The decree for the Children of Israel

I take refuge with Allaah, the Exalted, from the accursed devil.

بِسْمِ اللَّهِ الرَّحْمَـنِ الرَّحِيمِ

Bismillah-ir-Rahman-ir-Raheem: In the name of Allah, the Compassionate, the Merciful.

Welcome to my blog and praise the Magnificent Lord as you enter: Allahu Akbar: Allah is the Greatest .

May the Peace and Blessings of Allah Azza wa Jal, our Lord Glorified and Praised be He, be upon our beloved  Prophet, his Family, and Companions.

The decree for the Children of Israel.

وَقَضَيْنَآ إِلَى بَنِى إِسْرَءِيلَ فِى الْكِتَـبِ لَتُفْسِدُنَّ فِى الاٌّرْضِ مَرَّتَيْنِ وَلَتَعْلُنَّ عُلُوّاً كَبِيراً

(4. And We decreed for the Children of Israel in the Scripture: “Indeed you would do mischief in the land twice and you will become tyrants and extremely arrogant!”)

فَإِذَا جَآءَ وَعْدُ أُولَـهُمَا بَعَثْنَا عَلَيْكُمْ عِبَادًا لَّنَآ أُوْلِى بَأْسٍ شَدِيدٍ فَجَاسُواْ خِلَـلَ الدِّيَارِ وَكَانَ وَعْدًا مَّفْعُولاً

(5. So, when the promise came for the first of the two, We sent against you servants of Ours given to terrible warfare. They entered the very innermost parts of your homes. And it was a promise (completely) fulfilled.)

ثُمَّ رَدَدْنَا لَكُمُ الْكَرَّةَ عَلَيْهِمْ  وَأَمْدَدْنَـكُم بِأَمْوَلٍ وَبَنِينَ وَجَعَلْنَـكُمْ أَكْثَرَ نَفِيرًا

(6. Then We gave you a return of victory over them. And We helped you with wealth and children and made you more numerous in manpower.)

إِنْ أَحْسَنتُمْ أَحْسَنتُمْ لاًّنفُسِكُمْ وَإِنْ أَسَأْتُمْ فَلَهَا فَإِذَا جَآءَ وَعْدُ الاٌّخِرَةِ لِيَسُوءُواْ وُجُوهَكُمْ وَلِيَدْخُلُواْ الْمَسْجِدَ كَمَا دَخَلُوهُ أَوَّلَ مَرَّةٍ وَلِيُتَبِّرُواْ مَا عَلَوْاْ تَتْبِيرًا

(7. (And We said): “If you do good, you do good for your own selves, and if you do evil (you do it) against yourselves.” Then, when the second promise came to pass, (We permitted your enemies) to disgrace your faces and to enter the Masjid as they had entered it before, and to destroy with utter destruction all that fell in their hands.)

عَسَى رَبُّكُمْ أَن يَرْحَمَكُمْ وَإِنْ عُدتُّمْ عُدْنَا وَجَعَلْنَا جَهَنَّمَ لِلْكَـفِرِينَ حَصِيرًا

(8. It may be that your Lord may show mercy unto you, but if you return (to sins), We shall return (to Our punishment). And We have made Hell a prison for the disbelievers.)

Surah 17 Al Isra Verse 4-8

Tafsir Ibn Kathir

Allah tells us that He made a declaration to the Children of Israel in the Scripture, meaning that He had already told them in the Book which He revealed to them, that they would cause mischief on the earth twice, and would become tyrants and extremely arrogant, meaning they would become shameless oppressors of people, Allah says:

(And We made known this decree to him, that the root of those (sinners) was to be cut off in the early morning.)(15:66), meaning, We already told him about that and informed him of it.

(So, when the promise came for the first of the two) meaning the first of the two episodes of mischief.

(We sent against you servants of Ours given to terrible warfare.) means, `We unleashed soldiers against you from among Our creatures who were given to terrible warfare,’ i.e., they had great strength and weapons and power. They entered the very innermost parts of your homes, meaning they took possession of your land and invaded the very innermost parts of your homes, going between and through your houses, coming and going freely with no fear of anyone. This was the promise (completely) fulfilled. The earlier and later commentators differed over the identity of these invaders. Many Isra’iliyyat (reports from Jewish sources) were narrated about this, but I did not want to make this book too long by mentioning them, because some of them are fabricated, concocted by their heretics, and others may be true, but we have no need of them, praise be to Allah. What Allah has told us in His Book (the Qur’an) is sufficient and we have no need of what is in the other books that came before. Neither Allah nor His Messenger required us to refer to them. Allah told His Messenger that when (the Jews) committed transgression and aggression, Allah gave their enemies power over them to destroy their country and enter the innermost parts of their homes. Their humiliation and subjugation was a befitting punishment, and your Lord is never unfair or unjust to His servants. They had rebelled and killed many of the Prophets and scholars. Ibn Jarir recorded that Yahya bin Sa`id said: “I heard Sa`id bin Al-Musayyib saying: `Nebuchadnezzar conquered Ash-Sham (Greater Syria, including Palestine), destroying Jerusalem and killing them, then he came to Damascus and found blood boiling in a censer. He asked them: What is this blood They said: We found our forefathers doing this. Because of that blood, he killed seventy thousand of the believers and others, then the blood stopped boiling. This report is Sahih from Sa`id bin Al-Musayyib, and this event is well-known, as he (Nebuchadnezzar) killed their nobles and scholars, and did not leave alive anyone who knew the Tawrah by heart. He took many prisoners from the sons of the Prophets and others, and did many other things that would take too long to mention here. If we had found anything that was correct or close enough, we could have written it and reported it here. And Allah knows best. Then Allah says:

((And We said): “If you do good, you do good for your own selves, and if you do evil (you do it) against yourselves.”) As Allah says elsewhere:

(Whosoever does a righteous good deed, it is for (the benefit of) himself; and whosoever does evil, it is against himself.) (45:15)

The Second Episode of Mischief.

Then Allah says:

(Then, when the second promise came to pass,) meaning, the second episode of mischief, when your enemies came again,

((We permitted your enemies) to disgrace your faces) meaning, to humiliate you and subdue you,

(and to enter the Masjid) meaning, Bayt Al-Maqdis (Jerusalem).

(as they had entered it before,) when they entered the very innermost parts of your homes.

(and to destroy) wrecking and inflicting ruin upon it.

(all that fell in their hands.) everything they could get their hands on.

(with utter destruction. It may be that your Lord may show mercy unto you) meaning that He may rid you of them.

(but if you return (to sins), We shall return (to Our punishment).) meaning, if you return to causing mischief,

(We shall return) means, We `will once again punish you in this world, along with the punishment and torment We save for you in the Hereafter.’

(And We have made Hell a prison (Hasir) for the disbelievers.) meaning, a place of permanent detention, a prison which cannot be avoided or escaped. Ibn `Abbas said, “Hasir here means a jail.” Mujahid said, “They will be detained in it.” Others said like- wise. Al-Hasan said, “Hasir means a bed of Fire.” Qatadah said: “The Children of Israel returned to aggres- sion, so Allah sent this group against them, Muhammad and his companions, who made them pay the Jizyah, with willing submission, and feeling themselves subdued.”

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The children of Israel after the death of Prophet Musa (Moses), peace be upon him

I take refuge with Allaah, the Exalted, from the accursed devil.

بِسْمِ اللَّهِ الرَّحْمَـنِ الرَّحِيمِ

Bismillah-ir-Rahman-ir-Raheem: In the name of Allah, the Compassionate, the Merciful.

Welcome to my blog and praise the Magnificent Lord as you enter: Allahu Akbar: Allah is the Greatest .

May the Peace and Blessings of Allah Azza wa Jal, our Lord Glorified and Praised be He, be upon our beloved  Prophet, his Family, and Companions.

The children of Israel after the death of Prophet Musa (Moses), peace be upon him.

وَقَطَّعْنَـهُمْ فِي الاٌّرْضِ أُمَمًا مِّنْهُمُ الصَّـلِحُونَ وَمِنْهُمْ دُونَ ذَلِكَ وَبَلَوْنَـهُمْ بِالْحَسَنَـتِ وَالسَّيِّئَاتِ لَعَلَّهُمْ يَرْجِعُونَ

(168. And We have broken them (the Jews) up into various separate groups on the earth: some of them are righteous and some are away from that. And We tried them with good (blessings) and evil (calamities) in order that they might turn (to Allah).)

فَخَلَفَ مِن بَعْدِهِمْ خَلْفٌ وَرِثُواْ الْكِتَـبَ يَأْخُذُونَ عَرَضَ هَـذَا الاٌّدْنَى وَيَقُولُونَ سَيُغْفَرُ لَنَا وَإِن يَأْتِهِمْ عَرَضٌ مِّثْلُهُ يَأْخُذُوهُ أَلَمْ يُؤْخَذْ عَلَيْهِم مِّيثَاقُ الْكِتَـبِ أَن لاَّ يِقُولُواْ عَلَى اللَّهِ إِلاَّ الْحَقَّ وَدَرَسُواْ مَا فِيهِ وَالدَّارُ الاٌّخِرَةُ خَيْرٌ لِّلَّذِينَ يَتَّقُونَ أَفَلاَ تَعْقِلُونَ

(169. Then after them succeeded an (evil) generation, which inherited the Book, but they chose (for themselves) the goods of this low life saying: “(Everything) will be forgiven to us.” And if (again) the offer of the like (evil pleasures of this world) came their way, they would (again) seize them (would commit those sins). Was not the covenant of the Book taken from them that they would not say about Allah anything but the truth And they have studied what is in it (the Book). And the home in the Hereafter is better for those who have Taqwa. Do not you then understand)

وَالَّذِينَ يُمَسِّكُونَ بِالْكِتَـبِ وَأَقَامُواْ الصَّلَوةَ إِنَّا لاَ نُضِيعُ أَجْرَ الْمُصْلِحِينَ

(170. And as to those who hold fast to the Book (act on its teachings) and perform the Salah, certainly We shall never waste the reward of those who do righteous deeds.)

Surah 7 Al Araf Verse 168-170

Tafsir Ibn Kathir

Allah states that He divided the Jews into various nations, sects and groups,

(And We said to the Children of Israel after him (after Musa died): “Dwell in the land, then, when the final and the last promise comes near, We shall bring you altogether as a mixed crowd (gathered out of various nations).”)(17:104)

(some of them are righteous and some are away from that), some of them are led aright and some are not righteous, just as the Jinns declared,

(“There are among us some that are righteous, and some the contrary; we are groups having different ways (religious sects).”) (72:11) Allah said here,

(And We tried them), and tested them,

(with good and evil), with times of ease, difficulty, eagerness, fear, well-being and affliction,

(in order that they might turn (to Allah)) Allah said next,

(Then after them succeeded an (evil) generation, which inherited the Book, but they chose (for themselves) the goods of this low life) This Ayah means, after the generation made up of righteous and unrighteous people, another generation came that did not have goodness in them, and they inherited the Tawrah and studied it. Mujahid commented on Allah’s statement,

(They chose (for themselves) the goods of this low life) “They will consume anything they can consume in this life, whether legally or illegally. Yet, they wish for forgiveness,

(Saying: “(Everything) will be forgiven for us.” And if (again) the offer of the like came their way, they would (again) seize them.)” Qatadah commented on Allah’s statement,

(they chose (for themselves) the goods of this low life) “This, by Allah, is an evil generation,

(which inherited the Book) after their Prophets and Messengers, for they were entrusted with this job by Allah’s command to them. Allah said in another Ayah,

(Then, there has succeeded them a posterity who neglect the Salah (the prayers).) (19:59)Allah said next,

(They chose the goods of this low life saying: “(Everything) will be forgiven to us.”) They wish and hope from Allah, while deceiving themselves,

(And if (again) the offer of the like came their way, they would (again) seize them.) Nothing stops them from this behavior, for whenever they are given an opportunity in this life, they will consume regardless of it being allowed or not.” As-Suddi said about Allah’s statement,

(Then after them succeeded an (evil) generation) until,

(and they have studied what is in it (the Book).) “Every time the Children of Israel appointed a judge, he used to take bribes. The best ones among them held a counsel and took covenants from each that they would not take bribes. However, when one of them would take bribes in return for judgment and was asked, `What is the matter with you; you take a bribe to grant judgment’, he replied, `I will be forgiven.’ So the rest of his people would admonish him for what he did. But when he died, or was replaced, the one who replaced him would take bribes too. Therefore, Allah says, if the others (who admonished him) would have a chance to loot this world, they will take it.”’ Allah said,

(Was not the covenant of the Book taken from them that they would not say about Allah anything but the truth) thus, admonishing them for this behavior. Allah took a pledge from them that they would declare the truth to people and not hide it. Allah said in another Ayah,

((And remember) when Allah took a covenant from those who were given the Scripture to make it known and clear to mankind, and not to hide it, but they threw it away behind their backs, and purchased with it some miserable gain! And indeed worst is that which they bought) (3:187). Ibn Jurayj said that Ibn `Abbas said about the Ayah,

(Was not the covenant of the Book taken from them that they would not say about Allah anything but the truth), “Their claim that Allah will forgive the sins they keep committing without repenting from them.” Allah said,

(And the home in the Hereafter is better for those who have Taqwa Do not you then understand) Encouraging them to seek Allah’s tremendous reward and warning them against His severe torment. Allah says here, `My reward and what I have are better for those who avoid prohibitions, abandon lusts and become active in the obedience of their Lord.’

