A great swearing by Allah, the Exalted the Praised

I take refuge with Allaah, the Exalted, from the accursed devil.

بِسْمِ اللَّهِ الرَّحْمَـنِ الرَّحِيمِ

Bismillah-ir-Rahman-ir-Raheem: In the name of Allah, the Compassionate, the Merciful.

Welcome to my blog and praise the Magnificent Lord as you enter: Allahu Akbar: Allah is the Greatest .

May the Peace and Blessings of Allah Azza wa Jal, our Lord Glorified and Praised be He, be upon our beloved  Prophet, his Family, and Companions.

A great swearing by Allah, the Exalted the Praised.

وَالنَّجْمِ إِذَا هَوَى

(1. By the star when it goes down.)

مَا ضَلَّ صَـحِبُكُمْ وَمَا غَوَى

(2. Your companion has neither gone astray nor has he erred.)

وَمَا يَنطِقُ عَنِ الْهَوَى

(3. Nor does he speak of desire.)

إِنْ هُوَ إِلاَّ وَحْىٌ يُوحَى

(4. It is only a revelation revealed.)

Surah 53 An Najm Verse 1-4

Tafsir Ibn Kathir

Ibn Abi Hatim recorded that Ash-Sha`bi and others stated that the Creator swears by whatever He wills among His creation, but the created only vow by the Creator. Allah said,

(By the star when it goes down.) Ibn Abi Najih reported that Mujahid said, “The star refers to Pleiades when it sets at Fajr.” Ad-Dahhak said “When the Shayatin are shot with it.” And this Ayah is like Allah’s saying;

(So, I swear by the setting of the stars. And verily, that is indeed a great oath, if you but know. That is indeed an honorable recitation. In a Book well-guarded. Which none can touch but the pure. A revelation from the Lord of all that exists.)(56:75-80) Allah said;

(Your companion has neither gone astray nor has erred.) This contains the subject of the oath. This part of the Ayah is the witness that the Messenger of Allah is sane and a follower of Truth. He is neither led astray, such as in the case of the ignorant who does not proceed on any path with knowledge, nor is he one who erred, such as in the case of the knowledgeable, who knows the Truth, yet deviates from it intentionally to something else. Therefore, Allah exonerated His Messenger and his Message from being similar to the misguided ways of the Christians and the erroneous paths of the Jews, such as knowing the Truth and hiding it, while abiding by falsehood. Rather, he, may Allah’s peace and blessings be on him, and his glorious Message that Allah has sent him with, are on the perfect straight path, following guidance and what is correct.

Allah said,

(Nor does he speak of desire), asserting that nothing the Prophet utters is of his own desire or wish,

(It is only a revelation revealed.), means, he only conveys to the people what he was commanded to convey, in its entirety without additions or deletions. Imam Ahmad recorded that Abu Umamah said that he heard the Messenger of Allah say,

(Verily, numbers similar to the two tribes, or one of them, Rabi`ah and Mudar, will enter Paradise on account of the intercession of one man, who is not a Prophet.) A man asked, “O Allah’s Messenger! Is not Rabi`ah a subtribe of Mudar.” The Prophet said,

(I said what I said.) Imam Ahmad recorded that `Abdullah bin `Amr said, “I used to record everything I heard from the Messenger of Allah so it would be preserved. The Quraysh discouraged me from this, saying, `You record everything you hear from the Messenger of Allah , even though he is human and sometimes speaks when he is angry’ I stopped recording the Hadiths for a while, but later mentioned what they said to the Messenger of Allah , who said,

(Write! By He in Whose Hand is my soul, every word that comes out of me is the Truth.)” Abu Dawud also collected this Hadith.

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The Quran was sent down on a blessed night

I take refuge with Allaah, the Exalted, from the accursed devil.

بِسْمِ اللَّهِ الرَّحْمَـنِ الرَّحِيمِ

Bismillah-ir-Rahman-ir-Raheem: In the name of Allah, the Compassionate, the Merciful.

Welcome to my blog and praise the Magnificent Lord as you enter: Allahu Akbar: Allah is the Greatest .

May the Peace and Blessings of Allah Azza wa Jal, our Lord Glorified and Praised be He, be upon our beloved  Prophet, his Family, and Companions.

The Quran was sent down on a blessed night.

حم

(1. Ha Mim.)

وَالْكِتَـبِ الْمُبِينِ

(2. By the manifest Book that makes things clear.)

إِنَّآ أَنزَلْنَـهُ فِى لَيْلَةٍ مُّبَـرَكَةٍ إِنَّا كُنَّا مُنذِرِينَ

(3. We sent it down on a blessed night. Verily, We are ever warning.)

فِيهَا يُفْرَقُ كُلُّ أَمْرٍ حَكِيمٍ

(4. Therein (that night) is decreed every matter, Hakim.)

أَمْراً مّنْ عِنْدِنَآ إِنَّا كُنَّا مُرْسِلِينَ

(5. As a command from Us. Verily, We are ever sending,)

رَحْمَةً مّن رَّبّكَ إِنَّهُ هُوَ السَّمِيعُ الْعَلِيمُ

(6. (As) a mercy from your Lord. Verily, He is the All-Hearer, the All-Knower.)

رَبِ السَّمَـوتِ وَالاْرْضِ وَمَا بَيْنَهُمَآ إِن كُنتُم مُّوقِنِينَ

(7. The Lord of the heavens and the earth and all that is between them, if you (but) have a faith with certainty.)

لاَ إِلَـهَ إِلاَّ هُوَ يُحْىِ وَيُمِيتُ رَبُّكُمْ وَرَبُّ ءابَآئِكُمُ
الاْوَّلِينَ

(8. La ilaha illa Huwa. He gives life and causes death — your Lord and the Lord of your forefathers.)

Surah 44 Ad-Dukhan Verse 1-8

Tafsir Ibn Kathir

The Qur’an was revealed on Laylatul-Qadr,

Allah tells us that He revealed the Magnificent Qur’an on a blessed night, Laylatul-Qadr (the Night of Decree), as He says elsewhere:

(Verily, We have sent it down in the Night of Al-Qadr) (97:1). This was in the month of Ramadan, as Allah tells us:

(The month of Ramadan in which was revealed the Qur’an) (2:185). We have already quoted the relevant Hadiths in (the Tafsir of) Surat Al-Baqarah, and there is no need to repeat them here.

(Verily, We are ever warning.) means, telling them what is good for them and what is harmful for them, according to Shari`ah, so that the proof of Allah may be established against His servants.

(Therein (that night) is decreed every matter, Hakim.) means, on Laylatul-Qadr, the decrees are transferred from Al-Lawh Al-Mahfuz to the (angelic) scribes who write down the decrees of the (coming) year including life span, provision, and what will happen until the end of the year. This was narrated from Ibn `Umar, Mujahid, Abu Malik, Ad-Dahhak and others among the Salaf.

(Hakim) means decided or confirmed, which cannot be changed or altered. Allah says:

(As a command from Us.) meaning, everything that happens and is decreed by Allah and the revelation that He sends down — it all happens by His command, by His leave and with His knowledge.

(Verily, We are ever sending,) means, to mankind, sending Messenger who will recite to them the clear signs of Allah. The need for this was urgent.

((As) a mercy from your Lord. Verily, He is the All-Hearer, the All-Knower. The Lord of the heavens and the earth and all that is between them,) means, the One Who sent down the Qur’an is the Lord, Creator and Sovereign of the heavens and the earth and everything in between them.

