غَنِىٌّ عَنِ الْعَـلَمِينَ

(97. In it are manifest signs (for example), the Maqam (station) of Ibrahim; whosoever enters it, he attains security. And Hajj to the House is a duty that mankind owes to Allah, for those who are able to undertake the journey; and whoever disbelieves, then Allah stands not in need of any of the `Alamin.)

Surah 3 Ala Imran Verse 96-97

Tafsir Ibn Kathir

Allah said,

(Verily, the first House appointed for mankind) for all people, for their acts of worship and religious rituals. They go around the House [in Tawaf], pray in its vicinity and remain in its area in I`tikaf.

(was that at Bakkah,) meaning, the Ka`bah that was built by Ibrahim Al-Khalil, whose religion the Jews and Christians claim they follow. However, they do not perform Hajj to the house that Ibrahim built by Allah’s command, and to which he invited the people to perform Hajj. Allah said next,

(full of blessing), sanctified,

(and a guidance for Al-`Alamin.)

Imam Ahmad recorded that Abu Dharr said; “I said, `O Allah’s Messenger! Which Masjid was the first to be built on the surface of the earth’ He said, `Al-Masjid Al-Haram (in Makkah).’ I said, `Which was built next’ He replied `Al-Masjid Al-Aqsa (in Jerusalem).’ I said, `What was the period of time between building the two’ He said, `Forty years.’ He added,

 Wherever (you may be, and) the prayer becomes due, perform the prayer there, for the whole earth was made a Masjid.)” Al-Bukhari and Muslim also collected this Hadith.

Allah said,

(was that at Bakkah), where Bakkah is one of the names of Makkah.

Bakkah means, `it brings Buka’ (crying, weeping) to the tyrants and arrogant, meaning they cry and become humble in its vicinity. It was also said that Makkah was called Bakkah because people do Buka next to it, meaning they gather around it. There are many names for Makkah, such as Bakkah, Al-Bayt Al-`Atiq (the Ancient House), Al-Bayt Al-Haram (the Sacred House), Al-Balad Al-Amin (the City of Safety) and Al-Ma’mun (Security). Makkah’s names include Umm Rahm (Mother of Mercy), Umm Al-Qura (Mother of the Towns), Salah, [as well as others].

Allah said,

(whosoever enters it, he attains security,) [3:97] meaning, the Haram of Makkah is a safe refuge for those in a state of fear. There in its vicinity, they will be safe, just as was the case during the time of Jahiliyyah. Al-Hasan Al-Basri said, “(During the time of Jahiliyyah) a man would commit murder, then wear a piece of wool around his neck and enter the Haram. And even when the son of the murdered person would meet him, he would not make a move against him, until he left the sanctuary.” Allah said, 

(Allah, not the people, made Makkah a sanctuary. Therefore, anybody who has belief in Allah and the Last Day, should neither shed blood in it nor cut down its trees. If anybody argues that fighting in it is permissible on the basis that Allah’s Messenger fought in Makkah, say to him, `Allah allowed His Messenger and did not allow you.’ Allah allowed me only for a few hours on that day (of the conquest), and today its sanctity is as valid as it was before. So, those who are present, should inform those who are absent of this fact.).”

`Abdullah bin `Adi bin Al-Hamra’ Az-Zuhri said that he heard the Messenger of Allah say while standing at Al-Hazwarah in the marketplace of Makkah,

(By Allah! You are the best of Allah’s land and the most beloved land to Allah. Had it not been for the fact that I was driven out of you, I would not have left you.)

Imam Ahmad collected this Hadith and this is his wording. At-Tirmidhi, An-Nasa’i and Ibn Majah also collected it. At-Tirmidhi said, “Hasan Sahih.”

Allah said,

(And Hajj to the House is a duty that mankind owes to Allah, for those who are able to undertake the journey) [3:97].

This Ayah established the obligation of performing Hajj. There are many Hadiths that mention it as one of the pillars and fundamentals of Islam, and this is agreed upon by the Muslims. According to texts and the consensus of the scholars, it is only obligatory for the adult Muslim to perform it once during his lifetime. Imam Ahmad recorded that Abu Hurayrah said that the Messenger of Allah once gave a speech in which he said,

(O people! Hajj has been enjoined on you, therefore, perform Hajj.)

A man asked, “Is it every year, O Allah’s Messenger” The Prophet remained silent until the man repeated the question three times and he then said,

(Had I said yes, it would have become an obligation and you would not have been able to fulfill it.) He said next,

(Leave me as I leave you, those before you were destroyed because of their many questions and disputing with their Prophets. If I command you with something, perform it as much as you can. If I forbid something for you, then refrain from it.) Muslim recorded similarly.