(Do not you then understand) Allah says’ Do not these people, who preferred this life instead of what is with Me, have any sense to prohibit them from their foolish and extravagant ways’ Allah then praises those who adhere to His Book, which directs them to follow His Messenger Muhammad ,

(And as to those who hold fast to the Book) adhere to it, implement its commands and refrain from its prohibitions,

(and perform the Salah, certainly We shall never waste the reward of those who do righteous deeds.)

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The disbelievers of the Children of Israel

I take refuge with Allaah, the Exalted, from the accursed devil.

بِسْمِ اللَّهِ الرَّحْمَـنِ الرَّحِيمِ

Bismillah-ir-Rahman-ir-Raheem: In the name of Allah, the Compassionate, the Merciful.

Welcome to my blog and praise the Magnificent Lord as you enter: Allahu Akbar: Allah is the Greatest .

May the Peace and Blessings of Allah Azza wa Jal, our Lord Glorified and Praised be He, be upon our beloved  Prophet, his Family, and Companions.

The disbelievers of the Children of Israel.

لُعِنَ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُواْ مِن بَنِى إِسْرَءِيلَ عَلَى لِسَانِ دَاوُودَ وَعِيسَى ابْنِ مَرْيَمَ ذلِكَ بِمَا عَصَوْا وَّكَانُواْ يَعْتَدُونَ

(78. Those among the Children of Israel who disbelieved were cursed by the tongue of Dawud and `Isa, son of Maryam. That was because they disobeyed (Allah and the Messengers) and were ever transgressing (beyond the bounds).)

كَانُواْ لاَ يَتَنَـهَوْنَ عَن مُّنكَرٍ فَعَلُوهُ لَبِئْسَ مَا كَانُواْ يَفْعَلُونَ

(79. They used not to forbid one another from the evil they committed. Vile indeed was what they used to do.)

تَرَى كَثِيراً مِّنْهُمْ يَتَوَلَّوْنَ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُواْ لَبِئْسَ مَا قَدَّمَتْ لَهُمْ أَنفُسُهُمْ أَن سَخِطَ اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِمْ وَفِى الْعَذَابِ هُمْ خَـلِدُونَ

(80. You see many of them taking the disbelievers as their friends. Evil indeed is that which they have sent forward before themselves; for that (reason) Allah is wrath with them, and in torment they will abide.)

– وَلَوْ كَانُوا يُؤْمِنُونَ بِالْلهِ والنَّبِىِّ وَمَا أُنْزِلَ إِلَيْهِ مَا اتَّخَذُوهُمْ أَوْلِيَآءَ وَلَـكِنَّ كَثِيراً مِّنْهُمْ فَـسِقُونَ

(81. And had they believed in Allah, and in the Prophet and in what has been revealed to him, never would they have taken them as friends; but many of them are rebellious.)

Surah 5 Al Maida Verse 78-81

Tafsir Ibn Kathir

Allah states that He has cursed the disbelievers among the Children of Israel long ago, and revealed this fact to His Prophets Dawud and `Isa, son of Maryam. He cursed them because they disobeyed Allah and transgressed against His creatures. Al-`Awfi reported that Ibn `Abbas said, “They were cursed in the Tawrah, the Injil, the Zabur (Psalms) and the Furqan (Qur’an).” Allah then states that during their time, their habit was that,

(They used not to forbid one another from the evil they committed.) They did not forbid each other from committing sins and the prohibitions. Allah chastised them for this behavior, so that their behavior would not be imitated. Allah said,

(Vile indeed was what they used to do.)

Hadiths that Order Enjoining Righteousness and Forbidding Evil.

There are many Hadiths that order enjoining righteousness and forbidding evil. Imam Ahmad recorded that Hudhayfah bin Al-Yaman said that the Prophet said,

(By He in Whose Hand is my soul! You will enjoin righteousness and forbid evil, or Allah will send a punishment on you from Him. Then, you will supplicate to Him, but He will not accept your supplication.) At-Tirmidhi also recorded it and said, “This Hadith is Hasan.” Muslim recorded that Abu Sa`id Al-Khudri said that the Messenger of Allah said,

(He among you who witnesses an evil, let him change it with his hand, if he cannot do that, then by his tongue, if he cannot do even that, then with his heart, and this is the weakest faith.) Abu Dawud said that Al-`Urs, meaning Ibn `Amirah, said that the Prophet said,

(When sin is committed on the earth, then whoever witnesses it and hates – (once he said): forbids it, will be like those who did not witness it. Whoever was absent from it, but agreed with it, will be like those who witness it.) Only Abu Dawud recorded this Hadith. Abu Dawud recorded that one of the Companions said that the Prophet said,

(The people will not perish until they do not leave -or- have any excuse for themselves.) Ibn Majah recorded that Abu Sa`id Al-Khudri said that the Messenger of Allah gave a speech once and said,

(Behold! Fear from people should not prevent one from saying the truth if he knows it.) Abu Sa`id then cried and said, “By Allah! We have seen some errors, but we feared (the people).” Another Hadith that Abu Sa`id narrated states that the Messenger of Allah said,

(The best Jihad is a word of truth proclaimed before an unjust ruler.) Recorded by Abu Dawud, At-Tirmidhi, and Ibn Majah. At-Tirmidhi said, “Hasan Gharib from this route of narration.” Imam Ahmad recorded that Hudhayfah said that the Prophet said,

(It is not required of the Muslim that he humiliate himself.) They said, `How does one humiliate himself” he said;

(He takes on trials that he is not capable of enduring. ) This was recorded by At-Tirmidhi and Ibn Majah, and At-Tirmidhi said, “This Hadith is Hasan Sahih Gharib.”

Censuring the Hypocrites.

Allah said,

(You see many of them taking the disbelievers as their friends.) Mujahid said that this Ayah refers to the hypocrites. Allah’s statement,

(Evil indeed is that which they have sent forward before themselves;) by giving their loyalty and support to the disbelievers, instead of the believers. This evil act caused them to have hypocrisy in their hearts and brought them the anger of Allah, that will remain with them until the Day of Return. Allah said;

(for that (reason) Allah is wrath with them) because of what they did. Allah next said that,

(in torment they will abide) on the Day of Resurrection. Allah’s statement,

(And had they believed in Allah, and in the Prophet and in what has been revealed to him, never would they have taken them as friends.) meaning, had they sincerely believed in Allah, His Messenger and the Qur’an, they would not have committed the evil act of supporting the disbelievers in secret and being enemies with those who believe in Allah, the Prophet and what was revealed to him,

(but many of them are rebellious). disobedient to Allah and His Messenger and defiant of the Ayat of His revelation that He sent down.

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The covenant of the Children of Israel with Allah, the Exalted and the Praised

I take refuge with Allaah, the Exalted, from the accursed devil.

بِسْمِ اللَّهِ الرَّحْمَـنِ الرَّحِيمِ

Bismillah-ir-Rahman-ir-Raheem: In the name of Allah, the Compassionate, the Merciful.

Welcome to my blog and praise the Magnificent Lord as you enter: Allahu Akbar: Allah is the Greatest .

May the Peace and Blessings of Allah Azza wa Jal, our Lord Glorified and Praised be He, be upon our beloved  Prophet, his Family, and Companions.

The covenant of the Children of Israel with  Allah, the Exalted and the Praised.

لَقَدْ أَخَذْنَا مِيثَاقَ بَنِى إِسْرَءِيلَ وَأَرْسَلْنَآ إِلَيْهِمْ رُسُلاً كُلَّمَا جَآءَهُمْ رَسُولٌ بِمَا لاَ تَهْوَى أَنفُسُهُمْ فَرِيقاً كَذَّبُواْ وَفَرِيقاً يَقْتُلُونَ

(70. Verily, We took the covenant of the Children of Israel and sent Messengers to them. Whenever there came to them a Messenger with what they themselves desired not, a group of them they called liars, and others among them they killed.)

وَحَسِبُواْ أَلاَّ تَكُونَ فِتْنَةٌ فَعَمُواْ وَصَمُّواْ ثُمَّ تَابَ اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِمْ ثُمَّ عَمُواْ وَصَمُّواْ كَثِيرٌ مِّنْهُمْ وَاللَّهُ بَصِيرٌ بِمَا يَعْمَلُونَ

 (71. They thought there will be no Fitnah (trial or punishment), so they became blind and deaf; after that Allah turned to them (with forgiveness); yet again many of them became blind and deaf. And Allah is the All-Seer of what they do.)

Surah 5 Al Maida Verse 70-71

Tafsir Ibn Kathir

 Allah reminds that He took the covenant and pledges from the Children of Israel to hear and obey Him and His Messenger. They broke these pledges and covenants and followed their lusts and desires instead of the law, and whichever part of the law they agreed with, they took it. Otherwise, they abandoned it, if it did not conform to their desires. This is why Allah said,

(Whenever there came to them a Messenger with what they themselves desired not – a group of them they called liars, and others among them they killed. They thought there will be no Fitnah (trial or punishment) so they became blind and deaf.) thinking that they would suffer no repercussions for of the evil that they committed. Consequently, they were blinded from the truth and became deaf, incapable of hearing the truth. For these reasons they were unable to be guided by it. Allah forgave that, then,

(yet they became blind and deaf) again,

(many of them, and Allah is the All-Seer of what they do.) He has perfect knowledge of what they do and whomever among them deserves the guidance and whomever deserves misguidance.

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The covenant with the Children of Israel

I take refuge with Allaah, the Exalted, from the accursed devil.

بِسْمِ اللَّهِ الرَّحْمَـنِ الرَّحِيمِ

Bismillah-ir-Rahman-ir-Raheem: In the name of Allah, the Compassionate, the Merciful.

Welcome to my blog and praise the Magnificent Lord as you enter: Allahu Akbar: Allah is the Greatest .

May the Peace and Blessings of Allah Azza wa Jal, our Lord Glorified and Praised be He, be upon our beloved  Prophet, his Family, and Companions.

The covenant with the Children of Israel.

وَإِذْ أَخَذْنَا مِيثَـقَ بَنِى إِسْرءِيلَ لاَ تَعْبُدُونَ إِلاَّ اللَّهَ وَبِالْوَلِدَيْنِ إِحْسَانًا وَذِى الْقُرْبَى وَالْيَتَـمَى وَالْمَسَـكِينِ وَقُولُواْ لِلنَّاسِ حُسْنًا وَأَقِيمُواْ الصَّلَوةَ وَءَاتُواْ الزَّكَوةَ ثُمَّ تَوَلَّيْتُمْ إِلاَّ قَلِيلاً مِّنْكُمْ وَأَنْتُمْ مُّعْرِضُونَ

(83. And (remember) when We took a covenant from the Children of Israel, (saying): Worship none but Allah (alone) and be dutiful and good to parents, and to kindred, and to orphans and (the poor), and speak good to people and perform As-Salah and give Zakah. Then you slid back, except a few of you, while you are backsliders.)

Surah 2 Al Baqarah Verse 83

Tafsir Ibn Kathir

The Covenant that Allah took from the Children of Israel.

Allah reminded the Children of Israel of the commandments that He gave them, and the covenants that He took from them to abide by those commands, and how they intentionally and knowingly turned away from all of that. Allah commanded them to worship Him and to associate none with Him in worship, just as He has commanded all of His creatures, for this is why Allah created them. Allah said,

(And We did not send any Messenger before you (O Muhammad ) but We revealed to him (saying): La ilaha illa Ana (none has the right to be worshipped but I (Allah)), so worship Me (alone and none else)) (21:25), and,

(And verily, We have sent among every Ummah (community, nation) a Messenger (proclaiming): “Worship Allah (alone), and avoid the Taghut (all false deities,)) (16:36).

This is the highest and most important right, that is, Allah’s right that He be worshipped alone without partners.

After that comes the right of the creatures, foremost, the right of the parents. Allah usually mentions the rights of the parents along with His rights. For instance, Allah said,

(Give thanks to Me and to your parents. Unto Me is the final destination) (31:14). Also, Allah said,

(And your Lord has decreed that you worship none but Him. And that you be dutiful to your parents) (17:23), until,

(And give to the kinsman his due and to the Miskin (poor) and to the wayfarer) (17:26). The Two Sahihs record that Ibn Mas`ud said,

(I said, `O Messenger of Allah! What is the best deed’ He said, `Performing the prayer on time.’ I said, ‘Then what’ He said, `Being kind to one’s parents.’ I said, `Then what’ He said, `Jihad in the cause of Allah.’)