(if you (but) have a faith with certainty.) Then Allah says:

(La ilaha illa Huwa. He gives life and causes death — your Lord and the Lord of your forefathers.) This is like the Ayah:

(Say: “O mankind! Verily, I am sent to you all as the Messenger of Allah — to Whom belongs the dominion of the heavens and the earth. La ilaha illa Huwa. He gives life and causes death…) (7:158)

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The night that is better than a thousand months

I take refuge with Allaah, the Exalted, from the accursed devil.

بِسْمِ اللَّهِ الرَّحْمَـنِ الرَّحِيمِ

Bismillah-ir-Rahman-ir-Raheem: In the name of Allah, the Compassionate, the Merciful.

Welcome to my blog and praise the Magnificent Lord as you enter: Allahu Akbar: Allah is the Greatest .

May the Peace and Blessings of Allah Azza wa Jal, our Lord Glorified and Praised be He, be upon our beloved  Prophet, his Family, and Companions.

The night that is better than a thousand months.

إِنَّا أَنزَلْنَـهُ فِى لَيْلَةِ الْقَدْرِ

(1. Verily, We have sent it down in the Night of Al-Qadr.)

وَمَآ أَدْرَاكَ مَا لَيْلَةُ الْقَدْرِ

(2. And what will make you know what the Night of Al-Qadr is)

لَيْلَةُ الْقَدْرِ خَيْرٌ مِّنْ أَلْفِ شَهْرٍ

(3. The Night of Al-Qadr is better than a thousand months.)

تَنَزَّلُ الْمَلَـئِكَةُ وَالرُّوحُ فِيهَا بِإِذْنِ رَبِّهِم مِّن كُلِّ
أَمْرٍ

(4. Therein descend the angels and the Ruh by their Lord’s permission with every matter.)

سَلَـمٌ هِىَ حَتَّى مَطْلَعِ الْفَجْرِ

(5. There is peace until the appearance of dawn.)

Surah 97 Al-Qadr Verse  1-5

Tafsir Ibn Kathir

The Virtues of the Night of Al-Qadr (the Decree).

Allah informs that He sent the Qur’an down during the Night of Al-Qadr, and it is a blessed night about which Allah says,

(We sent it down on a blessed night.) (44:3) This is the Night of Al-Qadr and it occurs during the month of Ramadan. This is as Allah says,

(The month of Ramadan in which was revealed the Qur’an.) (2:185) Ibn `Abbas and others have said, “Allah sent the Qur’an down all at one time from the Preserved Tablet (Al-Lawh Al-Mahfuz) to the House of Might (Baytul-`Izzah), which is in the heaven of this world. Then it came down in parts to the Messenger of Allah based upon the incidents that occurred over a period of twenty-three years.” Then Allah magnified the status of the Night of Al-Qadr, which He chose for the revelation of the Mighty Qur’an, by His saying,

(And what will make you know what the Night of Al-Qadr is The Night of Al-Qadr is better than a thousand months.) Imam Ahmad recorded that Abu Hurayrah “When Ramadan would come, the Messenger of Allah would say,

(Verily, the month of Ramadan has come to you all. It is a blessed month, which Allah has obligated you all to fast. During it the gates of Paradise are opened, the gates of Hell are closed and the devils are shackled. In it there is a night that is better than one thousand months. Whoever is deprived of its good, then he has truly been deprived.)” An-Nasa’i recorded this same Hadith. Aside from the fact that worship during the Night of Al-Qadr is equivalent to worship performed for a period of one thousand months, it is also confirmed in the Two Sahihs from Abu Hurayrah that the Messenger of Allah said,

(Whoever stands (in prayer) during the Night of Al-Qadr with faith and expecting reward (from Allah), he will be forgiven for his previous sins.)

The Descent of the Angels and the Decree for Every Good during the Night of Al-Qadr.

Allah says,

(Therein descend the angels and the Ruh by their Lord’s permission with every matter.) meaning, the angels descend in abundance during the Night of Al-Qadr due to its abundant blessings. The angels descend with the descending of blessings and mercy, just as they descend when the Qur’an is recited, they surround the circles of Dhikr (remembrance of Allah) and they lower their wings with true respect for the student of knowledge. In reference to Ar-Ruh, it is said that here it means the angel Jibril. Therefore, the wording of the Ayah is a method of adding the name of the distinct object (in this case Jibril) separate from the general group (in this case the angels). Concerning Allah’s statement,

(with every matter.) Mujahid said, “Peace concerning every matter.” Sa`id bin Mansur said, `Isa bin Yunus told us that Al-A`mash narrated to them that Mujahid said concerning Allah’s statement,

(There is peace) “It is security in which Shaytan cannot do any evil or any harm.” Qatadah and others have said, “The matters are determined during it, and the times of death and provisions are measured out (i.e., decided) during it.” Allah says,

(Therein is decreed every matter of decree.) (44:4) Then Allah says,

(There is peace until the appearance of dawn.) Sa`id bin Mansur said, “Hushaym narrated to us on the authority of Abu Ishaq, who narrated that Ash-Sha`bi said concerning Allah’s statement,

(With every matter, there is a peace until the appearance of dawn.) `The angels giving the greetings of peace during the Night of Al-Qadr to the people in the Masjids until the coming of Fajr (dawn).”’ Qatadah and Ibn Zayd both said concerning Allah’s statement,

(There is peace.) “This means all of it is good and there is no evil in it until the coming of Fajr (dawn).”

Specifying the Night of Decree and its Signs.

This is supported by what Imam Ahmad recorded from `Ubadah bin As-Samit that the Messenger of Allah said,

(The Night of Al-Qadr occurs during the last ten (nights). Whoever stands for them (in prayer) seeking their reward, then indeed Allah will forgive his previous sins and his latter sins. It is an odd night: the ninth, or the seventh, or the fifth, or the third or the last night (of Ramadan).) The Messenger of Allah also said,

(Verily, the sign of the Night of Al-Qadr is that it is pure and glowing as if there were a bright, tranquil, calm moon during it. It is not cold, nor is it hot, and no shooting star is permitted until morning. Its sign is that the sun appears on the morning following it smooth having no rays on it, just like the moon on a full moon night. Shaytan is not allowed to come out with it (the sun) on that day.) This chain of narration is good. In its text there is some oddities and in some of its wordings there are things that are objectionable. Abu Dawud mentioned a section in his Sunan that he titled, “Chapter: Clarification that the Night of Al-Qadr occurs during every Ramadan.” Then he recorded that `Abdullah bin `Umar said, “The Messenger of Allah was asked about the Night of Al-Qadr while I was listening and he said,

(It occurs during every Ramadan.)” The men of this chain of narration are all reliable, but Abu Dawud said that Shu`bah and Sufyan both narrated it from Ishaq and they both considered it to be a statement of the Companion (Ibn `Umar, and thus not the statement of the Prophet ). It has been reported that Abu Sa`id Al-Khudri said, “The Messenger of Allah performed I`tikaf during the first ten nights of Ramadan and we performed I`tikaf with him. Then Jibril came to him and said, `That which you are seeking is in front of you.’ So the Prophet performed I`tikaf during the middle ten days of Ramadan and we also performed I`tikaf with him. Then Jibril came to him and said; `That which you are seeking is ahead of you.’ So the Prophet stood up and gave a sermon on the morning of the twentieth of Ramadan and he said,

