Signs in the diverse areas of the earth

 I take refuge with Allaah from the accursed devil.  

بِسْمِ اللَّهِ الرَّحْمَـنِ الرَّحِيمِ 

  Bismillah-ir-Rahman-ir-Raheem: In the name of Allah, the Compassionate, the Merciful.  

 Welcome to my blog and praise the Magnificent Lord as you enter: Allahu Akbar: Allah is the Greatest .

May the Peace and Blessing of Allah Azza wa Jal, our Lord Glorified and Praised be He, be upon our beloved Prophet, his Family, and Companions.

Signs in the diverse areas of the earth.

وَهُوَ الَّذِى مَدَّ الاٌّرْضَ وَجَعَلَ فِيهَا رَوَاسِىَ وَأَنْهَـراً وَمِن كُلِّ الثَّمَرَتِ جَعَلَ فِيهَا زَوْجَيْنِ اثْنَيْنِ يُغْشِى الَّيْلَ النَّهَارَ إِنَّ فِى ذلِكَ لآيَـتٍ لِّقَوْمٍ يَتَفَكَّرُونَ

(3. And it is He Who spread out the earth, and placed therein firm mountains and rivers and of every kind of fruit He made Zawjayn Ithnayn (two in pairs). He brings the night as a cover over the day. Verily, in these things, there are Ayat (signs) for people who reflect. )

وَفِى الاٌّرْضِ قِطَعٌ مُّتَجَـوِرَتٌ وَجَنَّـتٌ مِّنْ أَعْنَـبٍ وَزَرْعٌ وَنَخِيلٌ صِنْوَنٌ وَغَيْرُ صِنْوَنٍ يُسْقَى بِمَآءٍ وَحِدٍ وَنُفَضِّلُ بَعْضَهَا عَلَى بَعْضٍ فِى الاٍّكُلِ إِنَّ فِى ذلِكَ لآيَـتٍ لِّقَوْمٍ يَعْقِلُونَ

 (4. And in the earth are neighboring tracts, and gardens of vines, and green crops (fields), and date palms, growing into two or three from a single stem root, or otherwise, watered with the same water; yet some of them We make more excellent than others to eat. Verily, in these things there are Ayat (signs) for the people who understand.)

Surah 13 Ar Rad Verse 3-4

Tafsir Ibn Kathir

After Allah mentioned the higher worlds, He started asserting His power, wisdom and control over the lower parts of the world. Allah said,

(And it is He Who spread out the earth) made it spacious in length and width. Allah has placed on the earth firm mountains and made rivers, springs and water streams run through it, so that the various kinds of fruits and plants of every color, shape, taste and scent are watered with this water,

(and of every kind of fruit He made Zawjayn Ithnayn.), two types from every kind of fruit,

(He brings the night as a cover over the day.) Allah made the day and night pursue each other, when one is about to depart, the other overcomes it, and vice versa. Allah controls time just as He controls space and matter,

(Verily, in these things, there are Ayat for people who reflect.) who reflect on Allah’s signs and the evidences of His wisdom. Allah said,

(And in the earth are neighboring tracts, ) Meaning, next to each other, some of them are fertile and produce what benefits people, while others are dead, salty and do not produce anything. This meaning was collected from Ibn `Abbas, Mujahid, Sa`id bin Jubayr, Ad-Dahhak and several others. This also covers the various colors and types of diverse areas on the earth; some red, some white, or yellow, or black, some are stony, or flat, or sandy, or thick, or thin, all made to neighbor each other while preserving their own qualities. All this indicates the existence of the Creator Who does what He wills, there is no deity or lord except Him. Allah said next, 

(and gardens of vines, and green crops (fields), and date palms…) Allah’s statement, next,

(Sinwanun wa (or) Ghayru Sinwan.) `Sinwan’ means, growing into two or three from a single stem, such as figs, pomegranate and dates. `Ghayru Sinwan’ means, having one stem for every tree, as is the case with most plants. From this meaning, the paternal uncle is called one’s `Sinw’ of his father. There is an authentic Hadith that states that the Messenger of Allah said to `Umar bin Al-Khattab,

(Do you not know that man’s paternal uncle is the Sinw of his father) Allah said next,

(watered with the same water; yet some of them We make more excellent than others to eat.) Abu Hurayrah narrated that the Prophet commented on Allah’s statement,

(yet some of them We make more excellent than others to eat.)

