The command to eat of the pure things and the explanation of the prohibited things

I take refuge with Allaah, the Exalted, from the accursed devil.

بِسْمِ اللَّهِ الرَّحْمَـنِ الرَّحِيمِ

Bismillah-ir-Rahman-ir-Raheem: In the name of Allah, the Compassionate, the Merciful.

Welcome to my blog and praise the Magnificent Lord as you enter: Allahu Akbar: Allah is the Greatest .

May the Peace and Blessings of Allah Azza wa Jal, our Lord Glorified and Praised be He, be upon our beloved  Prophet, his Family, and Companions.

The command to eat of the pure things and the explanation of the prohibited things.

يـأَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ ءَامَنُواْ كُلُواْ مِن طَيِّبَاتِ مَا رَزَقْنَـكُمْ وَاشْكُرُواْ للَّهِ إِن كُنتُمْ إِيَّاهُ تَعْبُدُونَ

(172. O you who believe (in the Oneness of Allah ـ Islamic Monotheism)! Eat of the lawful things that We have provided you with, and be grateful to Allah, if it is indeed He Whom you worship).

إِنَّمَا حَرَّمَ عَلَيْكُمُ الْمَيْتَةَ وَالدَّمَ وَلَحْمَ الْخِنزِيرِ وَمَآ أُهِلَّ بِهِ لِغَيْرِ اللَّهِ فَمَنِ اضْطُرَّ غَيْرَ بَاغٍ وَلاَ عَادٍ فَلاَ إِثْمَ عَلَيْهِ إِنَّ اللَّهَ غَفُورٌ رَّحِيمٌ

  (173. He has forbidden you only the Maitah (dead animals), and blood, and the flesh of swine, and that which is slaughtered as a sacrifice for other than Allah. But if one is forced by necessity without willful disobedience nor transgressing due limits, then there is no sin on him. Truly, Allah is Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful.)

Surah 2 Al Baqara Verse 172-173

Tafsir Ibn Kathir

Allah commands His believing servants to eat from the pure things that He has created for them and to thank Him for it, if they are truly His servants. Eating from pure sources is a cause for the acceptance of supplications and acts of worship, just as eating from impure sources prevents the acceptance of supplications and acts of worship, as mentioned in a Hadith recorded by Imam Ahmad, that Abu Hurayrah said that Allah’s Messenger said:

(O people! Allah is Tayyib (Pure and Good) and only accepts that which is Tayyib.) Allah has indeed commanded the believers with what He has commanded the Messengers, for He said: (O (you) Messengers! Eat of the Tayyibat and do righteous deeds. Verily, I am well-acquainted with what you do) (23:51), and: (O you who believe! Eat of the lawful things that We have provided you with) He then mentioned a man, (who is engaged in a long journey, whose hair is untidy and who is covered in dust, he raises his hands to the sky, and says, `O Lord! O Lord!’ Yet, his food is from the unlawful, his drink is from the unlawful, his clothes are from the unlawful, and he was nourished by the unlawful, so how can it (his supplication) be accepted”) It was also recorded by Muslim and At-Tirmidhi

After Allah mentioned how He has blessed His creatures by providing them with provisions, and after commanding them to eat from the pure things that He has provided them, He then stated that He has not prohibited anything for them, except dead animals. Dead animals are those that die before being slaughtered; whether they die by strangling, a violent blow, a headlong fall, the goring of horns or by being partly eaten by a wild animal. Dead animals of the sea are excluded from this ruling, as is explained later, Allah willing, as Allah said:

(Lawful to you is (the pursuit of) watergame and its use for food) (5:96), and because of the Hadith about the whale recorded in the Sahih. The Musnad, Al-Muwatta’ and the Sunan recorded the Prophet saying about the sea:

(Its water is pure and its dead are permissible.)

Ash-Shafi`i, Ahmad, Ibn Majah, and Ad-Daraqutni reported that Ibn `Umar said that the Prophet said:

(We have been allowed two dead things and two bloody things: fish and locusts; and liver and spleen).

We will mention this subject again in Surat Al-Ma’idah (chapter 5 in the Qur’an), In sha’ Allah (if Allah wills).