Allah then said,

(and to orphans) meaning, the young who have no fathers to fend for them.

(and Al-Masakin (the poor)), plural for Miskin, the one who does not find what he needs to spend on himself and his family. We will discuss these categories when we explain the Ayah of Surat An-Nisa` where Allah said,

(Worship Allah and join none with Him (in worship); and do good to parents) (4:36).

Allah’s statement,

(and speak good to people) meaning, say good words to them and be lenient with them, this includes commanding good and forbidding evil. Al-Hasan Al-Basri commented on Allah’s statement,

(and speak good to people), “.`The good saying’ means commanding good and forbidding evil, and being patient and forgiving. The `good words to people’, as Allah commanded, also includes every good type of behavior that Allah is pleased with.” Imam Ahmad narrated that Abu Dharr said that the Prophet said,

(Do not belittle any form of righteousness, and even if you did not find any good deed except meeting your brother with a smiling face, then do so.)

This Hadith was also collected by Muslim in his Sahih and At-Tirmidhi, who graded it Sahih.

Allah commands the servants to say good words to people, after He commanded them to be kind to them, thereby mentioning two categories of manners: good speech and good actions. He then emphasized the command to worship Him and the command to do good, ordaining the prayer and the Zakah,

(and perform As-Salah and give Zakah). Allah informed us that the People of the Book, except for a few among them, ignored these orders, that is, they knowingly and intentionally abandoned them. Allah ordered this Ummah similarly in Surat An-Nisa’ when He said,

(Worship Allah and join none with Him (in worship); and do good to parents, kinsfolk, orphans, Al-Masakin (the poor), the neighbor who is near of kin, the neighbor who is a stranger, the companion by your side, the wayfarer (you meet), and those (servants) whom your right hands possess. Verily, Allah does not like such as are proud and boastful) (4:36).

Of these orders, this Ummah has practiced what no other nation before it has, and all praise is due to Allah.

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The Children of Israel are scattered into groups throughout the earth

 I take refuge with Allaah from the accursed devil.  

بِسْمِ اللَّهِ الرَّحْمَـنِ الرَّحِيمِ 

  Bismillah-ir-Rahman-ir-Raheem: In the name of Allah, the Compassionate, the Merciful.  

 Welcome to my blog and praise the Magnificent Lord as you enter: Allahu Akbar: Allah is the Greatest .

May the Peace and Blessing of Allah Azza wa Jal, our Lord Glorified and Praised be He, be upon our beloved Prophet, his Family, and Companions.

The Children of Israel are scattered into groups throughout the earth.

وَقَطَّعْنَـهُمْ فِي الاٌّرْضِ أُمَمًا مِّنْهُمُ الصَّـلِحُونَ وَمِنْهُمْ دُونَ ذَلِكَ وَبَلَوْنَـهُمْ بِالْحَسَنَـتِ وَالسَّيِّئَاتِ لَعَلَّهُمْ يَرْجِعُونَ

(168. And We have broken them (the Jews) up into various separate groups on the earth: some of them are righteous and some are away from that. And We tried them with good (blessings) and evil (calamities) in order that they might turn (to Allah).)

فَخَلَفَ مِن بَعْدِهِمْ خَلْفٌ وَرِثُواْ الْكِتَـبَ يَأْخُذُونَ عَرَضَ هَـذَا الاٌّدْنَى وَيَقُولُونَ سَيُغْفَرُ لَنَا وَإِن يَأْتِهِمْ عَرَضٌ مِّثْلُهُ يَأْخُذُوهُ أَلَمْ يُؤْخَذْ عَلَيْهِم مِّيثَاقُ الْكِتَـبِ أَن لاَّ يِقُولُواْ عَلَى اللَّهِ إِلاَّ الْحَقَّ وَدَرَسُواْ مَا فِيهِ وَالدَّارُ الاٌّخِرَةُ خَيْرٌ لِّلَّذِينَ يَتَّقُونَ أَفَلاَ تَعْقِلُونَ

(169. Then after them succeeded an (evil) generation, which inherited the Book, but they chose (for themselves) the goods of this low life saying: “(Everything) will be forgiven to us.” And if (again) the offer of the like (evil pleasures of this world) came their way, they would (again) seize them (would commit those sins). Was not the covenant of the Book taken from them that they would not say about Allah anything but the truth And they have studied what is in it (the Book). And the home in the Hereafter is better for those who have Taqwa. Do not you then understand)

 وَالَّذِينَ يُمَسِّكُونَ بِالْكِتَـبِ وَأَقَامُواْ الصَّلَوةَ إِنَّا لاَ نُضِيعُ أَجْرَ الْمُصْلِحِينَ

 (170. And as to those who hold fast to the Book (act on its teachings) and perform the Salah, certainly We shall never waste the reward of those who do righteous deeds.)

Surah 7 Al Araf Verse 168-170

Tafsir Ibn Kathir

Allah states that He divided the Jews into various nations, sects and groups,

(And We said to the Children of Israel after him (after Musa died): “Dwell in the land, then, when the final and the last promise comes near, We shall bring you altogether as a mixed crowd (gathered out of various nations).”)[17:104]

(some of them are righteous and some are away from that), some of them are led aright and some are not righteous, just as the Jinns declared,

(“There are among us some that are righteous, and some the contrary; we are groups having different ways (religious sects).”) [72:11] Allah said here,

(And We tried them), and tested them,

(with good and evil), with times of ease, difficulty, eagerness, fear, well-being and affliction,

(in order that they might turn (to Allah)) Allah said next,

(Then after them succeeded an (evil) generation, which inherited the Book, but they chose (for themselves) the goods of this low life) This Ayah means, after the generation made up of righteous and unrighteous people, another generation came that did not have goodness in them, and they inherited the Tawrah and studied it. Mujahid commented on Allah’s statement,

(They chose (for themselves) the goods of this low life) “They will consume anything they can consume in this life, whether legally or illegally. Yet, they wish for forgiveness,

(Saying: “(Everything) will be forgiven for us.” And if (again) the offer of the like came their way, they would (again) seize them.)” Qatadah commented on Allah’s statement,

(they chose (for themselves) the goods of this low life) “This, by Allah, is an evil generation,

(which inherited the Book) after their Prophets and Messengers, for they were entrusted with this job by Allah’s command to them. Allah said in another Ayah,

(Then, there has succeeded them a posterity who neglect the Salah (the prayers).) [19:59] Allah said next,

(They chose the goods of this low life saying: “(Everything) will be forgiven to us.”) They wish and hope from Allah, while deceiving themselves,

(And if (again) the offer of the like came their way, they would (again) seize them.) Nothing stops them from this behavior, for whenever they are given an opportunity in this life, they will consume regardless of it being allowed or not.” As-Suddi said about Allah’s statement,

(Then after them succeeded an (evil) generation) until,

(and they have studied what is in it (the Book).) “Every time the Children of Israel appointed a judge, he used to take bribes. The best ones among them held a counsel and took covenants from each that they would not take bribes. However, when one of them would take bribes in return for judgment and was asked, `What is the matter with you; you take a bribe to grant judgment’, he replied, `I will be forgiven.’ So the rest of his people would admonish him for what he did. But when he died, or was replaced, the one who replaced him would take bribes too. Therefore, Allah says, if the others (who admonished him) would have a chance to loot this world, they will take it.”’ Allah said,

(Was not the covenant of the Book taken from them that they would not say about Allah anything but the truth) thus, admonishing them for this behavior. Allah took a pledge from them that they would declare the truth to people and not hide it. Allah said in another Ayah,

((And remember) when Allah took a covenant from those who were given the Scripture to make it known and clear to mankind, and not to hide it, but they threw it away behind their backs, and purchased with it some miserable gain! And indeed worst is that which they bought) [3:187]. Ibn Jurayj said that Ibn `Abbas said about the Ayah

(Was not the covenant of the Book taken from them that they would not say about Allah anything but the truth), “Their claim that Allah will forgive the sins they keep committing without repenting from them.” Allah said,

(And the home in the Hereafter is better for those who have Taqwa Do not you then understand) Encouraging them to seek Allah’s tremendous reward and warning them against His severe torment. Allah says here, `My reward and what I have are better for those who avoid prohibitions, abandon lusts and become active in the obedience of their Lord.’

(Do not you then understand) Allah says’ Do not these people, who preferred this life instead of what is with Me, have any sense to prohibit them from their foolish and extravagant ways’ Allah then praises those who adhere to His Book, which directs them to follow His Messenger Muhammad ,

(And as to those who hold fast to the Book) adhere to it, implement its commands and refrain from its prohibitions,

(and perform the Salah, certainly We shall never waste the reward of those who do righteous deeds.)

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The Twelve Tribes of Israel

 I take refuge with Allaah from the accursed devil.  

بِسْمِ اللَّهِ الرَّحْمَـنِ الرَّحِيمِ 

  Bismillah-ir-Rahman-ir-Raheem: In the name of Allah, the Compassionate, the Merciful.  

 Welcome to my blog and praise the Magnificent Lord as you enter: Allahu Akbar: Allah is the Greatest .

May the Peace and Blessing of Allah Azza wa Jal, our Lord Glorified and Praised be He, be upon our beloved Prophet, his Family, and Companions.

The Twelve Tribes of Israel.

وَقَطَّعْنَـهُمُ اثْنَتَىْ عَشْرَةَ أَسْبَاطًا أُمَمًا وَأَوْحَيْنَآ إِلَى مُوسَى إِذِ اسْتَسْقَـهُ قَوْمُهُ أَنِ اضْرِب بِّعَصَاكَ الْحَجَرَ فَانبَجَسَتْ مِنْهُ اثْنَتَا عَشْرَةَ عَيْنًا قَدْ عَلِمَ كُلُّ أُنَاسٍ مَّشْرَبَهُمْ وَظَلَّلْنَا عَلَيْهِمُ الْغَمَـمَ وَأَنزَلْنَا عَلَيْهِمُ الْمَنَّ وَالسَّلْوَى كُلُواْ مِن طَيِّبَـتِ مَا رَزَقْنَـكُمْ وَمَا ظَلَمُونَا وَلَـكِن كَانُواْ أَنفُسَهُمْ يَظْلِمُونَ

(160. And We divided them into twelve tribes (as distinct) nations. We revealed to Musa when his people asked him for water (saying): “Strike the stone with your stick,” and there gushed forth out of it twelve springs, each group knew its own place for water. We shaded them with the clouds and sent down upon them the manna and the quail (saying): “Eat of the good things with which We have provided you.” They harmed Us not but they used to harm themselves.)

وَإِذْ قِيلَ لَهُمُ اسْكُنُواْ هَـذِهِ الْقَرْيَةَ وَكُلُواْ مِنْهَا حَيْثُ شِئْتُمْ وَقُولُواْ حِطَّةٌ وَادْخُلُواْ الْبَابَ سُجَّدًا نَّغْفِرْ لَكُمْ خَطِيئَـتِكُمْ سَنَزِيدُ الْمُحْسِنِينَ

(161. And (remember) when it was said to them: “Dwell in this town (Jerusalem) and eat therefrom wherever you wish, and say, `(O Allah) forgive our sins’; and enter the gate prostrating (bowing with humility). We shall forgive you your wrongdoings. We shall increase (the reward) for the good-doers.”)

فَبَدَّلَ الَّذِينَ ظَلَمُواْ مِنْهُمْ قَوْلاً غَيْرَ الَّذِى قِيلَ لَهُمْ فَأَرْسَلْنَا عَلَيْهِمْ رِجْزًا مِّنَ السَّمَآءِ بِمَا كَانُواْ يَظْلِمُونَ

(162. But those among them who did wrong, changed the word that had been told to them. So We sent on them a torment from the heaven in return for their wrongdoings.)

Surah 7 Al Araf Verse 160-162

وَإِذْ قَالَ مُوسَى لِقَوْمِهِ يَـقَوْمِ اذْكُرُواْ نِعْمَةَ اللَّهِ عَلَيْكُمْ إِذْ جَعَلَ فِيكُمْ أَنْبِيَآءَ وَجَعَلَكُمْ مُّلُوكاً وَءَاتَـكُمْ مَّا لَمْ يُؤْتِ أَحَداً مِّن الْعَـلَمِينَ

(20. And (remember) when Musa said to his people: “O my people! Remember the favor of Allah to you: when He made Prophets among you, made you kings and gave you what He had not given to any other among the nations (Al-`Alamin).”)

 يَاقَوْمِ ادْخُلُوا الاٌّرْضَ المُقَدَّسَةَ الَّتِى كَتَبَ اللَّهُ لَكُمْ وَلاَ تَرْتَدُّوا عَلَى أَدْبَـرِكُمْ فَتَنْقَلِبُوا خَـسِرِينَ

 (21. “O my people! Enter the Holy Land which Allah has assigned to you and turn not back; for then you will be returned as losers.”)