There are several categories of “the ability to under take the journey”. There is the physical ability of the person himself and the ability that is related to other things as mentioned in the books of jurisprudence. Abu `Isa At-Tirmidhi recorded that Ibn `Umar said, “A man stood up and asked the Messenger of Allah , `O Messenger of Allah! Who is the pilgrim’ He said, `He who has untidy hair and clothes.’ Another man asked, `Which Hajj is better, O Messenger of Allah’ He said, `The noisy (with supplication to Allah) and bloody (with sacrifice).’ Another man asked, `What is the ability to undertake the journey, O Messenger of Allah’ He said, `Having provision and a means of transportation.”’ This is the narration that Ibn Majah collected. Al-Hakim narrated that Anas said that the Messenger of Allah was asked about Allah’s statement,

(for those who are able to undertake the journey;) [3:97] “What does `able to undertake the journey’ mean” The Prophet answered, “Having sufficient provision and a means of transportation.” Al-Hakim stated that this Hadith’s chain of narration is authentic, following the guidelines of Muslim in his Sahih, but the Two Sahihs did not collect it. Ahmad recorded that Ibn `Abbas said that the Messenger of Allah said,

(Whoever intends to perform Hajj, let him rush to perform it.) Abu Dawud also collected this Hadith.

Allah said,

(…and whoever disbelieves, then Allah stands not in need of any of the `Alamin) [3:97].Ibn `Abbas, Mujahid and several others commented on this Ayah, “Whoever denies the necessity of Hajj becomes disbeliever, and Allah is far Richer than to need him.” Al-Hafiz Abu Bakr Al-Isma`ili recorded that `Umar bin Al-Khattab said, “Whoever can afford Hajj but did not perform it, there is no difference in his case if he dies while Jew or Christian.” This has an authentic chain of narration leading to `Umar.

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Makkah is a sacred area

Bismillah-ir-Rahman-ir-Raheem: In the name of Allah, the Compassionate, the Merciful.   

Welcome to my blog and praise the Magnificent Lord as you enter: Allahu Akbar: Allah is the Greatest .   

May the Peace and Blessing of Allah Azza wa Jal, our Lord Glorified and Praised be He, be upon our beloved Prophet, his family, and companions.  

Makkah is a sacred area 

وَإِذْ قَالَ إِبْرَهِيمُ رَبِّ اجْعَلْ هَـذَا بَلَدًا آمِنًا وَارْزُقْ أَهْلَهُ مِنَ الثَّمَرَتِ مَنْ ءَامَنَ مِنْهُم بِاللَّهِ وَالْيَوْمِ الاٌّخِرِ قَالَ وَمَن كَفَرَ فَأُمَتِّعُهُ قَلِيلاً ثُمَّ أَضْطَرُّهُ إِلَى عَذَابِ النَّارِ وَبِئْسَ الْمَصِيرُ 

(126. And (remember) when Ibrahim said, “My Lord, make this city (Makkah) a place of security and provide its people with fruits, such of them as believe in Allah and the Last Day.” ) 

Surah 2 Al-Baqarah, Verse 126

Tafsir Ibn Kathir 

Makkah is a sacred area. 

Allah said, 

(And (remember) when Ibrahim said, “My Lord, make this city (Makkah) a place of security and provide its people with fruits, such of them as believe in Allah and the Last Day.”) 

Imam Abu Ja`far bin Jarir At-Tabari narrated that Jabir bin `Abdullah said that the Messenger of Allah said, 

(Ibrahim made Allah’s House a Sacred Area and a safe refuge. I have made what is between the two sides of Al-Madinah a Sacred Area. Therefore, its game should not be hunted, and its trees should not be cut.) An-Nasa’i and Muslim also recorded this Hadith. 

There are several other Hadiths that indicate that Allah made Makkah a sacred area before He created the heavens and earth. The Two Sahihs recorded `Abdullah bin `Abbas saying that the Messenger of Allah said, 

(Allah has made this city a sanctuary (sacred place) the Day He created the heavens and earth. Therefore, it is a sanctuary until the Day of Resurrection because Allah made it a sanctuary. It was not legal for anyone to fight in it before me, and it was legal for me for a few hours of one day. Therefore, it is a sanctuary until the Day of Resurrection, because Allah made it a sanctuary. None is allowed to uproot its thorny shrubs, or to chase its game, or to pick up something that has fallen, except by a person who announces it publicly, nor should any of its trees be cut.) Al-`Abbas said, `O Messenger of Allah! Except the lemon-grass, for our goldsmiths and for our graves.’ The Prophet added, (Except lemon-grass.) 