(Whoever performed I`tikaf with me, let him come back (for I`tikaf again), for verily I saw the Night of Al-Qadr, and I was caused to forget it, and indeed it is during the last ten (nights). It is during an odd night and I saw myself as if I were prostrating in mud and water.) The roof of the Masjid was made of dried palm-tree leaves and we did not see anything (i.e., clouds) in the sky. But then a patch of wind-driven clouds came and it rained. So the Prophet lead us in prayer until we saw the traces of mud and water on the forehead of the Messenger of Allah , which confirmed his dream.” In one narration it adds that this occurred on the morning of the twenty-first night (meaning the next morning). They both (Al-Bukhari and Muslim) recorded it in the Two Sahihs. Ash-Shafi`i said, “This Hadith is the most authentic of what has been reported.” It has also been said that it is on the twenty-third night due to a Hadith narrated from `Abdullah bin Unays in Sahih Muslim. It has also been said that it is on the twenty-fifth night due to what Al-Bukhari recorded from Ibn `Abbas that the Messenger of Allah said,

(Seek it in the last ten (nights) of Ramadan. In the ninth it still remains, in the seventh it still remains, in the fifth it still remains.) Many have explained this Hadith to refer to the odd nights, and this is the most apparent and most popular explanation. It has also been said that it occurs on the twenty-seventh night because of what Muslim recorded in his Sahih from Ubay bin Ka`b that the Messenger of Allah mentioned that it was on the twenty-seventh night. Imam Ahmad recorded from Zirr that he asked Ubayy bin Ka`b, “O Abu Al-Mundhir! Verily, your brother Ibn Mas`ud says whoever stands for prayer (at night) the entire year, will catch the Night of Al-Qadr.” He (Ubayy) said, “May Allah have mercy upon him. Indeed he knows that it is during the month of Ramadan and that it is the twenty-seventh night.” Then he swore by Allah. Zirr then said, “How do you know that” Ubayy replied, “By a sign or an indication that he (the Prophet ) informed us of. It rises that next day having no rays on it — meaning the sun.” Muslim has also recorded it. It has been said that it is the night of the twenty-ninth. Imam Ahmad bin Hanbal recorded from `Ubadah bin As-Samit that he asked the Messenger of Allah about the Night of Decree and he replied,

(Seek it in Ramadan in the last ten nights. For verily, it is during the odd nights, the twenty-first, or the twenty-third, or the twenty-fifth, or the twenty-seventh, or the twenty-ninth, or during the last night.) Imam Ahmad also recorded from Abu Hurayrah that the Messenger of Allah said about the Night of Al-Qadr,

(Verily, it is during the twenty-seventh or the twenty-ninth night. And verily, the angels who are on the earth during that night are more numerous than the number of pebbles.) Ahmad was alone in recording this Hadith and there is nothing wrong with its chain of narration. At-Tirmidhi recorded from Abu Qilabah that he said, “The Night of Al-Qadr moves around (i.e., from year to year) throughout the last ten nights.” This view that At-Tirmidhi mentions from Abu Qilabah has also been recorded by Malik, Ath-Thawri, Ahmad bin Hanbal, Ishaq bin Rahuyah, Abu Thawr, Al-Muzani, Abu Bakr bin Khuzaymah and others. It has also been related from Ash-Shafi`i, and Al-Qadi reported it from him, and this is most likely. And Allah knows best.

Supplication during the Night of Decree.

It is recommended to supplicate often during all times, especially during the month of Ramadan, in the last ten nights, and during the odd nights of it even more so. It is recommended that one say the following supplication a lot: “O Allah! Verily, You are the Of the Pardoning, You love to pardon, so pardon me.” This is due to what Imam Ahmad recorded from `A’ishah, that she said, “O Messenger of Allah! If I find the Night of Al-Qadr what should I say” He replied,

(Say: “O Allah! Verily, You are the Of the Pardoning, You love to pardon, so pardon me.”) At-Tirmidhi, An-Nasa’i and Ibn Majah have all recorded this Hadith. At-Tirmidhi said, “This Hadith is Hasan Sahih.” Al-Hakim recorded it in his Mustadrak (with a different chain of narration) and he said that it is authentic according to the criteria of the two Shaykhs (Al-Bukhari and Muslim). An-Nasa’i also recorded it. This is the end of the Tafsir of Surah Laylat Al-Qadr, and all praise and blessings are due to Allah.

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The Rulings of Fasting

I take refuge with Allaah, the Exalted, from the accursed devil.

بِسْمِ اللَّهِ الرَّحْمَـنِ الرَّحِيمِ

Bismillah-ir-Rahman-ir-Raheem: In the name of Allah, the Compassionate, the Merciful.

Welcome to my blog and praise the Magnificent Lord as you enter: Allahu Akbar: Allah is the Greatest .

May the Peace and Blessings of Allah Azza wa Jal, our Lord Glorified and Praised be He, be upon our beloved  Prophet, his Family, and Companions.

The Rulings of Fasting.

أُحِلَّ لَكُمْ لَيْلَةَ الصِّيَامِ الرَّفَثُ إِلَى نِسَآئِكُمْ هُنَّ لِبَاسٌ لَّكُمْ وَأَنتُمْ لِبَاسٌ لَّهُنَّ عَلِمَ اللَّهُ أَنَّكُمْ كُنتُمْ تَخْتانُونَ أَنفُسَكُمْ فَتَابَ عَلَيْكُمْ وَعَفَا عَنكُمْ فَالـنَ بَـشِرُوهُنَّ وَابْتَغُواْ مَا كَتَبَ اللَّهُ لَكُمْ وَكُلُواْ وَاشْرَبُواْ حَتَّى يَتَبَيَّنَ لَكُمُ الْخَيْطُ الأَبْيَضُ مِنَ الْخَيْطِ الأَسْوَدِ مِنَ الْفَجْرِ ثُمَّ أَتِمُّواْ الصِّيَامَ إِلَى الَّيْلِ وَلاَ تُبَـشِرُوهُنَّ وَأَنتُمْ عَـكِفُونَ فِي الْمَسَـجِدِ تِلْكَ حُدُودُ اللَّهِ فَلاَ تَقْرَبُوهَا كَذلِكَ يُبَيِّنُ اللَّهُ آيَاتِهِ لِلنَّاسِ لَعَلَّهُمْ يَتَّقُونَ

(187. It is made lawful for you to have sexual relations with your wives on the night of As-Siyam (fasting). They are Libas (i.e., body-cover, or screen) for you and you are Libas for them. Allah knows that you used to deceive yourselves, so He turned to you (accepted your repentance) and forgave you. So now have sexual relations with them and seek that which Allah has ordained for you (offspring), and eat and drink until the white thread (light) of dawn appears to you distinct from the black thread (darkness of night), then complete your fast till the nightfall. And do not have sexual relations with them (your wives) while you are in I`tikaf in the Masjids. These are the limits (set) by Allah, so approach them not. Thus does Allah make clear His Ayat to mankind that they may acquire Taqwa.)

Surah 2 al Baqarah Verse 187

Tafsir Ibn Kathir

Eating, Drinking and Sexual Intercourse are allowed during the Nights of Ramadan.

These Ayat contain a relief from Allah for the Muslims by ending the practice that was observed in the early years of Islam. At that time, Muslims were allowed to eat, drink and have sexual intercourse only until the `Isha’ (Night) prayer, unless one sleeps before the `Isha’ prayer. Those who slept before `Isha’ or offered the `Isha’ prayer, were not allowed to drink, eat or sexual intervourse sex until the next night. The Muslims found that to be difficult for them.

(They are Libas (i.e., body-cover, or screen)  for you and you are Libas for them.)