Issue: According to Ash-Shafi`i and other scholars, milk and eggs that are inside dead unslaughtered animals are not pure, because they are part of the dead animal. In one narration from him, Malik said that they are pure themselves, but become impure because of their location. Similarly, there is a difference of opinion over the cheeses (made with the milk) of dead animals. The popular view of the scholars is that it is impure, although they mentioned the fact that the Companions ate from the cheeses made by the Magians (fire worshippers). Hence, Al-Qurtubi commented: “Since only a small part of the dead animal is mixed with it, then it is permissible, because a minute amount of impurity does not matter if it is mixed with a large amount of liquid.” Ibn Majah reported that Salman said that Allah’s Messenger was asked about butter, cheese and fur. He said:

(The allowed is what Allah has allowed in His Book and the prohibited is what Allah has prohibited in His Book. What He has not mentioned is a part of what He has pardoned.)

Allah has prohibited eating the meat of swine, whether slaughtered or not, and this includes its fat, either because it is implied, or because the term Lahm includes that, or by analogy. Similarly prohibited are offerings to other than Allah, that is what was slaughtered in a name other than His, be it for monuments, idols, divination, or the other practices of the time of Jahiliyyah. Al-Qurtubi mentioned that `A’ishah was asked about what non-Muslims slaughter for their feasts and then offer some of it as gifts for Muslims. She said, “Do not eat from what has been slaughtered for that day, (or feast) but eat from their vegetables.”

The Prohibited is Allowed in Cases of Emergency.

Then Allah permitted eating these things when needed for survival or when there are no permissible types of food available. Allah said:

(But if one is forced by necessity without willful disobedience nor transgressing due limits), meaning, without transgression or overstepping the limits,

(…then there is no sin on him.) meaning, if one eats such items, for,

(Truly, Allah is Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful.)

Mujahid said, “If one is forced by necessity without willful disobedience nor transgressing the set limits. For example, if he didn’t, then he would have to resort to highway robbery, rising against the rulers, or some other kinds of disobedience to Allah, then the permission applies to him. If one does so transgressing the limits, or continually, or out of disobedience to Allah, then the permission does not apply to him even if he is in dire need.” The same was reported from Sa`id bin Jubayr. Sa`id and Muqatil bin Hayyan are reported to have said that without willful disobedience means, “Without believing that it is permissible.” It was reported that Ibn `Abbas commented on the Ayah:

(. ..without willful disobedience nor transgressing) saying, “Without willful disobedience means eating the dead animal and not continuing to do so. Qatadah said:

(without willful disobedience) “Without transgressing by eating from the dead animals, that is when the lawful is available.”

Issue: When one in dire straits finds both ـ dead animals, and foods belong to other people which he could get without risking the loss of his hands or causing harm, then it is not allowed for him to eat the dead animals. Ibn Majah reported that `Abbad bin Shurahbil Al-Ghubari said, “One year we suffered from famine. I came to Al-Madinah and entered a garden. I took some grain that I cleaned, and ate, then I left some of it in my garment. The owner of the garden came, roughed me up and took possession of my garment. I then went to Allah’s Messenger and told him what had happened. He said to the man:

(You have not fed him when he was hungry – or he said starving – nor have you taught him if he was ignorant.)

The Prophet commanded him to return `Abbad’s garment to him, and to offer him a Wasq (around 180 kilograms) – or a half Wasq – of food

This has a sufficiently strong chain of narrators and there are many other witnessing narrations to support it, such as the Hadith that `Amr bin Shu`ayb narrated from his father that his grandfather said: Allah’s Messenger was asked about the hanging clusters of dates. He said:

(There is no harm for whoever takes some of it in his mouth for a necessity without putting it in his garment.)

Muqatil bin Hayyan commented on:

(…then there is no sin on him. Truly, Allah is Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful.) “For what is eaten out of necessity.” Sa`id bin Jubayr said, “Allah is pardoning for what has been eaten of the unlawful, and Merciful’ in that He allowed the prohibited during times of necessity.” Masruq said, “Whoever is in dire need, but does not eat or drink until he dies, he will enter the Fire.” This indicates that eating dead animals for those who are in need of it for survival is not only permissible but required.

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Isa(Jesus), peace be upon him, and his disciples: A table spread with food and sent from the heavens

 I take refuge with Allaah from the accursed devil.  

بِسْمِ اللَّهِ الرَّحْمَـنِ الرَّحِيمِ 

  Bismillah-ir-Rahman-ir-Raheem: In the name of Allah, the Compassionate, the Merciful.  

 Welcome to my blog and praise the Magnificent Lord as you enter: Allahu Akbar: Allah is the Greatest .

May the Peace and Blessing of Allah Azza wa Jal, our Lord Glorified and Praised be He, be upon our beloved Prophet, his Family, and Companions.

Isa(Jesus), peace be upon him, and his disciples: A table spread with food and sent from the heavens.