(The Dagal, the Persian, the sweet, the bitter…”) At-Tirmidhi collected this Hadith and said, “Hasan Gharib.” Therefore, there are differences between plants and fruits with regards to shape, color, taste, scent, blossoms and the shape of their leaves. There are plants that are very sweet or sour, bitter or mild, fresh; some plants have a combination of these attributes, and the taste then changes and becomes another taste, by Allah’s will. There is also some that are yellow in color, or red, or white, or black, or blue, and the same can be said about their flowers; and all these variances and complex diversities are watered by the same water. Surely, in this there are signs for those who have sound reasoning, and surely, all this indicates the existence of the Creator Who does what He wills and Whose power made distinctions between various things and created them as He wills. So Allah said,

(Verily, in these things there are Ayat for the people who understand.)

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By the Night and By the Day…diverse efforts

 I take refuge with Allaah from the accursed devil.  

بِسْمِ اللَّهِ الرَّحْمَـنِ الرَّحِيمِ 

  Bismillah-ir-Rahman-ir-Raheem: In the name of Allah, the Compassionate, the Merciful.  

 Welcome to my blog and praise the Magnificent Lord as you enter: Allahu Akbar: Allah is the Greatest .

May the Peace and Blessing of Allah Azza wa Jal, our Lord Glorified and Praised be He, be upon our beloved Prophet, his Family, and Companions.

By the Night and By the Day…diverse efforts.

وَالَّيْلِ إِذَا يَغْشَى

( By the night as it envelops.)

وَالنَّهَارِ إِذَا تَجَلَّى

 (2. By the day as it appears.)

وَمَا خَلَقَ الذَّكَرَ وَالاٍّنثَى

(3. By Him Who created male and female.)

إِنَّ سَعْيَكُمْ لَشَتَّى

 (4. Certainly, your efforts and deeds are diverse.)

 فَأَمَّا مَنْ أَعْطَى وَاتَّقَى

 (5. As for him who gives and has Taqwa,)

 وَصَدَّقَ بِالْحُسْنَى

(6. And believes in Al-Husna.)

 فَسَنُيَسِّرُهُ لِلْيُسْرَى

 (7. We will make smooth for him the path of ease.)

وَأَمَّا مَن بَخِلَ وَاسْتَغْنَى

(8. But he who is greedy and thinks himself self-sufficient,)

وَكَذَّبَ بِالْحُسْنَى

(9. And denies Al-Husna.)

 فَسَنُيَسِّرُهُ لِلْعُسْرَى

 (10. We will make smooth for him the path to evil.)

 وَمَا يُغْنِى عَنْهُ مَالُهُ إِذَا تَرَدَّى

(11. And what will his wealth avail him when he goes down (in destruction))

Surah 92 Al-Lail Verse 1-11

Tafsir Ibn Kathir

Allah swears by saying:

(By the night as it envelops.) meaning, when it covers the creation with its darkness.

(By the day as it appears.) meaning, with its light and its radiance.

(By Him Who created male and female.) This is similar to Allah’s saying,

(And We have created you in pairs.) (78:8) It is also similar to saying,

(And of everything We have created pairs.) (51:49) And just as these things that are being sworn by are opposites, likewise that which this swearing is about are opposing things. This is why Allah says,

(Certainly, your efforts and deeds are diverse. ) meaning, the actions of the servants that they have performed are also opposites and diverse. Therefore, there are those who do good and there are those who do evil. Allah then says,

(As for him who gives and has Taqwa.) meaning, he gives what he has been commanded to give and he fears Allah in his affairs.

(And believes in Al-Husna.) meaning, in the compensation for that. This was said by Qatadah. Khusayf said, “In the reward.” Then Allah says,

(We will make smooth for him the path of ease.) Ibn `Abbas said, “Meaning for goodness.” Thus, Allah says,

(But he who is greedy) meaning, with that which he has.

(and thinks himself self-sufficient,) `Ikrimah reported that Ibn `Abbas said, “This means he is stingy with his wealth and considers himself to be in no need of his Lord, the Mighty and Majestic.” This was recorded by Ibn Abi Hatim.

(And denies Al-Husna.) meaning, the recompense in the abode of the Hereafter.