This is the wording of Muslim. The Two Sahihs also recorded Abu Hurayrah narrating a similar Hadith, while Al-Bukhari recorded a similar Hadith from Safiyyah bint Shaybah who narrated it from the Prophet . 

Abu Shurayh Al-`Adawi said that he said to `Amr bin Sa`id while he was sending armies to Makkah, “O Commander! Let me narrate a Hadith that the Messenger of Allah said the day that followed the victory of Makkah. My ears heard the Hadith, my heart comprehended it, and my eyes saw the Prophet when he said it. He thanked Allah and praised him and then said, 

Allah, not the people, made Makkah a sanctuary, so any person who has belief in Allah and the Last Day, should neither shed blood in it nor should he cut down its trees. If anybody argues that fighting in it is permissible on the basis that Allah’s Messenger fought in Makkah, say to him, `Allah allowed His Messenger and did not allow you.’ Allah allowed me only for a few hours on that day (of the Conquest), and today its sanctity is valid as it was before. So, those who are present should inform those who are absent (concerning this fact).) 

Abu Shurayh was asked, `What did `Amr reply’ He said, (`Amr said) `O Abu Shurayh! I know better than you about this, the Sacred House does not give protection to a sinner, a murderer or a thief.’ This Hadith was collected by Al-Bukhari and Muslim. 

After this, there is no contradiction between the Hadiths that stated that Allah made Makkah a sanctuary when He created the heavens and earth and the Hadiths that Ibrahim made it a sanctuary, since Ibrahim conveyed Allah’s decree that Makkah is a sanctuary, before he built the House. Similarly, the Messenger of Allah was written as the Final Prophet when Adam was still clay.

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The Standing Place of Ibrahim (Abraham) Alaihi Salaam

Bismillah-ir-Rahman-ir-Raheem: In the name of Allah, the Compassionate, the Merciful.  

Welcome to my blog and praise the Magnificent Lord as you enter: Allahu Akbar: Allah is the Greatest .  

May the Peace and Blessing of Allah Azza wa Jal, our Lord Glorified and Praised be He, be upon our beloved Prophet, his family, and companions.  

The Standing Place of Ibrahim (Abraham) Alaihi Salaam.

وَإِذْ جَعَلْنَا الْبَيْتَ مَثَابَةً لِّلنَّاسِ وَأَمْناً وَاتَّخِذُواْ مِن مَّقَامِ إِبْرَهِيمَ مُصَلًّى  

(125. And (remember) when We made the House (the Ka`bah at Makkah) a place of resort for mankind and a place of safety. And take you (people) the Maqam (place) of Ibrahim (or the stone on which Ibrahim stood as a place) for prayer.)  

Surah 2 Al Baqarah, Verse 125  

Tafsir Ibn Kathir  

Al-`Awfi reported that Ibn `Abbas commented on Allah’s statement,  

(And (remember) when We made the House (the Ka`bah at Makkah) a place of resort for mankind) “They do not remain in the House, they only visit it and return to their homes, and then visit it again.” Also, Abu Ja`far Ar-Razi narrated from Ar-Rabi` bin Anas from Abu Al-`Aliyah who said that,  

(And (remember) when We made the House (the Ka`bah at Makkah) a place of resort for mankind and a place of safety) means, “Safe from enemies and armed conflict. During the time of Jahiliyyah, the people were often victims of raids and kidnapping, while the people in the area surrounding it (Al-Masjid Al-Haram) were safe and not subject to kidnapping.” Also, Mujahid, `Ata’, As-Suddi, Qatadah and Ar-Rabi` bin Anas were reported to have said that the Ayah (2:125) means, “Whoever enters it shall be safe.”  

This Ayah indicates that Allah honored the Sacred House, which Allah made as a safe refuge and safe haven. Therefore, the souls are eager, but never bored, to conduct short visits to the House, even every year. This is because Allah accepted the supplication of His Khalil, Ibrahim, when he asked Allah to make the hearts of people eager to visit the House. Ibrahim said (14:40),  

 (Our Lord! And accept my invocation).  

(And (remember) when We showed Ibrahim the site of the (Sacred) House (the Ka`bah at Makkah) (saying): “Associate not anything (in worship) with Me…”) (22:26) and,  

(Verily, the first House (of worship) appointed for mankind was that at Bakkah (Makkah), full of blessing, and a guidance for Al-`Alamin (mankind and Jinn). In it are manifest signs (for example), the Maqam (place) of Ibrahim; whosoever enters it, he attains security) (3:96-97).  