 قَالُوا يَامُوسَى إِنَّ فِيهَا قَوْماً جَبَّارِينَ وَإِنَّا لَن نَّدْخُلَهَا حَتَّى يَخْرُجُواْ مِنْهَا فَإِن يَخْرُجُواْ مِنْهَا فَإِنَّا دَخِلُونَ

(22. They said: “O Musa! In it are a people of great strength, and we shall never enter it, till they leave it; when they leave, then we will enter.”)

 قَالَ رَجُلاَنِ مِنَ الَّذِينَ يَخَافُونَ أَنْعَمَ اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِمَا ادْخُلُواْ عَلَيْهِمُ الْبَابَ فَإِذَا دَخَلْتُمُوهُ فَإِنَّكُمْ غَـلِبُونَ وَعَلَى اللَّهِ فَتَوَكَّلُواْ إِن كُنتُم مُّؤْمِنِينَ

(23. Two men of those who feared (Allah and) on whom Allah had bestowed His grace said: “Assault them through the gate; for when you are in, victory will be yours. And put your trust in Allah if you are believers indeed.”)

قَالُواْ يَـمُوسَى إِنَّا لَنْ نَّدْخُلَهَآ أَبَداً مَّا دَامُواْ فِيهَا فَاذْهَبْ أَنتَ وَرَبُّكَ فَقَاتِلا إِنَّا هَـهُنَا قَـعِدُونَ

(24. They said: “O Musa! We shall never enter it as long as they are there. So go, you and your Lord, and fight you two, we are sitting right here.”)

قَالَ رَبِّ إِنِّى لا أَمْلِكُ إِلاَّ نَفْسِى وَأَخِى فَافْرُقْ بَيْنَنَا وَبَيْنَ الْقَوْمِ الْفَـسِقِينَ

(25. He [Musa] said: “O my Lord! I have power only over myself and my brother, so Ifruq us from the rebellious people!”)

قَالَ فَإِنَّهَا مُحَرَّمَةٌ عَلَيْهِمْ أَرْبَعِينَ سَنَةً يَتِيهُونَ فِى الاٌّرْضِ فَلاَ تَأْسَ عَلَى الْقَوْمِ الْفَـسِقِينَ

(26. (Allah) said: “Therefore it is forbidden to them for forty years; in distraction they will wander through the land. So do not greive for the rebellious people.”)

Surah 5 Al Maidah Verse 20-26

Tafsir ibn Kathir

Allah states that His servant, Messenger, to whom He spoke directly, Musa, the son of `Imran, reminded his people that among the favors Allah granted them, is that He will give them all of the good of this life and the Hereafter, if they remain on the righteous and straight path. Allah said,

(And (remember) when Musa said to his people: “O my people! Remember the favor of Allah to you, when He made Prophets among you,) for whenever a Prophet died, another rose among them, from the time of their father Ibrahim and thereafter. There were many Prophets among the Children of Israel calling to Allah and warning against His torment, until `Isa was sent as the final Prophet from the Children of Israel. Allah then sent down the revelation to the Final Prophet and Messenger, Muhammad, the son of `Abdullah, from the offspring of Isma`il, the son of Ibrahim, peace be upon them. Muhammad is the most honorable Prophet of all times. Allah said next,

(made you kings) `Abdur-Razzaq recorded that Ibn `Abbas commented: “Having a servant, a wife and a house.” In his Mustadrak, Al-Hakim recorded that Ibn `Abbas said, “A wife and a servant, and, a

(and gave you what He had not given to any other among the nations (`Alamin).) means, during their time.” Al-Hakim said, “Sahih according to the criteria of the Two Sahihs, but they did not collect it.” Qatadah said, “They were the first people to take servants.” A Hadith states,

(He among you who wakes up while healthy in body, safe in his family and having the provision for that very day, is as if the world and all that was in it were collected for him.) Allah’s statement,

(and gave you what He had not given to any other among the nations (Al-`Alamin).) means, during your time, as we stated. The Children of Israel were the most honorable among the people of their time, compared to the Greek, Copts and the rest of mankind. Allah said in another Ayah,

(And indeed We gave the Children of Israel the Scripture, and the understanding of the Scripture and its laws, and the Prophethood; and provided them with good things, and preferred them above the nations (Al-`Alamin).) Allah said,

(They said: “O Musa! Make for us a god as they have gods.” He said: “Verily, you are an ignorant people.” [Musa added:] “Verily, these people will be destroyed for that which they are engaged in (idol worship).” And all that they are doing is in vain. He said: “Shall I seek for you a god other than Allah, while He has given you superiority over the nations.”) Therefore, they were the best among the people of their time. The Muslim Ummah is more respected and honored before Allah, and has a more perfect legislative code and system of life, it has the most honorable Prophet, the larger kingdom, more provisions, wealth and children, a larger domain and more lasting glory than the Children of Israel. Allah said,

(Thus We have made you, a just (the best) nation, that you be witnesses over mankind.) We mentioned the Mutawatir Hadiths about the honor of this Ummah and its status and honor with Allah, when we explained Allah’s statement in Surah Al-`Imran (3),

Allah states next that Musa encouraged the Children of Israel to perform Jihad and enter Jerusalem, which was under their control during the time of their father Ya`qub. Ya`qub and his children later moved with his children and household to Egypt during the time of Prophet Yusuf. His offspring remained in Egypt until their exodus with Musa. They found a mighty, strong people in Jerusalem who had previously taken it over. Musa, Allah’s Messenger, ordered the Children of Israel to enter Jerusalem and fight their enemy, and he promised them victory and triumph over the mighty people if they did so. They declined, rebelled and defied his order and were punished for forty years by being lost, wandering in the land uncertain of where they should go. This was their punishment for defying Allah’s command. Allah said that Musa ordered them to enter the Holy Land,

(which Allah has assigned to you) meaning, which Allah has promised to you by the words of your father Isra’il, that it is the inheritance of those among you who believe.

(and turn not back) in flight from Jihad.

(“. ..for then you will be returned as losers.” They said, “O Musa! In it are a people of great strength, and we shall never enter it, till they leave it; when they leave, then we will enter.”) Their excuse was this, in this very town you commanded us to enter and fight its people, there is a mighty, strong, vicious people who have tremendous physique and physical ability. We are unable to stand against these people or fight them. Therefore, they said, we are incapable of entering this city as long as they are still in it, but if they leave it, we will enter it. Otherwise, we cannot stand against them.

Allah said,

(Two men of those who feared (Allah and) on whom Allah had bestowed His grace said…) When the Children of Israel declined to obey Allah and follow His Messenger Musa, two righteous men among them, on whom Allah had bestowed a great bounty and who were afraid of Allah and His punishment, encouraged them to go forward. It was also said that the Ayah reads in a way that means that these men were respected and honored by their people. These two men were Yuwsha`, the son of Nun, and Kalib, the son of Yufna, as Ibn `Abbas, Mujahid, `Ikrimah, `Atiyyah, As-Suddi, Ar-Rabi` bin Anas and several other Salaf and latter scholars stated. These two men said to their people,

(“Assault them through the gate, for when you are in, victory will be yours. And put your trust in Allah if you are believers indeed.”) Therefore, they said, if you rely on and trust in Allah, follow His command and obey His Messenger, then Allah will give you victory over your enemies and will give you triumph and dominance over them. Thus, you will conquer the city that Allah has promised you. This advice did not benefit them in the least,

(They said, “O Musa! We shall never enter it as long as they are there. So go, you and your Lord, and fight you two, we are sitting right here.”) This is how they declined to join Jihad, defied their Messenger, and refused to fight their enemy.

Musa said,

(“O my Lord! I have power only over myself and my brother, so separate us from the rebellious people!”) When the Children of Israel refused to fight, Musa became very angry with them and supplicated to Allah against them,

(O my Lord! I have power only over myself and my brother’) meaning, only I and my brother Harun among them will obey, implement Allah’s command and accept the call,

(So Ifruq us from the rebellious people!) Al-`Awfi reported that Ibn `Abbas said, “Meaning, judge between us and them.” `Ali bin Abi Talhah reported similarly from him. Ad-Dahhak said that the Ayah means, “Judge and decide between us and them.” Other scholars said that the Ayah means, “Separate between us and them.”

Allah said,

(Therefore it is forbidden to them for forty years; in distraction they will wander through the land.) When Musa supplicated against the Jews for refusing to fight in Jihad, Allah forbade them from entering the land for forty years. They wandered about lost in the land of At-Tih, unable to find their way out. During this time, tremendous miracles occurred, such as the clouds that shaded them and the manna and quails Allah sent down for them. Allah brought forth water springs from solid rock, and the other miracles that He aided Musa bin `Imran with. During this time, the Tawrah was revealed and the Law was established for the Children of Israel and the Tabernacle of the Covenant was erected.

Allah’s statement,

(for forty years;) defines,

(in distraction they will wander through the land.) When these years ended, Yuwsha` bin Nun led those who remained among them and the second generation, and laid siege to Jerusalem, conquering it on a Friday afternoon. When the sun was about to set and Yuwsha` feared that the Sabbath would begin, he said (to the sun), “You are commanded and I am commanded, as well. O Allah! Make it stop setting for me.” Allah made the sun stop setting until Yuwsha` bin Nun conquered Jerusalem. Next, Allah commanded Yuwsha` to order the Children of Israel to enter Jerusalem from its gate while bowing and saying Hittah, meaning, `remove our sins.’ Yet, they changed what they were commanded and entered it while dragging themselves on their behinds and saying, `Habbah (a seed) in Sha`rah (a hair).” We mentioned all of this in the Tafsir of Surat Al-Baqarah. Ibn Abi Hatim recorded that Ibn `Abbas commented,

(Therefore it is forbidden to them for forty years; in distraction they will wander through the land.) “They wandered in the land for forty years, during which Musa and Harun died, as well as everyone above forty years of age. When the forty years ended, Yuwsha` son of Nun assumed their leadership and later conquered Jerusalem. When Yuwsha` was reminded that the day was Friday and the sun was about to set, while they were still attacking Jerusalem, he feared that the Sabbath might begin. Therefore, he said to the sun, `I am commanded and you are commanded.’ Allah made the sun stop setting and the Jews conquered Jerusalem and found wealth unseen before. They wanted to let the fire consume the booty, but the fire would not do that. Yuwsha` said, `Some of you have committed theft from the booty.’ So he summoned the twelve leaders of the twelve tribes and took the pledge from them. Then, the hand of one of them became stuck to the hand of Yuwsha` and Yuwsha` said, `You committed the theft, so bring it forth.’ So, that man brought a cow’s head made of gold with two eyes made of precious stones and a set of teeth made of pearls. When Yuwsha` added it to the booty, the fire consumed it, as they were prohibited to keep the booty.” There is evidence supporting all of this in the Sahih.

Comforting Musa, Allah said

(So do not greive for the rebellious people.) Allah said: Do not feel sorrow or sadness over My judgment against them, for they deserve such judgment.

وَإِذْ قُلْنَا ادْخُلُواْ هَـذِهِ الْقَرْيَةَ فَكُلُواْ مِنْهَا حَيْثُ شِئْتُمْ رَغَدًا وَادْخُلُواْ الْبَابَ سُجَّدًا وَقُولُواْ حِطَّةٌ نَّغْفِرْ لَكُمْ خَطَـيَـكُمْ وَسَنَزِيدُ الْمُحْسِنِينَ

(58. And (remember) when We said: “Enter this town (Jerusalem) and eat bountifully therein with pleasure and delight wherever you wish, and enter the gate in prostration (or bowing with humility) and say: `Forgive us,’ and We shall forgive you your sins and shall increase (reward) for the good-doers.”)

فَبَدَّلَ الَّذِينَ ظَلَمُواْ قَوْلاً غَيْرَ الَّذِي قِيلَ لَهُمْ فَأَنزَلْنَا عَلَى الَّذِينَ ظَلَمُواْ رِجْزًا مِّنَ السَّمَآءِ بِمَا كَانُواْ يَفْسُقُونَ

(59. But those who did wrong changed the word from that which had been told to them for another, so We sent upon the wrongdoers Rijz (a punishment) from the heaven because of their rebellion.)

Surah 2 Al Baqarah Verse 58-59

Tafsir ibn Kathir

Allah admonished the Jews for avoiding Jihad and not entering the holy land as they had been ordered to do when they came from Egypt with Musa. They were also commanded to fight the disbelieving `Amaliq (Canaanites) dwelling in the holy land at that time. But they did not want to fight, because they were weak and exhausted. Allah punished them by causing them to become lost, and to continue wandering, as Allah has stated in Surat Al-Ma’idah (5). The correct opinion about the meaning of, `the holy land’ mentioned here is that it was Bayt Al-Maqdis (Jerusalem), as As-Suddi, Ar-Rabi` bin Anas, Qatadah and Abu Muslim Al-Asfahani, as well as others have stated. Musa said,

(O people! Enter the holy land which Allah has assigned to you and turn not back (in flight).) (5:21)

However, some scholars said that the holy land is Jericho, (Ariha’) and this opinion was mentioned from Ibn `Abbas and `Abdur-Rahman bin Zayd.