Ibn `Abbas, Mujahid, Sa`id bin Jubayr, Al-Hasan, Qatadah, As-Suddi and Muqatil bin Hayyan said that this Ayah means, “Your wives are a resort for you and you for them.” Ar-Rabi` bin Anas said, “They are your cover and you are their cover.” In short, the wife and the husband are intimate and have sexual intercourse with each other, and this is why they were permitted to have sexual activity during the nights of Ramadan, so that matters are made easier for them.

Abu Ishaq reported that Al-Bara’ bin `Azib said, “When the Companions of Allah’s Messenger observed fast but would sleep before breaking their fast, they would continue fasting until the following night. Qays bin Sirmah Al-Ansari was fasting one day and was working in his land. When the time to break the fast came, he went to his wife and said, `Do you have food’ She said, `No. But I could try to get you some.’ His eyes then were overcome by sleep and when his wife came back, she found him asleep. She said, `Woe unto you! Did you sleep’ In the middle of the next day, he lost consciousness and mentioned what had happened to the Prophet . Then, this Ayah was revealed:

(It is made lawful for you to have sexual relations with your wives on the night of As-Siyam (fasting)) until…

(and eat and drink until the white thread (light) of dawn appears to you distinct from the black thread (darkness of night), then complete your fast till the nightfall. ) Consequently, they were very delighted.” Al-Bukhari reported this Hadith by Abu Ishaq who related that he heard Al-Bara’ say, “When fasting Ramadan was ordained, Muslims used to refrain from sleeping with their wives the entire month, but some men used to deceive themselves. Allah revealed:

(Allah knows that you used to deceive yourselves, so He turned to you (accepted your repentance) and forgave you.)

`Ali bin Abu Talhah narrated that Ibn `Abbas said, “During the month of Ramadan, after Muslims would pray `Isha’, they would not touch their women and food until the next night. Then some Muslims, including `Umar bin Al-Khattab, touched (had sex with) their wives and had some food during Ramadan after `Isha’. They complained to Allah’s Messenger . Then Allah sent down:

(Allah knows that you used to deceive yourselves, so He turned to you (accepted your repentance) and forgave you. So now have sexual relations with them)” This is the same narration that Al-`Awfi related from Ibn `Abbas.

Allah said:

(. ..and seek that which Allah has ordained for you (offspring),)

Abu Hurayrah, Ibn `Abbas, Anas, Shurayh Al-Qadi, Mujahid, `Ikrimah, Sa`id bin Jubayr, `Ata’, Ar-Rabi` bin Anas, As-Suddi, Zayd bin Aslam, Hakam bin `Utbah, Muqatil bin Hayyan, Al-Hasan Al-Basri, Ad-Dahhak, Qatadah, and others said that this Ayah refers to having offspring. Qatadah said that the Ayah means, “Seek the permission that Allah has allowed for you.” Sa`id narrated that Qatadah said,

(and seek that which Allah has ordained for you,)

Time for Suhur.

Allah said:

(…and eat and drink until the white thread (light) of dawn appears to you distinct from the black thread (darkness of night), then complete your fast till the nightfall.)

Allah has allowed eating and drinking, along with having sexual intercourse, as we have stated, during any part of the night until the light of dawn is distinguished from the darkness of the night. Allah has described that time as `distinguishing the white thread from the black thread.’ He then made it clearer when He said:

(of dawn.)

As stated in a Hadith that Imam Abu `Abdullah Al-Bukhari recorded, Sahl bin Sa`d said, “When the following verse was revealed:

(Eat and drink until the white thread appears to you, distinct from the black thread) and (of dawn) was not revealed, some people who intended to fast, tied black and white threads to their legs and went on eating till they differentiated between the two. Allah then revealed the words, (of dawn), and it became clear to them that it meant (the darkness of) night and (the light of) day. ”

Al-Bukhari recorded that Ash-Sha`bi said that `Adi said, “I took two strings, one black and the other white and kept them under my pillow and went on looking at them throughout the night, but could not make any distinction between the two. So, the next morning I went to Allah’s Messenger and told him the whole story. He said:

The Ayat used the word `Rafath’ to indicate sexual intercourse, according to Ibn `Abbas, `Ata’ and Mujahid. Similar Tafsir was offered by Sa`id bin Jubayr, Tawus, Salim bin `Abdullah, `Amr bin Dinar, Al-Hasan, Qatadah, Az-Zuhri, Ad-Dahhak, Ibrahim An-Nakha`i, As-Suddi, `Ata’ Al-Khurasani and Muqatil bin Hayyan.

Allah said:

(Your pillow is very wide if the white and black threads are under it!) Some wordings for this Hadith read,

(Your Qafa (back side of your neck) is wide!)

Some people said that these words meant that `Adi was not smart. This is a weak opinion. The narration that Al-Bukhari collected explains this part of the Hadith. Al-Bukhari recorded that `Adi bin Hatim narrated: I said, “O Messenger of Allah! What is the white thread from the black thread Are they actual threads” He said:

(Your Qafa is wide if you see the two threads. Rather, they are the blackness of the night and the whiteness of the daylight.)

Suhur is recommended.

Allah allowed eating and drinking until dawn, it represents proof that Suhur is encouraged, since it is a Rukhsah (concession or allowance) and Allah likes that the Rukhsah is accepted and implemented. The authentic Sunnah indicates that eating the Suhur is encouraged. It is reported in the Two Sahihs that Anas narrated that Allah’s Messenger said:

(Eat the Suhur, for there is a blessing in Suhur.)

Muslim reported that `Amr bin Al-`As narrated that Allah’s Messenger said:

(The distinction between our fast and the fast of the People of the Book is the meal of Suhur.)

Imam Ahmad reported that Abu Sa`id narrated that Allah’s Messenger said:

(Suhur is a blessed meal. Hence, do not abandon it, even if one just takes a sip of water. Indeed, Allah and His angels send Salah (blessings) upon those who eat Suhur.)

There are several other Hadiths that encourage taking the Suhur, even if it only consists of a sip of water.

It is preferred that Suhur be delayed until the time of dawn. It is recorded in the Two Sahihs that Anas bin Malik narrated that Zayd bin Thabit said, “We had Suhur with Allah’s Messenger and then went on to pray.” Anas asked, “How much time was there between the Adhan (call to prayer) and the Suhur” He said, “The time that fifty Ayat take (to recite).”

Imam Ahmad recorded Abu Dharr saying that Allah’s Messenger said:

(My Ummah will always retain goodness as long as they hasten in breaking the fast and delay the Suhur.)

There are several Hadiths that narrate that the Prophet called Suhur “the blessed meal.”

There are narrations from several of the Salaf that they allowed the Suhur to be eaten later until close to Fajr. This is is reported from Abu Bakr, `Umar, `Ali, Ibn Mas`ud, Hudhayfah, Abu Hurayrah, Ibn `Umar, Ibn `Abbas and Zayd bin Thabit. It is also reported from many of the Tabi`in, such as Muhammad bin `Ali bin Husayn, Abu Mijlaz, Ibrahim An-Nakha`i, Abu Ad-Duha, Abu Wa’il and other companions of Ibn Mas`ud. This is also the opinion of `Ata’, Al-Hasan, Hakam bin `Uyainah, Mujahid, `Urwah bin Az-Zubayr, Abu Sha`tha’ Jabir bin Zayd, Al- A`mash and Ma`mar bin Rashid. We have mentioned the chains of narrations for their statements in our (Ibn Kathir’s) book about Siyam (Fasting), and all praise is due to Allah.

It is also recorded in the Two Sahihs that Al-Qasim said that `A’ishah narrated that Allah’s Messenger said:

(The Adhan pronounced by Bilal should not stop you from taking Suhur, for he pronounces the Adhan at night. Hence, eat and drink until you hear the Adhan by Ibn Umm Maktum, for he does not call the Adhan until dawn.)