يَوْمَ يَجْمَعُ اللَّهُ الرُّسُلَ فَيَقُولُ مَاذَآ أُجِبْتُمْ قَالُواْ لاَ عِلْمَ لَنَآ إِنَّكَ أَنتَ عَلَّـمُ الْغُيُوبِ

(109. On the Day when Allah will gather the Messengers together and say to them: “What was the response you received (from men to your teaching)” They will say: “We have no knowledge, verily, only You are the Knower of all that is hidden.”)

Surah 5 Al Maeda Verse 109

Tafsir Ibn Kathir

Allah states that on the Day of Resurrection, He will ask the Messengers about how their nations, to whom He sent them, answered and responded to their teachings. Allah said in other Ayat,

(Then surely, We shall question those (people) to whom it (the Book) was sent and verily, We shall question the Messengers.) [7:6], and,

(So, by your Lord, We shall certainly call all of them to account. For all that they used to do.) [15:92-93]. The statement of the Messengers here,

(We have no knowledge) is the result of the horror of that Day, according to Mujahid, Al-Hasan Al-Basri and As-Suddi. `Abdur-Razzaq narrated that Ath-Thawri said that Al-A`mash said that Mujahid said about the Ayah,

(On the Day when Allah will gather the Messengers together and say to them: “What was the response you received”) They will become afraid and reply,

(We have no knowledge. ..) Ibn Jarir and Ibn Abi Hatim also recorded this explanation. `Ali bin Abi Talhah said that Ibn `Abbas commented on the Ayah,

(On the Day when Allah will gather the Messengers together and say to them: “What was the response you received (from men to your teaching)” They will say: “We have no knowledge, verily, only You are the Knower of all that is hidden.”) “They will say to the Lord, Most Honored, `We have no knowledge beyond what we know, and even that, You have more knowledge of them than us.” This response is out of respect before the Lord, Most Honored, and it means, we have no knowledge compared to Your encompassing knowledge. Therefore, our knowledge only grasped the visible behavior of these people, not the secrets of their hearts. You are the Knower of everything, Who has encompassing knowledge of all things, and our knowledge compared to Your knowledge is similar to not having any knowledge at all, for

(only You are the Knower of all that is hidden.)

إِذْ قَالَ اللَّهُ يعِيسَى ابْنَ مَرْيَمَ اذْكُرْ نِعْمَتِى عَلَيْكَ وَعَلَى وَلِدَتِكَ إِذْ أَيَّدتُّكَ بِرُوحِ الْقُدُسِ تُكَلِّمُ النَّاسَ فِى الْمَهْدِ وَكَهْلاً وَإِذْ عَلَّمْتُكَ الْكِتَـبَ وَالْحِكْمَةَ وَالتَّوْرَاةَ وَالإِنجِيلَ وَإِذْ تَخْلُقُ مِنَ الطِّينِ كَهَيْئَةِ الطَّيْرِ بِإِذْنِى فَتَنفُخُ فِيهَا فَتَكُونُ طَيْراً بِإِذْنِى وَتُبْرِىءُ الاٌّكْمَهَ وَالاٌّبْرَصَ بِإِذْنِى وَإِذْ تُخْرِجُ الْمَوتَى بِإِذْنِى وَإِذْ كَفَفْتُ بَنِى إِسْرَءِيلَ عَنكَ إِذْ جِئْتَهُمْ بِالْبَيِّنَـتِ فَقَالَ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُواْ مِنْهُمْ إِنْ هَـذَا إِلاَّ سِحْرٌ مُّبِينٌ

(110. (Remember) when Allah will say (on the Day of Resurrection): “O `Isa, son of Maryam! Remember My favor to you and to your mother when I supported you with Ruh – il-Qudus [Jibril] so that you spoke to the people in the cradle and in maturity; and when I taught you the Book, the Hikmah, the Tawrah and the Injil; and when you made out of the clay, as it were, the figure of a bird, by My permission, and you breathed into it, and it became a bird by My permission, and you healed those born blind, and the lepers by My permission, and when you brought forth the dead by My permission; and when I restrained the Children of Israel from you since you came unto them with clear proofs, and the disbelievers among them said: `This is nothing but evident magic.”’)

 وَإِذْ أَوْحَيْتُ إِلَى الْحَوَارِيِّينَ أَنْ ءَامِنُواْ بِى وَبِرَسُولِى قَالُواْ ءَامَنَّا وَاشْهَدْ بِأَنَّنَا مُسْلِمُونَ

(111. “And when I Awhaytu [put in the hearts of] Al- Hawariyyin to believe in Me and My Messenger, they said: `We believe. And bear witness that we are Muslims.”’)