After the years of wandering ended forty years later, in the company of Yuwsha` (Joshua) bin Nun, Allah allowed the Children of Israel to conquer the holy land on the eve of a Friday. On that day, the sun was kept from setting for a little more time, until victory was achieved. When the Children of Israel conquered the holy land, they were commanded to enter its gate while,

( prostrating) in appreciation to Allah for making them victorious, triumphant, returning them to their land and saving them from being lost and wandering. Al-`Awfi said that Ibn `Abbas said that,

(and enter the gate Sujjadan) means, “While bowing”. Ibn Jarir reported Ibn `Abbas saying,

(and enter the gate in prostration) means, “Through a small door while bowing.” Al-Hakim narrated it, and Ibn Abi Hatim added, “And they went through the door backwards!” Al-Hasan Al-Basri said that they were ordered to prostrate on their faces when they entered the city, but Ar-Razi discounted this explanation. It was also said that the Sujud mentioned here means, `submissiveness’, for actually entering while prostrating is not possible.

Khasif said that `Ikrimah said that Ibn `Abbas said, “The door mentioned here was facing the Qiblah.” Ibn `Abbas, Mujahid, As-Suddi, Qatadah and Ad-Dahhak said that the door is the door of Hittah in Iylya’, which is Jerusalem. Ar-Razi also reported that some of them said that it was a door in the direction of the Qiblah”. Khasif said that `Ikrimah said that Ibn `Abbas said that the Children of Israel entered the door sideways. As-Suddi said that Abu Sa`id Al-Azdy said that Abu Al-Kanud said that `Abdullah bin Mas`ud said that they were commanded to,

(enter the gate in prostration (or bowing with humility)) but instead, they entered while their heads were raised in defiance.

Allah said next,

( and say: `Hittah’). Ibn `Abbas commented, “Seek Allah’s forgiveness.” Al-Hasan and Qatadah said that it means, “Say, `Relieve us from our errors.”

(and We shall forgive you your sins and shall increase (reward) for the good-doers) Here is the reward for fulfilling Allah’s commandment. This Ayah means, “If you implement what We commanded you, We will forgive your sins and multiply your good deeds.” In summary, upon achieving victory, the Children of Israel were commanded to submit to Allah in tongue and deed and, to admit to their sins and seek forgiveness for them, to be grateful to Allah for the blessings He gave them, hastening to do the deeds that Allah loves, as He said,

(When there comes the help of Allah (to you, O Muhammad against your enemies) and the conquest (of Makkah). And you see that the people enter Allah’s religion (Islam) in crowds. So glorify the praises of your Lord, and ask His forgiveness. Verily, He is the One Who accepts the repentance.) (110).

Allah said,

(But those who did wrong changed the word from that which had been told to them for another).

Al-Bukhari recorded Abu Hurayrah saying that the Prophet said,

(The Children of Israel were commanded to enter the door while bowing and to say `Hittah’. Yet, they entered the door on their behinds, distorting the words. They said; `Habbah (seed), in Sha`rah (a hair).’)

An-Nasa’i recorded this part of it from Abu Hurayrah only, but he has a chain from the Prophet , explaining Allah’s statement,

(`Hittah’), saying, “So they deviated and said `Habbah.” Similar was recorded by `Abdur-Razzaq, and his route was also collected by Al-Bukhari. Muslim and At-Tirmidhi narrated similar versions of this Hadith, At-Tirmidhi said, “Hasan Sahih.”

The summary of what the scholars have said about this subject is that the Children of Israel distorted Allah’s command to them to submit to Him in tongue and deed. They were commanded to enter the city while bowing down, but they entered while sliding on their rear ends and raising their heads! They were commanded to say, `Hittah’ meaning, “Relieve us from our errors and sins.” However, they mocked this command and said, “Hintah (grain seed) in Sha`irah (barley).” This demonstrates the worst type of rebellion and disobedience, and it is why Allah released His anger and punishment upon them, all because of their sinning and defying His commands. Allah said,

(So We sent upon the wrongdoers Rijz (a punishment) from the heaven because of their rebellion.)

Ad-Dahhak said that Ibn `Abbas said, “Every word in Allah’s Book that says Rijz means, `a punishment.”’ Mujahid, Abu Malik, As-Suddi, Al-Hasan and Qatadah were reported to have said that Rijz means `Torment.’ Ibn Abi Hatim narrated that Sa`d bin Malik, Usamah bin Zayd and Khuzaymah bin Thabit said that the Messenger of Allah said,

(The plague is a Rijz, a punishment with which Allah punished those before you.)

This is also how An-Nasa’i recorded this Hadith. In addition, the basis of this Hadith was collected in the Two Sahihs,

(If you hear of the plague in a land, then do not enter it.)

Ibn Jarir recorded Usamah bin Zayd saying that the Messenger of Allah said,

(This calamity and sickness (i.e. the plague) is a Rijz, a punishment with which some nations who were before you were punished.)

The basis of this Hadith was also collected in the Two Sahihs.

وَإِذِ اسْتَسْقَى مُوسَى لِقَوْمِهِ فَقُلْنَا اضْرِب بِّعَصَاكَ الْحَجَرَ فَانفَجَرَتْ مِنْهُ اثْنَتَا عَشْرَةَ عَيْنًا قَدْ عَلِمَ كُلُّ أُنَاسٍ مَّشْرَبَهُمْ كُلُواْ وَاشْرَبُواْ مِن رِّزْقِ اللَّهِ وَلاَ تَعْثَوْاْ فِى الاٌّرْضِ مُفْسِدِينَ

(60. And (remember) when Musa asked for water for his people, We said: “Strike the stone with your stick.” Then gushed forth therefrom twelve springs. Each (group of) people knew its own place for water. “Eat and drink of that which Allah has provided and do not act corruptly, making mischief on the earth.”) 

Surah 2 Al Baqarah Verse 60

Tafsir Ibn Kathir

Allah said, “Remember My favor on you when I answered the supplication of your Prophet, Musa, when he asked Me to provide you with water. I made the water available for you, making it gush out through a stone. Twelve springs burst out of that stone, a designated spring for each of your tribes. You eat from the manna and the quails and drink from the water that I provided for you, without any effort or hardship for you. So worship the One Who did this for you.

(And do not act corruptly, making mischief on the earth) meaning, “Do not return the favor by committing acts of disobedience that cause favors to disappear.”

Ibn `Abbas said that the Children of Israel, “Had a square stone that Musa was commanded to strike with his staff and, as a result, twelve springs burst out of that stone, three on each side. Each tribe was, therefore, designated a certain spring, and they used to drink from their springs. They never had to travel from their area, they would find the same bounty in the same manner they had in the first area.”This narration is part of the long Hadith that An-Nasa’i, Ibn Jarir and Ibn Abi Hatim recorded about the trials.

This story is similar to the story in Surat Al-`Araf (Chapter 7) although the latter was revealed in Makkah. In Surat Al-A`raf, Allah used the third person when He mentioned the Children of Israel to the Prophet and narrated what He favored them with. In this Surat Al-Baqarah, which was revealed in Al-Madinah, Allah directed His Speech at the Children of Israel. Further, Allah said in Surat Al-A`raf,

 (And there gushed forth out of it twelve springs) (7:160), describing what first occurred when the water begins to gush out. In the Ayah in Surat Al-Baqarah, Allah described what happened later on, meaning when the water burst out in full force. Allah knows best.

وَظَلَّلْنَا عَلَيْكُمُ الْغَمَامَ وَأَنزَلْنَا عَلَيْكُمُ الْمَنَّ وَالسَّلْوَى كُلُواْ مِن طَيِّبَـتِ مَا رَزَقْنَـكُمْ وَمَا ظَلَمُونَا وَلَـكِن كَانُواْ أَنفُسَهُمْ يَظْلِمُونَ

(57. And We shaded you with clouds and sent down on you Al-Manna and the quail, (saying): “Eat of the good lawful things We have provided for you,” (but they rebelled). And they did not wrong Us but they wronged themselves.)

Surah 2 Al Baqarah Verse 57

Tafsir Ibn Kathir

After Allah mentioned the calamities that He saved the Children of Israel from, He mentioned the favors that He granted them, saying,

And We shaded you with clouds. This Ayah mentions the white clouds that provided shade for the Children of Israel, protecting them from the sun s heat during their years of wandering. In the Hadith about the trials, An-Nasa i recorded Ibn Abbas saying, Allah shaded the Children of Israel with clouds during the years of wandering. Ibn Abi Hatim said, Narrations similar to that of Ibn Abba0s were reported from Ibn Umar, Ar-Rab bin Anas, Abu Mijlaz, Ad-Dahhak, and As-Suddi. Al-Hasan and Qatadah said that,

(And We shaded you with clouds) “This happened when they were in the desert and the clouds shielded them from the sun.” Ibn Jarir said that several scholars said that the type of cloud the Ayah mentioned, “was cooler and better than the type we know.”

`Ali bin Abi Talhah reported that Ibn `Abbas commented on Allah’s statement,

And sent down on you Al-Manna, The manna used to descend to them to the trees, and they used to eat whatever they wished of it. Also, Qatadah said, The manna, which was whiter than milk and sweeter than honey, used to rain down on the Children of Israel, just as the snow falls, from dawn until sunrise. One of them would collect enough for that particular day, for if it remained more than that, it would spoil. On the sixth day, Friday, one would collect enough for the sixth and the seventh day, which was the Sabbath during which one would not leave home to seek his livelihood, or for anything else. All this occurred in the wilderness. The type of manna that we know provides sufficient food when eaten alone, because it is nutritious and sweet. When manna is mixed with water, it becomes a sweet drink. It also changes composition when mixed with other types of food. However, this is not the only type. The evidence to this fact is that Al-Bukhari narrated, that Sad bin Zayd said that the Messenger of Allah said,

(Kam’ah (truffles) is a type of manna, and its liquid is a remedy for the eyes.)

This Hadith was also collected by Imam Ahmad. The group of Hadith compilers, with the exception of Abu Dawud, also collected it, and At-Tirmidhi graded it Hasan Sahih. At-Tirmidhi recorded Abu Hurayrah saying that the Messenger of Allah said,

(The `Ajwah (pressed, dried date) is from Paradise and it cures poison, Al-Kam’ah (truffles) is a form of manna, and its liquid heals the eye.”) At-Tirmidhi is the only one of them who recorded this Hadith.

As for the quail (Salwa) in question, `Ali bin Abi Talhah reported that Ibn `Abbas said, “The (Salwa) is a bird that looks like the quail.” This is the same opinion reported from Mujahid, Ash-Sha`bi, Ad-Dahhak, Al-Hasan, `Ikrimah and Ar-Rabi` bin Anas, may Allah have mercy upon them. Also, `Ikrimah said that the Salwa is a bird in Paradise about the size of a sparrow. Qatadah said “The Salwa is a bird that is similar to a sparrow. During that time, an Israelite could catch as many quails as was sufficient for that particular day, otherwise the meat would spoil. On the sixth day, Friday, he would collect what is enough for the sixth and the seventh day, the Sabbath, during which one was not allowed to depart his home to seek anything.”

Allah said,

 (Eat of the good lawful things We have provided for you,) (7:160) this form of command is a simple order of allowance, guiding to what is good. Allah said,

(And they did not wrong Us but they wronged themselves) means, `We commanded them to eat from what We gave them, and to perform the acts of worship (but they rebelled).’ This Ayah is similar to Allah’s statement,

(Eat of the provision of your Lord, and be grateful to Him) (34:15).

Yet, the Children of Israel rebelled, disbelieved and committed injustice against themselves, even though they saw the clear signs, tremendous miracles and extraordinary events.

Here it is important to point out the virtue of Muhammad’s Companions over the companions of the other Prophets. This includes firmness in the religion, patience and the lack of arrogance, may Allah be pleased with them. Although the Companions accompanied the Prophet in his travels and battles, such as during the battle of Tabuk, in intense heat and hardship, they did not ask for a miracle, though this was easy for the Prophet by Allah’s leave. And when the Companions became hungry, they merely asked the Prophet – to invoke Allah – for an increase in the amount of food. They collected whatever food they had and brought it to the Prophet , and he asked Allah to bless it, told each of them to take some food, and they filled every pot they had. Also, when they needed rain, the Prophet asked Allah to send down rain, and a rain cloud came. They drank, gave water to their camels and filled their water skins. When they looked around, they found that the cloud had only rained on their camp. This is the best example of those who were willing to accept Allah’s decision and follow the Messenger of Allah .