This is the wording collected by Al-Bukhari.

Imam Ahmad reported that Qays bin Talq quoted from his father that Allah’s Messenger said:

(Dawn is not the (ascending) glow of white light of the horizon. Rather, it is the red (radiating) light.)

Abu Dawud and At-Tirmidhi also recorded this Hadith, but their wording is:

(Eat and drink and do not be rushed by the ascending (white) light. Eat and drink until the redness (of the dawn) appears.)

Ibn Jarir (At-Tabari) recorded that Samurah bin Jundub narrated that Allah’s Messenger said:

(Do not be stopped by Bilal’s Adhan or the (ascending) whiteness, until it spreads.) Muslim also recorded this Hadith.

Q: Is it “Haram” to begin fasting while “Junub”?

Answer to: “Is there harm in starting the month of fasting while junub?” is: NO.

Issue: Among the benefits of allowing sexual activity, eating and drinking until dawn for those who are fasting, is that it is allowed to start the fast while Junub (in the state of impurity after sexual discharge), and there is no harm in this case if one takes a bath any time in the morning after waking up, and completes the fast. This is the opinion of the Four Imams and the majority of the scholars. Al-Bukhari and Muslim recorded that `A’ishah and Umm Salamah said that Allah’s Messenger used to wake up while Junub from sexual intercourse, not wet dreams, and he would take a bath and fast. Umm Salamah added that he would not break his fast or make up for that day.

Muslim recorded that `A’ishah said that a man asked:

“O Messenger of Allah! The (Dawn) prayer time starts while I am Junub, should I fast” Allah’s Messenger replied, (And I. The prayer time starts while I am Junub and I fast.)

He said, “You are not like us, O Messenger of Allah! Allah has forgiven your previous and latter sins.” Allah’s Messenger said:

(By Allah! I hope that I have the most fear from Allah among you and the best knowledge of what Taqwa is.)

And Allah Knows Best

Question: “Does Fasting End Exactly at Sunset?”

Answer: Let us look to what Allah said:

(…then complete your fast till the nightfall.)

This Ayah orders breaking the fast at sunset. It is recorded in the Two Sahihs that `Umar bin Al-Khattab said that Allah’s Messenger said:

(If the night comes from this direction (the east), and the day departs from that direction (the west), then the fasting person breaks his fast.)

It is reported that Sahl bin Sa`d As-Sa`idi narrated that Allah’s Messenger said:

(The people will retain goodness as long as they hasten in breaking the fast.)

Imam Ahmad recorded that Abu Hurayrah narrated that the Prophet said:

(Allah the Exalted said, `The dearest among My servants to Me are those who hasten in breaking the fast the most.’)

At-Tirmidhi recorded this Hadith and said that this Hadith is Hasan Gharib.

Prohibition of Uninterrupted Fasting (Wisal).

There are several authentic Hadiths that prohibit Al-Wisal, which means continuing the fast through the night to the next night, without eating. Imam Ahmad recorded Abu Hurayrah saying that Allah’s Messenger said:

(Do not practice Al-Wisal in fasting.) So, they said to him, “But you practice Al-Wisal, O Allah’s Messenger!” The Prophet replied, “(I am not like you, I am given food and drink during my sleep by my Lord.) ,So, when the people refused to stop Al-Wisal, the Prophet fasted two days and two nights (along with those who practiced Wisal) and then they saw the crescent moon (of the month of Shawwal). The Prophet said to them (angrily):

(If the crescent had not appeared, I would have made you fast for a longer period.)

That was as a punishment for them (when they refused to stop practicing Al-Wisal). This Hadith is also recorded in the Sahihayn.

The prohibition of Al-Wisal was also mentioned in a number of other narrations. It is a fact that practicing Al-Wisal was one of the special qualities of the Prophet , for he was capable and assisted in his practice of it. It is obvious that the food and drink that the Prophet used to get while practicing Al-Wisal was spiritual and not material, otherwise he would not be practicing Al-Wisal. We should mention that it is allowed to refrain from breaking the fast from sunset until before dawn (Suhur). A Hadith narrated by Abu Sa`id Khudri states that Allah’s Messenger said:

(Do not practice Al-Wisal, but whoever wishes is allowed to practice it until the Suhur.)

They said, “You practice Al-Wisal, O Messenger of Allah!” He said:

(I am not similar to you, for I have One Who makes me eat and drink during the night.) This Hadith is also collected in the Two Sahihs.

The Rulings of I`tikaf.

Allah said:

(And do not have sexual relations with them (your wives) while you are in I`tikaf in the Masjids.)

`Ali bin Abu Talhah reported that Ibn `Abbas said, “This Ayah is about the man who stays in I`tikaf at the mosque during Ramadan or other months, Allah prohibited him from touching (having sexual intercourse with) women, during the night or day, until he finishes his I`tikaf.” Ad-Dahhak said, “Formerly, the man who practiced I`tikaf would go out of the mosque and, if he wished, would have sexual intercourse (with his wife). Allah then said:

(And do not have sexual relations with them (your wives) while you are in I`tikaf in the Masjids.) meaning, `Do not touch your wives as long as you are in I`tikaf, whether you were in the mosque or outside of it’.” It is also the opinion of Mujahid, Qatadah and several other scholars, that the Muslims used to have sexual intercourse with the wife while in I`tikaf if they departed the mosque until the Ayah was revealed. Ibn Abu Hatim commented, “It was reported that Ibn Mas`ud, Muhammad bin Ka`b, Mujahid, `Ata’ Al-Hasan, Qatadah, Ad-Dahhak, As-Suddi, Ar-Rabi` bin Anas and Muqatil said that the Ayah means, `Do not touch the wife while in I`tikaf.”’

What Ibn Abu Hatim reported from these people is the agreed upon practice among the scholars. Those who are in I`tikaf are not allowed to have sexual intercourse as long as they are still in I`tikaf in the mosque. If one has to leave the mosque to attend to a need, such as to relieve the call of nature or to eat, he is not allowed to kiss or embrace his wife or to busy himself with other than his I`tikaf. He is not even allowed to visit ailing persons, but he can merely ask about their condition while passing by. I`tikaf has several other rulings that are explained in the books (of Fiqh), and we have mentioned several of these rulings at the end of our book on Siyam (Fasting), all praise is due to Allah. Furthermore, the scholars of Fiqh used to follow their explanation of the rules for fasting with the explanation of the rules for I`tikaf, as this is the way these acts of worship were mentioned in the Qur’an.

By mentioning I`tikaf after fasting, Allah draws attention to practicing I`tikaf during the month of the fast, especially the last part of the month. The Sunnah of Allah’s Messenger is that he used to perform I`tikaf during the last ten nights of the month of Ramadan until he died. Afterwards, the Prophet’s wives used to perform I`tikaf as the Two Sahihs recorded from `A’ishah the Mother of the believers. It is reported in the Two Sahihs that Safiyyah, the daughter of Huyai, went to Allah’s Messenger to visit him in the mosque while he was in I`tikaf. She had a talk with him for a while, then she got up in order to return home. The Prophet accompanied her back home, as it was night. Her house was at Usamah bin Zayd’s house on the edge of Al-Madinah. While they were walking, two Ansari men met them and passed by them in a hurry, for they were shy to bother the Prophet while he was walking with his wife. He told them:

(Do not run away! She is (my wife) Safiyyah bint Huyai.) Both of them said, “All praise is due to Allah, (How dare we think of any evil) O Allah’s Messenger!” The Prophet said (to them):

(Shaytan reaches everywhere in the human body, that the blood reaches. I was afraid lest Shaytan might suggest an evil thought in your minds.)