Surah 5 Al Maeda Verse 110-111

Tafsir Ibn Kathir

Allah mentions how He blessed His servant and Messenger, `Isa, son of Maryam, and the miracles and extraordinary acts He granted him. Allah said,

(Remember My favor to you) when I created you from your mother, without male intervention, and made you a sign and clear proof of My perfect power over all things.

(And to your mother) when I made you testify to her chastity and you thus absolved her from the sin that the unjust, ignorant liars accused her of,

(when I supported you with Ruh – il-Qudus) the angel Jibril, and made you a Prophet, calling to Allah in the cradle and manhood. I made you speak in the cradle, and you testified that your mother was free from any immoral behavior, and you proclaimed that you worship Me. You also conveyed the news of My Message and invited them to worship Me.

(so that you spoke to the people in the cradle and in maturity;) Meaning you called the people to Allah in childhood and in maturity. And the word Tukallim means invited, because his speaking to people while a child is nothing strange by itself. Allah’s statement,

(And when I taught you the Book and the Hikmah,) the power of writing and understanding,

(and the Tawrah,) which was revealed to Musa, son of `Imran, who spoke to Allah directly. Allah’s statement,

(and when you made out of the clay, as it were, the figure of a bird, by My permission,) means: `you shaped it in the figure of a bird by My permission, and it became a bird with My permission, after you blew into it’. Then, it became a flying bird with a soul by Allah’s permission. Allah said;

(and you healed those born blind, and the lepers by My permission,)  Allah’s statement,

(And when you brought forth the dead by My permission,) meaning, you called them and they rose from their graves by Allah’s leave, power, lntent and will. Allah said next,

(and when I restrained the Children of Israel from you since you came unto them with clear proofs, and the disbelievers among them said: “This is nothing but evident magic.”) Meaning: `remember My favor, when I stopped the Children of Israel from harming you, when you brought them the clear proofs and evidence, testifying to your prophethood and Message from Me to them. They rejected you and accused you of being a magician and tried to kill you by crucifixion, but I saved you, raised you to Me, purified you from their vulgarity and protected you from their harm.’ The wording of this Ayah indicates that `Isa will be reminded of these favors on the Day of Resurrection. Allah used the past tense in these Ayat indicating that it is a forgone matter that will certainly occur. This Ayah also contains some of the secrets of the Unseen that Allah revealed to His Messenger Muhammad . Allah said,

(And when I (Allah) Awhaytu Al-Hawariyyin to believe in Me and My Messenger.) This is also a reminder of Allah’s favor on `Isa, by making discples and companions for him. It is also said that Awhaytu in the Ayah means, `inspired’, just as in another Ayah, Allah said;

(And We inspired the mother of Musa (saying): Suckle him…) [28:7]. Allah said in other Ayat,

(And your Lord Awha (inspired) the bee, saying: “Take habitations in the mountains and in the trees and in what they erect. Then, eat of all fruits, and follow the ways of your Lord made easy (for you).”) [16:68-69] Al-Hasan Al-Basri commented about the Hawariyyun, “Allah inspired them”, while As-Suddi said, “`He put in their hearts,” and the Hawariyyun said,

(We believe. And bear witness that we are Muslims.)

إِذْ قَالَ الْحَوَارِيُّونَ يعِيسَى ابْنَ مَرْيَمَ هَلْ يَسْتَطِيعُ رَبُّكَ أَن يُنَزِّلَ عَلَيْنَا مَآئِدَةً مِّنَ السَّمَآءِ قَالَ اتَّقُواْ اللَّهَ إِن كُنتُم مُّؤْمِنِينَ

(112. (Remember) when Al-Hawariyun said: “O `Isa, son of Maryam! Can your Lord send down to us a Ma’idah from heaven” `Isa said: “Have Taqwa of Allah, if you are indeed believers.”)

 قَالُواْ نُرِيدُ أَن نَّأْكُلَ مِنْهَا وَتَطْمَئِنَّ قُلُوبُنَا وَنَعْلَمَ أَن قَدْ صَدَقْتَنَا وَنَكُونَ عَلَيْهَا مِنَ الشَّـهِدِينَ

(113. They said: “We wish to eat thereof and to be stronger in faith, and to know that you have indeed told us the truth and that we ourselves be its witnesses. ”)

 قَالَ عِيسَى ابْنُ مَرْيَمَ اللَّهُمَّ رَبَّنَآ أَنزِلْ عَلَيْنَا مَآئِدَةً مِّنَ السَّمَآءِ تَكُونُ لَنَا عِيداً لاًّوَّلِنَا وَءَاخِرِنَا وَءَايَةً مِّنْكَ وَارْزُقْنَا وَأَنتَ خَيْرُ الرَّازِقِينَ

 (114. `Isa, son of Maryam, said: “O Allah, our Lord! Send us from heaven a table spread (with food) that there may be for us — for the first and the last of us — a festival and a sign from You; and provide us sustenance, for You are the Best of sustainers.”)