وَإِذْ قُلْتُمْ يَـمُوسَى لَن نَّصْبِرَ عَلَى طَعَامٍ وَحِدٍ فَادْعُ لَنَا رَبَّكَ يُخْرِجْ لَنَا مِمَّا تُنبِتُ الأَرْضُ مِن بَقْلِهَا وَقِثَّآئِهَا وَفُومِهَا وَعَدَسِهَا وَبَصَلِهَا قَالَ أَتَسْتَبْدِلُونَ الَّذِى هُوَ أَدْنَى بِالَّذِى هُوَ خَيْرٌ اهْبِطُواْ مِصْرًا فَإِنَّ لَكُم مَّا سَأَلْتُمْ

(61. And (remember) when you said, “O Musa ! We cannot endure one kind of food. So invoke your Lord for us to bring forth for us of what the earth grows, its herbs, its cucumber its Fum, its lentils and its onions.” He said, “Would you exchange that which is better for that which is lower Go you down to any town and you shall find what you want!”)

Surah 2 Al Baqarah Verse 61

Tafsir Ibn Kathir

Allah said, “And remember My favor on you when I sent down the manna and quails to you, a good, pure, beneficial, easily acquired food. And remember your ungratefulness for what We granted you. Remember how you asked Musa to exchange this type of food for an inferior type that consists of vegetation, and so forth.” Al-Hasan Al-Basri said about the Children of Israel, “They were bored and impatient with the type of food they were provided. They also remembered the life they used to live, when their diet consisted of lentils, onions, garlic and herbs.” They said,

(O Musa ! We cannot endure one kind of food. So invoke your Lord for us to bring forth for us of what the earth grows, its herbs, its cucumbers, its Fum, its lentils and its onions). They said,

(One kind of food) meaning, the manna and quails, because they ate the same food day after day. The Ayah mentioned lentils, onions and herbs, which are all known types of foods. As for the Fum, Ibn Mas`ud read it, Thum (garlic). Also, Ibn Abi Hatim narrated that Al-Hasan said about the Ayah,

(Its Fum), “Ibn `Abbas said that Fum means, garlic.”

He also said that the expression, `Fumu-lanna’ means, `bake for us’, according to the languages of old. Ibn Jarir commented, “If this is true, then `Fum’ is one of the words whose pronounciation were altered, the letter `fa’ was replaced by the letter `tha’, since they are similar in sound.” And Allah knows best. Others said that Fum is wheat, the kind used for bread. Al-Bukhari said, “Some of them said that Fum includes all grains or seeds that are eaten.”

Allah’s statement,

(He said, “Would you exchange that which is better for that which is lower”) criticized the Jews for asking for inferior foods, although they were living an easy life, eating tasty, beneficial and pure food. Allah’s statement,

(Go you down to any Misr) means, `any city’, as Ibn `Abbas said. Ibn Jarir also reported that Abu Al-`Aliyah and Ar-Rabi` bin Anas said that the Ayah refers to Misr, the Egypt of Fir`awn. The truth is that the Ayah means any city, as Ibn `Abbas and other scholars stated. Therefore, the meaning of Musa’s statement to the Children of Israel becomes, “What you are asking for is easy, for it is available in abundance in any city that you might enter. So since what you asked for is available in all of the villages and cities, I will not ask Allah to provide us with it, especially when it is an inferior type of food. ” This is why Musa said to them,

(Would you exchange that which is better for that which is lower Go you down to any town and you shall find what you want!)

Since their request was the result of boredom and arrogance and since fulfilling it was unnecessary, their request was denied. Allah knows best.

وَضُرِبَتْ عَلَيْهِمُ الذِّلَّةُ وَالْمَسْكَنَةُ وَبَآءُوا بِغَضَبٍ مِّنَ اللَّهِ ذَلِكَ بِأَنَّهُمْ كَانُواْ يَكْفُرُونَ بِآيَـتِ اللَّهِ وَيَقْتُلُونَ النَّبِيِّينَ بِغَيْرِ الْحَقِّ ذلِكَ بِمَا عَصَواْ وَّكَانُواْ يَعْتَدُونَ

(61. And they were covered with humiliation and misery, and they drew on themselves the wrath of Allah. That was because they used to disbelieve in the Ayat (proofs, evidence) of Allah and killed the Prophets wrongfully. That was because they disobeyed and used to transgress the bounds (in their disobedience to Allah, i.e. commit crimes and sins.))

Surah 2 Al Baqarah Verse 61

Tafsir Ibn Kathir

Allah, Glorified and Praised, said,

(And they were covered with humiliation and misery). This Ayah indicates that the Children of Israel were plagued with humiliation, and that this will continue, meaning that it will never cease. They will continue to suffer humiliation at the hands of all who interact with them, along with the disgrace that they feel inwardly. Al-Hasan commented, “Allah humiliated them, and they shall have no protector. Allah put them under the feet of the Muslims, who appeared at a time when the Majus (Zoroastrians) were taking the Jizyah (tax) from the Jews.” Also, Abu Al-`Aliyah, Ar-Rabi` bin Anas and As-Suddi said that `misery’ used in the Ayah means, `poverty.’ `Atiyah Al-`Awfi said that `misery’ means, `paying the tilth (tax).’ In addition, Ad-Dahhak commented on Allah’s statement,

(and they drew on themselves the wrath of Allah), “They deserved Allah’s anger.” Also, Ibn Jarir said that,

(and they drew on themselves the wrath of Allah) means, “They went back with the wrath. Similarly, Allah said,

(Verily, I intend to let you draw my sin on yourself as well as yours) (Al-Ma’idah 5:29) meaning, `You will end up carrying my, and your, mistakes instead of me’. Thus, the meaning of the Ayah becomes, `They went back carrying Allah’s anger; Allah’s wrath descended on them; they deserved Allah’s anger.”’

Allah’s statement,

(That was because they used to disbelieve in the Ayat (proofs, evidences, etc.) of Allah and killed the Prophets wrongfully.) means, “This is what We rewarded the Children of Israel with: humiliation and misery.” Allah’s anger that descended on the Children of Israel was a part of the humiliation they earned, because of their defiance of the truth, disbelief in Allah’s Ayat and belittling the carriers of Allah’s Law i.e. the Prophets and their following. The Children of Israel rejected the Messengers and even killed them. Surely, there is no form of disbelief worse than disbelieving in Allah’s Ayat and murdering the Prophets of Allah.

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The Children of Israel and the Worship of the Calf

 I take refuge with Allaah from the accursed devil.  

بِسْمِ اللَّهِ الرَّحْمَـنِ الرَّحِيمِ 

  Bismillah-ir-Rahman-ir-Raheem: In the name of Allah, the Compassionate, the Merciful.  

 Welcome to my blog and praise the Magnificent Lord as you enter: Allahu Akbar: Allah is the Greatest .

  May the Peace and Blessing of Allah Azza wa Jal, our Lord Glorified and Praised be He, be upon our beloved Prophet, his Family, and Companions.

The Children of Israel and the Worship of the Calf.

يبَنِى إِسْرَءِيلَ قَدْ أَنجَيْنَـكُمْ مِّنْ عَدُوِّكُمْ وَوَاعَدْنَـكُمْ جَانِبَ الطُّورِ الاٌّيْمَنَ وَنَزَّلْنَا عَلَيْكُمُ الْمَنَّ وَالسَّلْوَى

(80. O Children of Israel! We delivered you from your enemy, and We made a covenant with you on the right side of the Mount, and We sent down to you manna and quail,)

كُلُواْ مِن طَيِّبَـتِ مَا رَزَقْنَـكُمْ وَلاَ تَطْغَوْاْ فِيهِ فَيَحِلَّ عَلَيْكُمْ غَضَبِى وَمَن يَحْلِلْ عَلَيْهِ غَضَبِى فَقَدْ هَوَى

(81. (Saying) eat of the Tayyibat wherewith We have provided you, and commit no transgression or oppression therein, lest My anger should justly descend on you. And he on whom My anger descends, he is indeed perished.)

 وَإِنِّى لَغَفَّارٌ لِّمَن تَابَ وَآمَنَ وَعَمِلَ صَـلِحَاً ثُمَّ اهْتَدَى

(82. And verily, I am indeed forgiving to him who repents, believes and does righteous deeds, and then Ihtada.)

Surah 20 Ta Ha Verse 80-82

Tafsir Ibn Kathir

Allah’s Favors upon Them Allah reminds of His tremendous favors upon the Children of Israel and His numerous blessings. He saved them from their enemy, Fir`awn, and He relieved their eyes by drowning him and his hosts all at one time while they watched. Allah said,

(And We drowned Fir`awn people while you were looking.) [2:50] Al-Bukhari recorded that Ibn `Abbas said, “When the Messenger of Allah came to Al-Madinah, he found the Jews fasting the day of `Ashura’. Therefore he asked them about it and they said, `This is the day that Allah gave Musa victory over Fir`awn.’ Then, the Prophet said,

(We have more right to Musa (than them), so fast it.) Muslim also recorded this narration in his Sahih. Then, Allah made a covenant with Musa and the Children of Israel on the right side of the Mountain, after the destruction of Fir`awn. This is the Mountain upon which Allah spoke to Musa and He told Musa’s people to look at it when they requested to see Allah. It is also the same Mountain upon which Musa was given the Tawrah, while at the same time the Children of Israel began worshipping the (statue of a) calf, as Allah relates in the forth coming Ayat. The manna and quails have previously been discussed in Surah Al-Baqarah and other Surahs. Manna was a sweet substance that descended upon them from the sky and the quail [Salwa] was a type of bird that would fall down to them. They would fill every pot with them as ample provisions until the following day. This was a kindness and a mercy from Allah upon them. It was a manifestation of Allah’s good treatment of them. For this reason Allah says,

(Eat of the Tayyibat wherewith We have provided you, and commit no transgression or oppression therein, lest My anger should justly descend on you.) This means, “Eat from this sustenance which I have provided for you, and do not transgress against My sustenance by taking it without necessity or you will be opposing what I have commanded you.”

(lest My anger should justly descend on you.) This means, “I will become angry with you.”

(And he on whom My anger descends, he is indeed perished.) `Ali bin Abi Talhah related that Ibn `Abbas said, “This means that he will indeed be made miserable.” Concerning Allah’s statement,

(And verily, I am indeed forgiving to him who repents, believes and does righteous good deeds,) meaning, “Whoever turns to Me in repentance, then I will accept his repentance regardless of whatever sin he did.” Allah, the Exalted, even accepts the repentance of the Children of Israel who worshipped the calf. Concerning Allah’s statement,

(who repents,) This means to turn away from what one was involved in of disbelief, associating partners with Allah, disobedience of Allah or hypocrisy. Concerning Allah’s statement,

(and believes) This means the person’s belief in his heart.

(and does righteous deeds,) his action with his bodily limbs. Concerning Allah’s statement,

(and then Ihtada.) `Ali bin Abi Talhah related that Ibn `Abbas said, “This means that he then does not doubt.” Qatadah said,

(and then Ihtada.) “This means he adheres to Islam until he dies.” We see here that there is a specific order in which these things are presented. This is similar to Allah’s saying,

(Then he became one of those who believed and recommended one another to perseverance and patience and recommended one another to pity and compassion.) [90:17]

وَمَآ أَعْجَلَكَ عَن قَومِكَ يمُوسَى

(83. “And what made you hasten from your people, O Musa)

قَالَ هُمْ أُوْلاءِ عَلَى أَثَرِى وَعَجِلْتُ إِلَيْكَ رَبِّ لِتَرْضَى

(84. He said: “They are close on my footsteps, and I hastened to You, O my Lord, that You might be pleased.”)

 قَالَ فَإِنَّا قَدْ فَتَنَّا قَوْمَكَ مِن بَعْدِكَ وَأَضَلَّهُمُ السَّامِرِىُّ

 (85. (Allah) said: “Verily, We have tried your people in your absence, and As-Samiri has led them astray.”)

 فَرَجَعَ مُوسَى إِلَى قَوْمِهِ غَضْبَـنَ أَسِفاً قَالَ يَقَوْمِ أَلَمْ يَعِدْكُمْ رَبُّكُمْ وَعْداً حَسَناً أَفَطَالَ عَلَيْكُمُ الْعَهْدُ أَمْ أَرَدتُّمْ أَن يَحِلَّ عَلَيْكُمْ غَضَبٌ مِّن رَّبِّكُمْ فَأَخْلَفْتُمْ مَّوْعِدِى

(86. Then Musa returned to his people in a state of anger and sorrow [Asif]. He said: “O my people! Did not your Lord promise you a fair promise Did then the promise seem to you long in coming Or did you desire that wrath should descend from your Lord on you, that you broke your promise to me”)

قَالُواْ مَآ أَخْلَفْنَا مَوْعِدَكَ بِمَلْكِنَا وَلَـكِنَّا حُمِّلْنَآ أَوْزَاراً مِّن زِينَةِ الْقَوْمِ فَقَذَفْنَاهَا فَكَذَلِكَ أَلْقَى السَّامِرِىُّ

(87. They said: “We broke not the promise to you, of our own will, but we were made to carry the weight of the ornaments of the people, then we cast them, and that was what As-Samiri suggested.”)

فَأَخْرَجَ لَهُمْ عِجْلاً جَسَداً لَّهُ خُوَارٌ فَقَالُواْ هَـذَآ إِلَـهُكُمْ وَإِلَـهُ مُوسَى فَنَسِىَ

(88. Then he took out for them a calf which was mooing. They said: “This is your god, and the god of Musa,” but he had forgotten.)