Imam Ash-Shafi`i commented, “Allah’s Messenger sought to teach his Ummah to instantly eliminate any evil thought, so that they do not fall into the prohibited. They (the two Ansari men) had more fear of Allah than to think evil of the Prophet . Allah knows best.”

The Ayah (2:187) prohibits sexual intercourse and anything like kissing or embracing that might lead to it during I`tikaf. As for having the wife helping the husband, it is allowed. It is reported in the Two Sahihs that `A’ishah said, “Allah’s Messenger would bring his head near me (in her room) and I would comb his hair, while I was on my menses. He would enter the room only to attend to what a man needs.”

Allah’s statement:

(These are the limits (set) by Allah) means, `This is what We have explained, ordained, specified, allowed and prohibited for fasting. We also mentioned the fast’s objectives, what is permitted during it, and what is required of it. These are the set limits that Allah has legislated and explained, so do not come near them or transgress them.’ `Abdur-Rahman bin Zayd bin Aslam said, “(Allah’s set limits mentioned in the Ayah) mean these four limits (and he then recited):

(It is made lawful for you to have sexual relations with your wives on the night of As-Siyam (fasting).) and he recited up to:

(then complete your Sawm (fast) till the nightfall.) My father and other’s used to say similarly and recite the same Ayah to us.”

Allah said:

(Thus does Allah make clear His Ayat to mankind) meaning, `Just as He explains the fast and its rulings, He also explains the other rulings by the words of His servant and Messenger, Muhammad .’ Allah continues:

(to mankind that they may attain Taqwa.) meaning, `So that they know how to acquire the true guidance and how to worship (Allah).’ Similarly, Allah said:

(It is He Who sends down manifest Ayat to His servant (Muhammad ) that He may bring you out from (types of) darkness into the light. And verily, Allah is to you full of kindness, Most Merciful.) (57:9)

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Allah, the Exalted the Praised, responds to the supplication of His servant

I take refuge with Allaah, the Exalted, from the accursed devil.

بِسْمِ اللَّهِ الرَّحْمَـنِ الرَّحِيمِ

Bismillah-ir-Rahman-ir-Raheem: In the name of Allah, the Compassionate, the Merciful.

Welcome to my blog and praise the Magnificent Lord as you enter: Allahu Akbar: Allah is the Greatest .

May the Peace and Blessings of Allah Azza wa Jal, our Lord Glorified and Praised be He, be upon our beloved  Prophet, his Family, and Companions.

Allah, the Exalted the Praised, responds to the supplication of His servant.

وَإِذَا سَأَلَكَ عِبَادِي عَنِّي فَإِنِّي قَرِيبٌ أُجِيبُ دَعْوَةَ الدَّاعِ إِذَا دَعَانِ فَلْيَسْتَجِيبُواْ لِى وَلْيُؤْمِنُواْ بِى لَعَلَّهُمْ يَرْشُدُونَ

(186. And when My servants ask you (O Muhammad concerning Me, then answer them), I am indeed near (to them by My knowledge). I respond to the invocations of the supplicant when he calls on Me (without any mediator or intercessor). So let them obey Me and believe in Me, so that they may be led aright.)

Surah 2 al Baqara Verse 186

Tafsir Ibn Kathir

Allah hears the Servant’s Supplication.

Imam Ahmad reported that Abu Musa Al-Ash`ari said, “We were in the company of Allah’s Messenger during a battle. Whenever we climbed a high place, went up a hill or went down a valley, we used to say, `Allah is the Most Great,’ raising our voices. The Prophet came by us and said:

(O people! Be merciful to yourselves (i.e., don’t raise your voices), for you are not calling a deaf or an absent one, but One Who is All-Hearer, All-Seer. The One Whom you call is closer to one of you than the neck of his animal. O `Abdullah bin Qais (Abu Musa’s name) should I teach you a statement that is a treasure of Paradise: `La hawla wa la quwwata illa billah (there is no power or strength except from Allah).’)

This Hadith was also recorded in the Two Sahihs, and Abu Dawud, An-Nasa’i, At-Tirmidhi and Ibn Majah recorded similar wordings. Furthermore, Imam Ahmad recorded that Anas said that the Prophet said:

(“Allah the Exalted said, `I am as My servant thinks of Me, and I am with him whenever he invokes Me.’) Allah accepts the Invocation.

Imam Ahmad also recorded Abu Sa`id saying that the Prophet said:

(No Muslim supplicates to Allah with a Du`a that does not involve sin or cutting the relations of the womb, but Allah will grant him one of the three things. He will either hasten the response to his supplication, save it for him until the Hereafter, or would turn an equivalent amount of evil away from him.”) They said, “What if we were to recite more (Du`a).” He said, (There is more with Allah.)

`Abdullah the son of Imam Ahmad recorded `Ubadah bin As-Samit saying that the Prophet said:

(There is no Muslim man on the face of the earth who supplicates to Allah but Allah would either grant it to him, or avert a harm from him of equal proportions, as long as his supplication does not involve sin or cutting the relations of the womb.) At-Tirmidhi recorded this Hadith.

Allah accepts the Invocation.

Imam Ahmad also recorded Abu Sa`id saying that the Prophet said:

(No Muslim supplicates to Allah with a Du`a that does not involve sin or cutting the relations of the womb, but Allah will grant him one of the three things. He will either hasten the response to his supplication, save it for him until the Hereafter, or would turn an equivalent amount of evil away from him.”) They said, “What if we were to recite more (Du`a).” He said, (There is more with Allah.)

`Abdullah the son of Imam Ahmad recorded `Ubadah bin As-Samit saying that the Prophet said:

(There is no Muslim man on the face of the earth who supplicates to Allah but Allah would either grant it to him, or avert a harm from him of equal proportions, as long as his supplication does not involve sin or cutting the relations of the womb.) At-Tirmidhi recorded this Hadith.

Imam Malik recorded that Abu Hurayrah narrated that Allah’s Messenger said:

(One’s supplication will be accepted as long as he does become get hasty and say, `I have supplicated but it has not been accepted from me.”)

This Hadith is recorded in the Two Sahihs from Malik, and this is the wording of Al-Bukhari.

Muslim recorded that the Prophet said:

(The supplication of the servant will be accepted as long as he does not supplicate for what includes sin, or cutting the relations of the womb, and as long as he does not become hasty.) He was asked, “O Messenger of Allah! How does one become hasty” He said, (He says, `I supplicated and supplicated, but I do not see that my supplication is being accepted from me.’ He thus looses interest and abandons supplicating (to Allah).)

Three Persons Whose Supplication will not be rejected.

In the Musnad of Imam Ahmad and the Sunans of At-Tirmidhi, An-Nasa’i and Ibn Majah it is recorded that Abu Hurayrah narrated that Allah’s Messenger said:

(Three persons will not have their supplication rejected: the just ruler, the fasting person until breaking the fast, and the supplication of the oppressed person, for Allah raises it above the clouds on the Day of Resurrection, and the doors of heaven will be opened for it, and Allah says, `By My grace! I will certainly grant it for you, even if after a while.’)

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The month of Ramadan

I take refuge with Allaah, the Exalted, from the accursed devil.

بِسْمِ اللَّهِ الرَّحْمَـنِ الرَّحِيمِ

Bismillah-ir-Rahman-ir-Raheem: In the name of Allah, the Compassionate, the Merciful.

Welcome to my blog and praise the Magnificent Lord as you enter: Allahu Akbar: Allah is the Greatest .