قَالَ اللَّهُ إِنِّى مُنَزِّلُهَا عَلَيْكُمْ فَمَن يَكْفُرْ بَعْدُ مِنكُمْ فَإِنِّى أُعَذِّبُهُ عَذَاباً لاَّ أُعَذِّبُهُ أَحَداً مِّنَ الْعَـلَمِينَ

 (115. Allah said: “I am going to send it down unto you, but if any of you after that disbelieves, then I will punish him with a torment such as I have not inflicted on anyone among the `Alamin.”) 

Surah 5 Al Maeda Verse 112-115

Tafsir Ibn Kathir

This is the story of the Ma’idah, the name of which this Surah bears, Surat Al-Ma’idah. This is also among the favors that Allah granted His servant and Messenger, `Isa, accepting his request to send the Ma’idah down, and doing so as clear proof and unequivocal evidence. Allah said,

((Remember) when Al-Hawaryun said…) the disciples of `Isa said,

(O `Isa, son of Maryam! Can your Lord send down to us a Ma’idah from heaven) The Ma’idah is the table that has food on it. Some scholars said that the disciples requested this table because they were poor and deprived. So they asked `Isa to supplicate to Allah to send a table of food down to them that they could eat from every day and thus be more able to perform the acts of worship.

(`Isa said: “Have Taqwa of Allah, if you are indeed believers.”) `Isa answered them by saying, `Have Taqwa of Allah! And do not ask for this, for it may become a trial for you, but trust in Allah for your provisions, if you are truly believers. ‘

(They said: “We wish to eat thereof.”) we need to eat from it,

(and to be stronger in faith,) when we witness it descending from heaven as sustenance for us,

(and to know that you have indeed told us the truth,) of your Message and our faith in you increases and also our knowledge,

(and that we ourselves be its witnesses.) testifying that it is a sign from Allah, as proof and evidence that you are a Prophet, and attesting to the truth of what you brought us,

(`Isa, son of Maryam, said: “O Allah, our Lord! Send us from heaven a table spread (with food) that there may be for us — for the first and the last of us — a festival…”) As-Suddi commented that the Ayah means, “We will take that day on which the table was sent down as a day of celebration, that we and those who come after us would consider sacred.” Sufyan Ath-Thawri said that it means, “A day of prayer.”

(and a sign from You. ) proving that You are able to do all things and to accept my supplication, so that they accept what I convey to them from You,

(and provide us sustenance,) a delicious food from You that does not require any effort or hardship,

(“For You are the Best of sustainers.” Allah said: “I am going to send it down unto you, but if any of you after that disbelieves…”) by denying this sign and defying its implication, O `Isa,

(then I will punish him with a torment such as I have not inflicted on anyone among the `Alamin.) among the people of your time. Allah said in similar Ayat,

(And on the Day when the Hour will be established (it will be said to the angels): “Cause Fir’awn’s people to enter the severest torment!”) [40:46], and, 

(Verily, the hypocrites will be in the lowest depths of the Fire. ) [4:145] Ibn Jarir said that `Abdullah bin `Amr said, “Those who will receive the severest torment on the Day of Resurrection are three: The hypocrites, those from the people of Al-Ma’idah who disbelieved in it, and the people of Fir`awn.” Ibn Abi Hatim recorded that Ibn `Abbas said, “They said to `Isa, son of Maryam, `Supplicate to Allah to send down to us from heaven, a table spread with food.’ He also said, `So the angels brought the table down containing seven fish and seven pieces of bread and placed it before them. So the last group of people ate as the first group did.” Ibn Jarir recorded that Ishaq bin `Abdullah said that the table was sent down to `Isa son of Maryam having seven pieces of bread and seven fish, and they ate from it as much as they wished. But when some of them stole food from it, saying, “It might not come down tomorrow,” the table ascended. These statements testify that the table was sent down to the Children of Israel during the time of `Isa, son of Maryam, as a result of Allah’s accepting his supplication to Him. The apparent wording of this Ayah also states so,

(Allah said: “I am going to send it down unto you…”) [5:115].

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