أَفَلاَ يَرَوْنَ أَلاَّ يَرْجِعُ إِلَيْهِمْ قَوْلاً وَلاَ يَمْلِكُ لَهُمْ ضَرّاً وَلاَ نَفْعاً

(89. Did they not see that it could not return them a word (for answer), and that it had no power either to harm them or to do them good)

Surah 20 TaHa Verse 83-89

Tafsir Ibn Kathir

Allah relates what happened when Musa traveled with the Children of Israel after Fir`awn’s destruction.

(And they came upon a people devoted to some of idols. They said: “O Musa! Make for us god as they have gods.” He said: “Verily, you are a people who know not. Verily, these people will be destroyed for that which they are engaged in. And all that they are doing is in vain.”) [7:138-139] Then, Allah made a covenant with Musa of thirty nights after which He added to them ten more nights. Thus, they were forty nights in all. The covenant was that he was to fast these number of days, during both the day and night. Thus, Musa made haste to go to the Mountain and he left his brother, Harun, in charge over the Children of Israel. This is why Allah says,

(And what made you hasten from your people, O Musa” He said: “They are close on my footsteps.”) These means that they have arrived and are settled near the Mountain.

(and I hastened to You, O my Lord, that You might be pleased.) meaning, “So You will be more pleased with me.”

((Allah) said: “Verily, We have tried your people in your absence, and As-Samiri has led them astray.”) Allah informs His Prophet, Musa, of what happened to the Children of Israel after he left them, and their deification of the calf that As-Samiri had made for them. During this time period, Allah wrote for Musa the Tablets, which contained the Tawrah. Allah said,

(And We wrote for him on the Tablets the lesson to be drawn from all things and the explanation for all things (and said): “Hold unto these with firmness, and enjoin your people to take the better therein. I shall show you the home of evildoers.”) [7:145] This means, “I will show you the final outcome of what will happen to those who abandon My obedience and oppose My command.” Concerning Allah’s statement,

(Then Musa returned to his people in a state of anger and sorrow [Asif].) This means that after Allah informed him of what they were doing, he became extremely angry and upset with them. He was very worried for them. During this time he received the Tawrah, which contained their Shari`ah (Law), this was a great honor for them. For they were a people who used to worship other than Allah. Every person with sound reason and good sense could see that what they were doing was false and foolish. This is why Allah said that he (Musa) returned to them in a state of anger and sorrow. The word for sorrow used here is Asif, which is used to emphasize to the severity of his anger. Mujahid said, “In a state of anger and sorrow means worried.” Qatadah and As-Suddi said, “Asif here means in a state of sadness because of what his people had done after him.”

(He (Musa) said: “O my people! Did not your Lord promise you a fair promise…”) This means, “Did He not promise you in that which I have spoken to you, every good in this life and in the Hereafter, and the good end in the final outcome of things You have already witnessed how He helped you defeat your enemy (Fir`awn) and He made you victorious over him and He blessed you with other bounties as well through His help.”

(Did then the promise seem to you long in coming) meaning, `in waiting for what Allah had promised you and forgetting His previous favors and the covenant that He made with you before.’

(Or did you desire that wrath should descend from your Lord on you, ) The word `Or’ here means `Nay, but.’ It is used here to separate between a previous item and a coming item. It is as if it is saying, “Nay, but you want to make permissible the anger of your Lord upon you by what you have done. Therefore, you have broken your promise to me.” The Children of Israel said in reply to Musa’s blame and rebuke,

(We broke not our promise to you of our own will,) Meaning by our power and our choice. Then, they began making lame excuses and they told him how they got rid of that which they were carrying of Coptic jewelry that they had borrowed from them (the Egyptian Copts) when they left Egypt. Therefore they cast it, meaning that they threw it away. Thus, it became a calf that made a moaning sound that would gradually rise in pitch. This calf was an ordeal, a hindrance and test. This is why Allah said,

(“…that was what As-Samiri suggested.” Then he took out (of the fire) for them (a statue of) a calf which was mooing.) Muhammad bin Ishaq reported that Ibn `Abbas said,

(This is your god, and the god of Musa.) “So they became religiously devoted to it (the calf) and they loved it with a love that they had never loved anything else with before. ” Allah then says,

(but he had forgotten.) This means that he abandoned what he was following of the religion of Islam. This is referring to As-Samiri. Allah says in refuting them and rebuking them, and also explaining to them their folly and foolishness in that which they had done,

(Did they not see that it could not return them a word (for answer), and that it had no power either to harm them or to do them good) This is about the calf. `Do they not see that it does not respond to them when they ask it and when they speak to it’

(and that it had no power either to harm them or to do them good) Meaning in their worldly affairs and matters of the Hereafter. Ibn `Abbas said, “Nay, by Allah, the moaning sound of the calf was nothing but wind that would enter into its behind and come out of its mouth, thus causing it to make a sound.” In a Hadith of Al-Fitun recorded from Al-Hasan Al-Basri, it is mentioned that this calf’s name was Bahmut. In reference to the excuse of these ignorant people, they claimed that they were merely ridding themselves of the jewelry of the Copts. In the process of doing so, they cast the jewelry (into the pit of fire) and ended up worshipping the calf. Thus, they were seeking to rid themselves of something detestable, but wound up doing something even worse. This is similar to an authentic narration reported from `Abdullah bin `Umar. A man from `Iraq asked him about the ruling of mosquitoes’ blood if it get on one’s garment. The man wanted to know if it is permissible to pray in such a garment or not. Ibn `Umar replied by saying, “Look at the people of `Iraq. They killed the grandson of the Messenger of Allah , Al-Husayn, and yet they’re asking about the blood of the mosquito.”

وَلَقَدْ قَالَ لَهُمْ هَـرُونُ مِن قَبْلُ يقَوْمِ إِنَّمَا فُتِنتُمْ بِهِ وَإِنَّ رَبَّكُمُ الرَّحْمَـنُ فَاتَّبِعُونِى وَأَطِيعُواْ أَمْرِى

 (90. And Harun indeed had said to them beforehand: “O my people! You are being tried in this, and verily, your Lord is (Allah) the Most Gracious, so follow me and obey my order.”)

قَالُواْ لَن نَّبْرَحَ عَلَيْهِ عَـكِفِينَ حَتَّى يَرْجِعَ إِلَيْنَا مُوسَى

(91. They said: “We will not stop worshipping it, until Musa returns to us.”)

Surah 20 Ta Ha Verse 90-91

Tafsir Ibn Kathir

Allah, the Exalted, informs of Harun’s attempt to prohibit them from worshipping the calf and his telling them that this was only a test for them. He told them that their Lord was the Most Beneficent, Who created everything and decreed for everything its just measure. He is the Owner of the Mighty Throne, the One Who does whatever He wants.

(so follow me and obey my order.) Meaning, “Follow me in that which I am commanding you with and leave that which I forbid you from.”

(They said: “We will not stop worshipping it, until Musa returns to us.”) meaning, “We will not cease in our worship of this calf until we hear what Musa has to say about it.” So they opposed Harun in this matter and they fought against him, nearly killing him.

قَالَ يهَـرُونُ مَا مَنَعَكَ إِذْ رَأَيْتَهُمْ ضَلُّواْ

(92. (Musa) said: “O Harun! What prevented you when you saw them going astray;”)

أَلاَّ تَتَّبِعَنِ أَفَعَصَيْتَ أَمْرِى

(93. “That you followed me not (according to my advice to you) Have you then disobeyed my order”)

 قَالَ يَبْنَؤُمَّ لاَ تَأْخُذْ بِلِحْيَتِى وَلاَ بِرَأْسِى إِنِّى خَشِيتُ أَن تَقُولَ فَرَّقْتَ بَيْنَ بَنِى إِسْرءِيلَ وَلَمْ تَرْقُبْ قَوْلِى

(94. He (Harun) said: “O son of my mother! Seize (me) not by my beard, nor by my head! Verily, I feared lest you should say: `You have caused a division among the Children of Israel, and you have not respected my word!”’)

Surah 20 Ta Ha Verse 92-94

Tafsir Ibn Kathir

Allah informs of what happened when Musa returned to his people and saw the great matter that had taken place among them. With this he became filled with anger and he threw down the Divine Tablets that he had in his hand. Then, he grabbed his brother Harun by his head and pulled him towards himself. We expounded upon this previously in Surat Al-A`raf, where we mentioned the Hadith,

(Information is not the same as observation.) Then, he began to blame his brother, Harun, by saying,

(What prevented you when you saw them going astray; that you followed me not) meaning, “You should have informed me of this matter as soon as it happened.”

(Have you then disobeyed my order) “In that which I entrusted to you,” referring to Musa’s statement,

(Replace me among my people, act in the right way and follow not the way of the mischief-makers.)[7:142]

(He (Harun) said: “O son of my mother!”) This mentioning of the mother was Harun’s attempt to soften Musa’s anger, because he was Musa’s biological brother and they had the same parents. The mentioning of the mother here is more delicate and profound in bringing about gentleness and mildness. This is why he said,

(O son of my mother! Seize (me) not by my beard, nor by my head!) This was Harun’s excuse to Musa for being delayed from coming to him and informing him of the great mishap that took place. He said,

(Verily, I feared) meaning, “I was afraid to come after you and inform you of this, because I thought you might accuse me of leaving them alone and causing division between them.”

(and you have not respected my word!) This means, “And you did not take care of what I commanded you to do when I left you in charge of them.” Ibn `Abbas said, “Harun was respectful and obedient to Musa.”

[قَالَ فَمَا خَطْبُكَ يسَـمِرِيُّ

(95. (Musa) said: “And what is the matter with you. O Samiri”)

قَالَ بَصُرْتُ بِمَا لَمْ يَبْصُرُواْ بِهِ فَقَبَضْتُ قَبْضَةً مِّنْ أَثَرِ الرَّسُولِ فَنَبَذْتُهَا وَكَذلِكَ سَوَّلَتْ لِى نَفْسِى

(96. (Samiri) said: “I saw what they saw not, so I took a (Qabdah) handful (of dust) from the (hoof) print of the messenger and threw it. Thus my inner self suggested to me.”)

 قَالَ فَاذْهَبْ فَإِنَّ لَكَ فِى الْحَيَوةِ أَن تَقُولَ لاَ مِسَاسَ وَإِنَّ لَكَ مَوْعِداً لَّن تُخْلَفَهُ وَانظُرْ إِلَى إِلَـهِكَ الَّذِى ظَلْتَ عَلَيْهِ عَاكِفاً لَّنُحَرِّقَنَّهُ ثُمَّ لَنَنسِفَنَّهُ فِى الْيَمِّ نَسْفاً

(97. Musa said: “Then go away! And verily, your (punishment) in this life will be that you will say: `Touch me not;’ and verily, you have a promise that will not fail. And look at your god to which you have been devoted. We will certainly burn it, and scatter its particles in the sea.”)

 إِنَّمَآ إِلَـهُكُمُ اللَّهُ الَّذِى لا إِلَـهَ إِلاَّ هُوَ وَسِعَ كُلَّ شَىْءٍ عِلْماً

(98. Your God is only Allah, there is no God but Him. He has full knowledge of all things.)

Surah 20 Ta Ha Verse 95-98

Tafsir Ibn Kathir

Musa said to As-Samiri, “What caused you to do what you did What presented such an idea to you causing you to do this” Muhammad bin Ishaq reported from Ibn `Abbas that he said, “As-Samiri was a man from the people of Bajarma, a people who worshipped cows. He still had the love of cow worshipping in his soul. However, he acted as though he had accepted Islam with the Children of Israel. His name was Musa bin Zafar.” Qatadah said, “He was from the village of Samarra.”

(Samiri) said: “I saw what they saw not.”) This means, “I saw Jibril when he came to destroy Fir`awn.”

(so I took a handful (Qabdah) from the print of the messenger) This means from the hoof print of his (Jibril’s) horse. This is what is well-known with many of the scholars of Tafsir, rather most of them. Mujahid said,

(so I took a handful (Qabdah) from the print of the messenger) “From under the hoof of Jibril’s horse.” He also said, “The word Qabdah means a palmful, and it is also that which is grasped by the tips of the fingers.” Mujahid said, “As-Samiri threw what was in his hand onto the jewelry of the Children of Israel and it became molded into the body of a calf, which made a light moaning sound. The wind that blew into it was the cause of its sound.” Thus, he said,

(and I threw it.) This means, “I threw it along with those who were throwing (jewelry).”

(Thus my inner self suggested to me.) This means that his soul considered it something good and it was pleasing to his self.

((Musa) said: “Then go away! And verily, your (punishment) in this life will be that you will say: `Touch me not.”’) This means, “Just as you took and touched what was not your right to take and touch of the messenger’s foot print, such is your punishment in this life, that you will say, `Do not touch (me).”’ This means, “You will not touch the people and they will not touch you.”