The last honorable Ayah emphasized the honor of Ibrahim’s Maqam, and the instruction to pray next to it,  

And take you (people) the Maqam (place) of Ibrahim as a place of prayer). The Maqam of Ibrahim  

Sufyan Ath-Thawri reported that Sa`id bin Jubayr commented on the Ayah,  

And take you (people) the Maqam (place) of Ibrahim as a place of prayer) “The stone (Maqam) is the standing place of Ibrahim, Allah’s Prophet, and a mercy from Allah. Ibrahim stood on the stone, while Isma`il was handing him the stones (constructing the Ka`bah).”As-Suddi said, “The Maqam of Ibrahim is a stone which Isma`il’s wife put under Ibrahim’s feet when washing his head.” Al-Qurtubi mentioned this, but he considered it unauthentic, although others gave it prefrence, Ar-Razi reported it in his Tafsir from Al-Hasan Al-Basri, Qatadah, and Ar-Rabi` bin Anas.  

Ibn Abi Hatim reported that Jabir, describing the Hajj (pilgrimage) of the Prophet said, “When the Prophet performed Tawaf, `Umar asked him, `Is this the Maqam of our father’ He said, `Yes.’ `Umar said, `Should we take it a place of prayer’ So Allah revealed,  

(And take you (people) the Maqam (place) of Ibrahim (Abraham) as a place of prayer.”)  

Al-Bukhari said, “Chapter: Allah’s statement,  

(And take you (people) the Maqam (place) of Ibrahim (Abraham) as a place of prayer) meaning, they return to it repeatedly.” He then narrated that Anas bin Malik said that `Umar bin Al-Khattab said, “I agreed with my Lord, or my Lord agreed with me, regarding three matters. I said, `O Messenger of Allah! I wish you take the Maqam of Ibrahim a place for prayer.’  

Also, Ibn Jarir narrated that Jabir said, “After the Messenger of Allah kissed the Black Stone, he went around the house three times in a fast pace and four times in a slow pace. He then went to Maqam of Ibrahim, with it between him and the House, and prayed two Rak`ahs.” This is part of the long Hadith that Muslim recorded in Sahih. Al-Bukhari recorded that `Amr bin Dinar said that he heard Ibn `Umar say, “The Messenger of Allah performed Tawaf around the House seven times and then prayed two Rak`ahs behind the Maqam.”  

All these texts indicate that the Maqam is the stone that Ibrahim was standing on while building the House. As the House’s walls became higher, Isma`il brought his father a stone, so that he could stand on it, while Isma`il handed him the stones. Ibrahim would place the stones on the wall, and whenever he finished one side, he would move to the next side, to complete the building all around. Ibrahim kept repeating this until he finished building the House, as we will describe when we explain the story of Ibrahim and Isma`il and how they built the House, as narrated from Ibn `Abbas and collected by Al-Bukhari. Ibrahim’s footprints were still visible in the stone, and the Arabs knew this fact during the time of Jahiliyyah. This is why Abu Talib said in his poem known as `Al-Lamiyyah’, “And Ibrahim’s footprint with his bare feet on the stone is still visible.”  

The Muslims also saw Ibrahim’s footprints on the stone, as Anas bin Malik said, “I saw the Maqam with the print of Ibrahim’s toes and feet still visible in it, but the footprints dissipated because of the people rubbing the stone with their hands.”  

Earlier, the Maqam was placed close to the Ka`bah’s wall. In the present time, the Maqam is placed next to Al-Hijr on the right side of those entering through the door.  

When Ibrahim finished building the House, he placed the stone next to the wall of Al-Ka`bah. Or, when the House was finished being built, Ibrahim just left the stone where it was last standing, and he was commanded to pray next to the stone when he finished the Tawaf (circumambulating). It is understandable that the Maqam of Ibrahim would stand where the building of the House ended. 

The Leader of the faithful `Umar bin Al-Khattab, one of the Four Rightly Guided Caliphs whom we were commanded to emulate, moved the stone away from the Ka`bah’s wall during his reign. `Umar is one of the two men, whom the Messenger of Allah described when he said, 

(Imitate the two men who will come after me: Abu Bakr and `Umar.) 

`Umar was also the person whom the Qur’an agreed with regarding praying next to Maqam of Ibrahim. This is why none among the Companions rejected it when he moved it.`Abdur-Razzaq reported from Ibn Jurayj from `Ata’, “`Umar bin Al-Khattab moved the Maqam back.” Also, `Abdur-Razzaq narrated that Mujahid said that `Umar was the first person who moved the Maqam back to where it is now standing.” Al-Hafiz Abu Bakr, Ahmad bin `Ali bin Al-Husayn Al-Bayhaqi recorded `A’ishah saying, “During the time of the Messenger of Allah and Abu Bakr, the Maqam was right next to the House. `Umar moved the Maqam during his reign.” This Hadith has an authentic chain of narration. 

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