May the Peace and Blessings of Allah Azza wa Jal, our Lord Glorified and Praised be He, be upon our beloved  Prophet, his Family, and Companions.

The month of Ramadan.

شَهْرُ رَمَضَانَ الَّذِى أُنزِلَ فِيهِ الْقُرْآنُ هُدًى لِّلنَّاسِ وَبَيِّنَـتٍ مِّنَ الْهُدَى وَالْفُرْقَانِ فَمَن شَهِدَ مِنكُمُ الشَّهْرَ فَلْيَصُمْهُ وَمَن كَانَ مَرِيضًا أَوْ عَلَى سَفَرٍ فَعِدَّةٌ مِّنْ أَيَّامٍ أُخَرَ يُرِيدُ اللَّهُ بِكُمُ الْيُسْرَ وَلاَ يُرِيدُ بِكُمُ الْعُسْرَ وَلِتُكْمِلُواْ الْعِدَّةَ وَلِتُكَبِّرُواْ اللَّهَ عَلَى مَا هَدَاكُمْ وَلَعَلَّكُمْ تَشْكُرُونَ

(185. The month of Ramadan in which was revealed the Qur’an, a guidance for mankind and clear proofs for the guidance and the criterion (between right and wrong). So whoever of you sights (the crescent on the first night of) the month (of Ramadan, i.e., is present at his home), he must observe Sawm (fasting) that month, and whoever is ill or on a journey, the same number (of days which one did not observe Sawm (fasting) must be made up) from other days. Allah intends for you ease, and He does not want to make things difficult for you. (He wants that you) must complete the same number (of days), and that you must magnify Allah )  i.e., to say Takbir (Allahu Akbar: Allah is the Most Great)﴾ for having guided you so that you may be grateful to Him.)

Surah 2 al Baqarah Verse 185

Tafsir Ibn Kathir

Allah praised the month of Ramadan out of the other months by choosing it to send down the Glorious Qur’an, just as He did for all of the Divine Books He revealed to the Prophets. Imam Ahmad reported Wathilah bin Al-Asqa` that Allah’s Messenger said:

(The Suhuf (Pages) of Ibrahim were revealed during the first night of Ramadan. The Torah was revealed during the sixth night of Ramadan. The Injil was revealed during the thirteenth night of Ramadan. Allah revealed the Qur’an on the twenty-fourth night of Ramadan.)

The Virtues of the Qur’an.

Allah said:

(…a guidance for mankind and clear proofs for the guidance and the criterion (between right and wrong).)

Here Allah praised the Qur’an, which He revealed as guidance for the hearts of those who believe in it and adhere to its commands. Allah said:

(and clear proofs) meaning, as clear and unambiguous signs and unequivocal proof for those who understand them. These proofs testify to the truth of the Qur’an, its guidance, the opposite of misguidance, and how it guides to the straight path, the opposite of the wrong path, and the distinction between the truth and falsehood, and the permissible and the prohibited.

The Obligation of Fasting Ramadan.

Allah said:

(So whoever of you sights (the crescent on the first night of) the month (of Ramadan, i.e., is present at his home), he must observe Sawm (fasting) that month.)

This Ayah requires the healthy persons who witness the beginning of the month, while residing in their land, to fast the month. This Ayah abrogated the Ayah that allows a choice of fasting or paying the Fidyah. When Allah ordered fasting, He again mentioned the permission for the ill person and the traveler to break the fast and to fast other days instead as compensation. Allah said:

(…and whoever is ill or on a journey, the same number (of days which one did not observe Sawm (fasting) must be made up)from other days.)

This Ayah indicates that ill persons who are unable to fast or fear harm by fasting, and the traveler, are all allowed to break the fast. When one does not fast in this case, he is obliged to fast other days instead. Allah said:

(Allah intends for you ease, and He does not want to make things difficult for you.)

This Ayah indicates that Allah allowed such persons, out of His mercy and to make matters easy for them, to break the fast when they are ill or traveling, while the fast is still obligatory on the healthy persons who are not traveling.

FASTING (rules).

Question comes: “What are some rulings concerning fasting? For instance, while traveling or on a journey or while under extreme conditions?”

The authentic Sunnah states that Allah’s Messenger traveled during the month of Ramadan for the battle for Makkah. The Prophet marched until he reached the area of Kadid and then broke his fast and ordered those who were with him to do likewise. This was recorded in the Two Sahihs. Breaking the fast mentioned in this Hadith was not required, for the Companions used to go out with Allah’s Messenger during the month of Ramadan, then, some of them would fast while some of them would not fast and neither category would criticize the others. If the command mentioned in the Hadith required breaking the fast, the Prophet would have criticized those who fasted. Allah’s Messenger himself sometimes fasted while traveling. For instance, it is reported in the Two Sahihs that Abu Ad-Darda’ said, “We once went with Allah’s Messenger during Ramadan while the heat was intense. One of us would place his hand on his head because of the intense heat. Only Allah’s Messenger and `Abdullah bin Rawahah were fasting at that time.”

We should state that observing the permission to break the fast while traveling is better, as Allah’s Messenger said about fasting while traveling:

(Those who did not fast have done good, and there is no harm for those who fasted.)

In another Hadith, the Prophet said:

(Hold to Allah’s permission that He has granted you.)

Some scholars say that the two actions are the same, as `A’ishah narrated that Hamzah bin `Amr Al-Aslami said, “O Messenger of Allah! I fast a lot, should I fast while traveling” The Prophet said:

(Fast if you wish or do not fast if you wish.)

This Hadith is in the Two Sahihs. It was reported that if the fast becomes difficult (while traveling), then breaking the fast is better. Jabir said that Allah’s Messenger saw a man who was being shaded (by other people while traveling). The Prophet asked about him and he was told that man was fasting. The Prophet said:

(It is not a part of Birr (piety) to fast while traveling.) This was recorded by Al-Bukhari and Muslim.

As for those who ignore the Sunnah and believe in their hearts that breaking the fast while traveling is disliked, they are required to break the fast and are not allowed to fast.

As for making up for missed fasting days, it is not required to be consecutive. One may do so consecutively or not consecutively. There are ample proofs to this fact. We should mention that fasting consecutive days is only required exclusively during Ramadan. After the month of Ramadan, what is required then is to merely make up for missed days. This is why Allah said:

(. ..the same number (should be made up) from other days.)

Ease and not Hardship.

Allah then said:

(Allah intends for you ease, and He does not want to make things difficult for you.)

Imam Ahmad recorded Anas bin Malik saying that Allah’s Messenger said:

(Treat the people with ease and don’t be hard on them; give them glad tidings and don’t fill them with aversion.)

This Hadith was also collected in the Two Sahihs. It is reported in the Sahihayn that Allah’s Messenger said to Mu`adh and Abu Musa when he sent them to Yemen:

(Treat the people with ease and don’t be hard on them; give them glad tidings and don’t fill them with aversion; and love each other, and don’t differ.)

The Sunan and the Musnad compilers recorded that Allah’s Messenger said:

(I was sent with the easy Hanifiyyah (Islamic Monotheism).)

Allah’s statement:

(Allah intends for you ease, and He does not want to make things difficult for you. (He wants that you) must complete the same number (of days)) means: You were allowed to break the fast while ill, while traveling, and so forth, because Allah wanted to make matters easy for you. He only commanded you to make up for missed days so that you complete the days of one month.

Remembering Allah upon performing the Acts of Worship.