(and verily, you have a promise) This means on the Day of Resurrection.

(that will not fail.) you will have no way to escape it. Qatadah said,

(that you will say: `Touch me not.’) “This is referring to a punishment for them and their remnants (i.e. those who have their disease) today still say `Do not touch.”’ Concerning Allah’s statement,

(and verily, you have a promise that will not fail.) Al-Hasan, Qatadah and Abu Nahik said, “You will not be absent from it.”

(And look at your god) that which you worshipped,

(to which you have been devoted.) that which you established worship of, which was the calf.

(Your God is only Allah, there is no God but Him. He has full knowledge of all things.) Musa was saying to them, “This is not your god. Your God is only Allah, the One Whom there is no true God except Him. Worship is not befitting to anyone except Him. For everything is in need of Him and everything is His servant. Concerning the statement,

(He has full knowledge of all things.) The word `Ilm (knowledge) is in the accusative case for distinction. It means that He is the All-Knower of everything.

((Allah) surrounds all things in (His) knowledge. ) [65:12] And He says,

(And (He) keeps count of all things.) [72:28] Therefore,

(Not even the weight of a speck of dust escapes His knowledge.) [34:3] He also says,

(Not a leaf falls, but He knows it. There is not a grain in the darkness of the earth nor anything fresh or dry, but is written in a Clear Record.) [6:59] And He says,

(And no moving creature is there on earth but its provision is due from Allah. And He knows its dwelling place and its deposit. All is in a Clear Book.) [11:6] The Ayat that mention this are numerous.

كَذلِكَ نَقُصُّ عَلَيْكَ مِنْ أَنْبَآءِ مَا قَدْ سَبَقَ وَقَدْ آتَيْنَـكَ مِن لَّدُنَّا ذِكْراً

(99. Thus We relate to you some information of what happened before. And indeed We have given you from Us a Reminder.)

 مَّنْ أَعْرَضَ عَنْهُ فَإِنَّهُ يَحْمِلُ يَوْمَ الْقِيَـمَةِ وِزْراً

(100. Whoever turns away from it, verily, they will bear a heavy burden on the Day of Resurrection.)

خَـلِدِينَ فِيهِ وَسَآءَ لَهُمْ يَوْمَ الْقِيَـمَةِ حِمْلاً

(101. They will abide in that — and evil indeed will it be that load for them on the Day of Resurrection.)

Surah 20 Ta Ha Verse 99-101

Tafsir Ibn Kathir

Allah, the Exalted, is saying to Prophet Muhammad , `We have told you (O Muhammad) the story of Musa and what happened with him, Fir`awn and his armies, just as it actually happened. Likewise, We relate to you the information of the past just as it happened, without any increase or decrease. We also gave you a remembrance from Us, the Mighty Qur’an, no falsehood comes to it from before it or behind it.’ It is a revelation from One Most Wise, Most Praiseworthy. No Prophet was given any Book like it or more complete than it, since the time of the previous Prophets who were sent, until their being sealed off with the coming of Muhammad . No Prophet was given any Book containing as much information than the Qur’an about what has past and what would be. The judgement concerning the distinction between mankind is taken from it. Therefore, Allah says about it,

(Whoever turns away from it,) This means whoever denies it and turns away from following its commands and instructions, while seeking guidance from other than it, then Allah will mislead him and send him on the path to Hell. This is why Allah says,

(Whoever turns away from it, verily, they will bear a heavy burden on the Day of Resurrection.) .Burden here means sin. This is as Allah says,

(But those of the sects that reject it , the Fire will be their promised meeting place.) [11:17] This applies generally to whoever the Qur’an reaches of the Arabs, the non-Arabs, the People of the Book and others. This is as Allah says,

(That I may therewith warn you and whomsoever it may reach.) [6:19] The Qur’an is a final warning for everyone it reaches. Whoever follows it, then he is rightly guided and whoever opposes it and turns away from it, then he is misguided. He will be wretched in this life, and he is promised that on the Day of Resurrection his abode will be the Hellfire. For this reason Allah says,

(Whoever turns away from it, verily, they will bear a heavy burden on the Day of Resurrection. They will abide in that.) [20:100-101] They will not be able to avoid this or escape it.

(And evil indeed will it be that load for them on the Day of Resurrection.)

www.tafsir.com

The Children of Israel

 I take refuge with Allaah from the accursed devil.  

بِسْمِ اللَّهِ الرَّحْمَـنِ الرَّحِيمِ 

  Bismillah-ir-Rahman-ir-Raheem: In the name of Allah, the Compassionate, the Merciful.  

 Welcome to my blog and praise the Magnificent Lord as you enter: Allahu Akbar: Allah is the Greatest .

  May the Peace and Blessing of Allah Azza wa Jal, our Lord Glorified and Praised be He, be upon our beloved Prophet, his Family, and Companions.

The Children of Israel.

وَجَـوَزْنَا بِبَنِى إِسْرءِيلَ الْبَحْرَ فَأَتَوْاْ عَلَى قَوْمٍ يَعْكُفُونَ عَلَى أَصْنَامٍ لَّهُمْ قَالُواْ يَمُوسَى اجْعَلْ لَّنَآ إِلَـهًا كَمَا لَهُمْ ءَالِهَةٌ قَالَ إِنَّكُمْ قَوْمٌ تَجْهَلُونَ

(138. And We brought the Children of Israel (with safety) across the sea, and they came upon a people devoted to some of their idols (in worship). They said: “O Musa! Make for us a god as they have gods.” He said: “Verily, you are an ignorant people.”)

إِنَّ هَـؤُلاءِ مُتَبَّرٌ مَّا هُمْ فِيهِ وَبَـطِلٌ مَّا كَانُواْ يَعْمَلُونَ

(139. [Musa added:] “Verily, these people will be destroyed for that which they are engaged in (idols’ worship). And all that they are doing is in vain.”)

Surah 7 Al Araf 138-139

Tafsir Ibn Kathir

Allah mentions the words that the ignorant ones among the Children of Israel uttered to Musa after they crossed the sea and witnessed Allah’s Ayat and great power.

(And they came upon a people devoted to some of their idols (in worship).) Some scholars of Tafsir said that the people mentioned here were from Canaan, or from the tribe of Lakhm. Ibn Jarir commented, “They were worshipping idols that they made in the shape of cows, and this influenced the Children of Israel later when they worshipped the calf. They said here,

(“O Musa! Make for us a god as they have gods.” He said: “Verily, you are an ignorant people.”) Musa replied, you are ignorant of Allah’s greatness and majesty and His purity from any partners or anything resembling Him.

(Verily, these people will be destroyed for that which they are engaged in) they will perish,

(“and all that they are doing is in vain.”) Commenting on this Ayah, Imam Abu Ja`far bin Jarir reported from Abu Waqid Al-Laythi that they (the Companions) went out from Makkah with the Messenger of Allah for (the battle of) Hunayn. Abu Waqid said, “Some of the disbelievers had a lote tree whose vicinity they used to remain in, and upon which they would hang their weapons on. That tree was called `Dhat Al-Anwat’. So when we passed by a huge, green lote tree, we said, `O Messenger of Allah! Appoint for us a Dhat Al-Anwat as they have.’ He said,

(by He in Whose Hand is my soul! You said just as what the people of Musa said to him:

 (“Make for us a god as they have gods.” He said: “Verily, you are an ignorant people. Verily, these people will be destroyed for that which they are engaged in, and all that they are doing is in vain.”))”

قَالَ أَغَيْرَ اللَّهِ أَبْغِيكُمْ إِلَـهًا وَهُوَ فَضَّلَكُمْ عَلَى الْعَـلَمِينَ

(140. He said: “Shall I seek for you an ilah (a god) other than Allah, while He has given you superiority over the nations.”)

 وَإِذْ أَنْجَيْنَـكُمْ مِّنْ ءَالِ فِرْعَونَ يَسُومُونَكُمْ سُوءَ الْعَذَابِ يُقَتِّلُونَ أَبْنَآءَكُمْ وَيَسْتَحْيُونَ نِسَآءَكُمْ وَفِي ذَلِكُمْ بَلاءٌ مِّن رَّبِّكُمْ عَظِيمٌ

 (141. And (remember) when We rescued you from Fir`awn’s people, who were afflicting you with the worst torment, killing your sons and letting your women live. And in that was a great trial from your Lord.)

Surah 7 Al Araf Verse 140-141

Tafsir Ibn Kathir

Musa reminded the Children of Israel of Allah’s blessings, such as saving them from Fir`awn, his tyranny and the humiliation and disgrace they suffered. He reminded them of the glory and revenge against their enemy, when they watched them suffering in disgrace, destroyed by drowning and meeting utter demise. We mentioned this subject in the Tafsir of Surat Al-Baqarah.

يبَنِى إِسْرَءِيلَ قَدْ أَنجَيْنَـكُمْ مِّنْ عَدُوِّكُمْ وَوَاعَدْنَـكُمْ جَانِبَ الطُّورِ الاٌّيْمَنَ وَنَزَّلْنَا عَلَيْكُمُ الْمَنَّ وَالسَّلْوَى

(80. O Children of Israel! We delivered you from your enemy, and We made a covenant with you on the right side of the Mount, and We sent down to you manna and quail,)

كُلُواْ مِن طَيِّبَـتِ مَا رَزَقْنَـكُمْ وَلاَ تَطْغَوْاْ فِيهِ فَيَحِلَّ عَلَيْكُمْ غَضَبِى وَمَن يَحْلِلْ عَلَيْهِ غَضَبِى فَقَدْ هَوَى

(81. (Saying) eat of the Tayyibat wherewith We have provided you, and commit no transgression or oppression therein, lest My anger should justly descend on you. And he on whom My anger descends, he is indeed perished.)

وَإِنِّى لَغَفَّارٌ لِّمَن تَابَ وَآمَنَ وَعَمِلَ صَـلِحَاً ثُمَّ اهْتَدَى

(82. And verily, I am indeed forgiving to him who repents, believes and does righteous deeds, and then Ihtada.)

Surah 20 Ta Ha 80-82

Tafsir Ibn Kathir

Allah’s Favors upon Them Allah reminds of His tremendous favors upon the Children of Israel and His numerous blessings. He saved them from their enemy, Fir`awn, and He relieved their eyes by drowning him and his hosts all at one time while they watched. Allah said,

(And We drowned Fir`awn people while you were looking.) [2:50] Al-Bukhari recorded that Ibn `Abbas said, “When the Messenger of Allah came to Al-Madinah, he found the Jews fasting the day of `Ashura’. Therefore he asked them about it and they said, `This is the day that Allah gave Musa victory over Fir`awn.’ Then, the Prophet said,

(We have more right to Musa (than them), so fast it.) Muslim also recorded this narration in his Sahih. Then, Allah made a covenant with Musa and the Children of Israel on the right side of the Mountain, after the destruction of Fir`awn. This is the Mountain upon which Allah spoke to Musa and He told Musa’s people to look at it when they requested to see Allah. It is also the same Mountain upon which Musa was given the Tawrah, while at the same time the Children of Israel began worshipping the (statue of a) calf, as Allah relates in the forth coming Ayat. The manna and quails have previously been discussed in Surah Al-Baqarah and other Surahs. Manna was a sweet substance that descended upon them from the sky and the quail [Salwa] was a type of bird that would fall down to them. They would fill every pot with them as ample provisions until the following day. This was a kindness and a mercy from Allah upon them. It was a manifestation of Allah’s good treatment of them. For this reason Allah says,

(Eat of the Tayyibat wherewith We have provided you, and commit no transgression or oppression therein, lest My anger should justly descend on you.) This means, “Eat from this sustenance which I have provided for you, and do not transgress against My sustenance by taking it without necessity or you will be opposing what I have commanded you.”

(lest My anger should justly descend on you.) This means, “I will become angry with you.”

(And he on whom My anger descends, he is indeed perished.) `Ali bin Abi Talhah related that Ibn `Abbas said, “This means that he will indeed be made miserable.” Concerning Allah’s statement,

(And verily, I am indeed forgiving to him who repents, believes and does righteous good deeds,) meaning, “Whoever turns to Me in repentance, then I will accept his repentance regardless of whatever sin he did.” Allah, the Exalted, even accepts the repentance of the Children of Israel who worshipped the calf. Concerning Allah’s statement,

(who repents,) This means to turn away from what one was involved in of disbelief, associating partners with Allah, disobedience of Allah or hypocrisy. Concerning Allah’s statement,

(and believes) This means the person’s belief in his heart.

(and does righteous deeds,) his action with his bodily limbs. Concerning Allah’s statement,

(and then Ihtada.) `Ali bin Abi Talhah related that Ibn `Abbas said, “This means that he then does not doubt.” Qatadah said,

(and then Ihtada.) “This means he adheres to Islam until he dies.” We see here that there is a specific order in which these things are presented. This is similar to Allah’s saying,

(Then he became one of those who believed and recommended one another to perseverance and patience and recommended one another to pity and compassion.) [90:17]

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