(We will make smooth for him the path to evil.) meaning, the path of evil. This is as Allah says,

(And We shall turn their hearts and their eyes away, as they refused to believe therein for the first time, and We shall leave them in their trespass to wander blindly.) (6:110) And there are many Ayat with this meaning, proving that Allah rewards those who intend good with success, while whoever intends evil is abandoned, and all of this is in accordance with a preordained decree. There are also many Hadiths that prove this.

Imam Ahmad recorded from Abu Bakr that he said to the Messenger of Allah , “O Messenger of Allah! Do we act according to what has already been decided, or is the matter just beginning (i.e., still undecided)” He replied,

(Indeed it is according to what has already been decided.) Then Abu Bakr said, “Then what (good) are deeds, O Messenger of Allah” He replied,

(Everyone will find it easy to do such deeds that will lead him to what he was created for.)

Al-Bukhari recorded from `Ali bin Abi Talib that they (the Companions) were with the Messenger of Allah at the cemetery of Baqi` Al-Gharqad for a funeral, when the Prophet said,

(There is none among you except that his place has already been written, a seat in Paradise and a seat in the Hellfire.) They said, “O Messenger of Allah! Should we depend on this” He replied,

(Perform deeds for everyone will have the deeds of what he was created for (Paradise or Hell) made easy for him.) Then he recited the Ayah

(As for him who gives and has Taqwa, and believes in Al-Husna. We will make smooth for him the path of ease.)” until the Ayah:

(the path to evil) He (Imam Al-Bukhari) also recorded another similar narration from `Ali bin Abi Talib in which he said, “We were at a funeral in the cemetery of Baqi` Al-Gharqad when the Messenger of Allah came and sat down. So we came and sat around him and he had a stick with him. Then he bowed his head and he began to scratch the ground with his stick. He then said,

(There is not anyone among you — or is not a single soul (that has been created) — except that his place has been written in Paradise or in the Fire, and it has been written that he will be miserable or happy.) A man said, “O Messenger of Allah! Should we just depend on what has been written for us and give up performing deeds For whoever of us is of the people of happiness then he will be of the people of happiness, and whoever among us is of the people of misery then he will be of the people of misery.” The Prophet replied,

(Those people who are the people of happiness, they will have the deeds of the people of happiness made easy for them. And those people who are the people of misery, they will have the deeds of the people of misery made easy for them.) Then he recited the Ayah:

(As for him who gives and has Taqwa, and believes in Al-Husna. We will make smooth for him the path of ease (goodness). But he who is greedy and thinks himself self-sufficient, and belies Al-Husna. We will make smooth for him the path to evil.)) The other compilers of the Group have also recorded this Hadith.

Imam Ahmad recorded from Ibn `Umar that `Umar said, “O Messenger of Allah! Do you think that the deeds that we do are a matter that is already predetermined or are they something just beginning or new” The Prophet replied,

(It is something that has already been predetermined. Therefore, work deeds, O son of Al-Khattab! For verily, each person will have things made easy for him. So whoever is from the people of happiness, then he will work deeds for happiness, and whoever is from the people of misery, then he will work deeds for misery.)” This Hadith has been recorded by At-Tirmidhi in the Book of Al-Qadar and he said “Hasan Sahih.” Another Hadith Narrated by Jabir Ibn Jarir recorded from Jabir bin `Abdullah that he said, “O Messenger of Allah! Are we performing deeds for something that has already been predetermined or is the matter based upon what we are just doing (now)” The Prophet replied,

(It is a matter that has been predetermined.) Then Suraqah said, “Then what is the purpose of deeds” The Messenger of Allah then said,

(Everyone who does deeds will have his deeds made easy for him.) Muslim also recorded this Hadith. Ibn Jarir recorded from `Amir bin `Abdullah bin Az-Zubayr that he said, “Abu Bakr used to free servants upon their acceptance of Islam in Makkah. He used to free the elderly and the women when they accepted Islam. So his father said to him, `O my son! I see that you are freeing people who are weak. But if you freed strong men they could stand with you, defend you and protect you.’ Abu Bakr replied, `O my father! I only want — and I think he said — what is with Allah.’ Some people of my family have told me this Ayah was revealed about him:

(As for him who gives and has Taqwa, and believes in Al-Husna. We will make smooth for him the path of ease.)” Then Allah says,

(And what will his wealth avail him when he goes down) Mujahid said, “This means when he dies.” Abu Salih and Malik said — narrating from Zayd bin Aslam, “When he goes down into the Fire.”

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