Allah’s statement:

(…and that you must magnify Allah (i.e., to say Takbir (Allahu Akbar: Allah is the Most Great)) for having guided you) means: So that you remember Allah upon finishing the act of worship. This is similar to Allah’s statement:

(So when you have accomplished your Manasik, (rituals) remember Allah as you remember your forefathers or with far more remembrance.) (2:200) and:

(…Then when the (Jumu`ah) Salah (prayer) is ended, you may disperse through the land, and seek the bounty of Allah (by working), and remember Allah much, that you may be successful.) (62:10) and:

(…and glorify the praises of your Lord, before the rising of the sun and before (its) setting. And during a part of the night, glorify His praises, and after the prayers.) (50:39, 40)

This is why the Sunnah encouraged Tasbih (saying Subhan Allah, i.e., all praise is due to Allah), Tahmid (saying Al-Hamdu Lillah, i.e., all the thanks are due to Allah) and Takbir (saying Allahu Akbar, i.e., Allah is the Most Great) after the compulsory prayers. Ibn `Abbas said, “We used to know that Allah’s Messenger has finished the prayer by the Takbir.” Similarly, several scholars have stated that reciting Takbir the during `Id-ul-Fitr was specified by the Ayah that states:

((He wants that you) must complete the same number (of days), and that you must magnify Allah ﴿i.e., to say Takbir (Allahu Akbar: Allah is the Most Great)﴾ for having guided you…) Allah’s statement:

(…so that you may be grateful to Him.) means: If you adhere to what Allah commanded you, obeying Him by performing the obligations, abandoning the prohibitions and abiding by the set limits, then perhaps you will be among the grateful.

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Allah, the Exalted the Praised, prescribes fasting for the believers.

I take refuge with Allaah, the Exalted, from the accursed devil.

بِسْمِ اللَّهِ الرَّحْمَـنِ الرَّحِيمِ

Bismillah-ir-Rahman-ir-Raheem: In the name of Allah, the Compassionate, the Merciful.

Welcome to my blog and praise the Magnificent Lord as you enter: Allahu Akbar: Allah is the Greatest .

May the Peace and Blessings of Allah Azza wa Jal, our Lord Glorified and Praised be He, be upon our beloved  Prophet, his Family, and Companions.

Allah, the Exalted the Praised, prescribes fasting for the believers.

يأَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ ءَامَنُواْ كُتِبَ عَلَيْكُمُ الصِّيَامُ كَمَا كُتِبَ عَلَى الَّذِينَ مِن قَبْلِكُمْ لَعَلَّكُمْ تَتَّقُونَ

(183. O you who believe! Fasting is prescribed for you as it was prescribed for those before you, that you may acquire Taqwa.)

أَيَّامًا مَّعْدُودَتٍ فَمَن كَانَ مِنكُم مَّرِيضًا أَوْ عَلَى سَفَرٍ فَعِدَّةٌ مِّنْ أَيَّامٍ أُخَرَ وَعَلَى الَّذِينَ يُطِيقُونَهُ فِدْيَةٌ طَعَامُ مِسْكِينٍ فَمَن تَطَوَّعَ خَيْرًا فَهُوَ خَيْرٌ لَّهُ وَأَن تَصُومُواْ خَيْرٌ لَّكُمْ إِن كُنتُمْ تَعْلَمُونَ

(184. Fast for a fixed number of days, but if any of you is ill or on a journey, the same number (should be made up) from other days. And as for those who can fast with difficulty, (e.g., an old man), they have (a choice either to fast or) to feed a Miskin (poor person) (for every day). But whoever does good of his own accord, it is better for him. And that you fast is better for you if only you know.)

Surah 2 Al Baqarah Verse 183-184

Tafsir Ibn Kathir

In an address to the believers of this Ummah, Allah ordered them to fast, that is, to abstain from food, drink and sexual activity with the intention of doing so sincerely for Allah the Exalted alone. This is because fasting purifies the souls and cleanses them from the evil that might mix with them and their ill behavior. Allah mentioned that He has ordained fasting for Muslims just as He ordained it for those before them, they being an example for them in that, so they should vigorously perform this obligation more obediently than the previous nations. Similarly, Allah said:

(To each among you, We have prescribed a law and a clear way. If Allah had willed, He would have made you one nation, but that (He) may test you in what He has given you; so compete in good deeds.) (5:48)

Allah said in this Ayah:

(O you who believe! Fasting is prescribed for you as it was prescribed for those before you, that you may have Taqwa).) since the fast cleanses the body and narrows the paths of Shaytan. In the Sahihayn the following Hadith was recorded:

(O young people! Whoever amongst you can afford marriage, let him marry. Whoever cannot afford it, let him fast, for it will be a shield for him.)

Allah then states that the fast occurs during a fixed number of days, so that it does not become hard on the hearts, thereby weakening their resolve and endurance.)

The various Stages of Fasting.

Al-Bukhari and Muslim recorded that `A’ishah said, “(The day of) `Ashura’ was a day of fasting. When the obligation to fast Ramadan was revealed, those who wished fasted, and those who wished did not.” Al-Bukhari recorded the same from Ibn `Umar and Ibn Mas`ud.

Allah said:

(…those who can fast with difficulty, (e.g., an old man), they have (a choice either to fast or) to feed a Miskin (poor person) (for every day).)

Mu`adh commented, “In the beginning, those who wished, fasted and those who wished, did not fast and fed a poor person for each day.” Al- Bukhari recorded Salamah bin Al-Akwa` saying that when the Ayah:

(…those who can fast with difficulty, (e.g., an old man), they have (a choice either to fast or) to feed a Miskin (poor person) (for every day).) was revealed, those who did not wish to fast, used to pay the Fidyah (feeding a poor person for each day they did not fast) until the following Ayah (2:185) was revealed abrogating the previous Ayah. It was also reported from `Ubaydullah from Nafi` that Ibn `Umar said; “It was abrogated.” As-Suddi reported that Murrah narrated that `Abdullah said about this Ayah:

(those who can fast with difficulty, (e.g., an old man), they have (a choice either to fast or) to feed a Miskin (poor person) (for every day).) “It means `those who find it difficult (to fast).’ Formerly, those who wished, fasted and those who wished, did not but fed a poor person instead.” Allah then said:

(But whoever does good of his own accord) meaning whoever fed an extra poor person,

(it is better for him. And that you fast is better for you) Later the Ayah:

(So whoever of you sights (the crescent on the first night of) the month (of Ramadan, i.e., is present at his home), he must observe Sawm (fasting) that month) (2:185) was revealed and this abrogated the previous Ayah (2:184).

The Fidyah (Expiation) for breaking the Fast is for the Old and the Ailing.

Al-Bukhari reported that `Ata heard Ibn `Abbas recite:

(And as for those who can fast with difficulty, (e.g., an old man), they have (a choice either to fast or) to feed a Miskin (poor person) (for every day).)

Ibn `Abbas then commented, “(This Ayah) was not abrogated, it is for the old man and the old woman who are able to fast with difficulty, but choose instead to feed a poor person for every day (they do not fast).” Others reported that Sa`id bin Jubayr mentioned this from Ibn `Abbas. So the abrogation here applies to the healthy person, who is not traveling and who has to fast, as Allah said:

(So whoever of you sights (the crescent on the first night of) the month (of Ramadan, i.e., is present at his home), he must observe Sawm (fasting) that month.) (2:185)

As for the old man (and woman) who cannot fast, he is allowed to abstain from fasting and does not have to fast another day instead, because he is not likely to improve and be able to fast other days. So he is required to pay a Fidyah for every day missed. This is the opinion of Ibn `Abbas and several others among the Salaf who read the Ayah:

(And as for those who can fast with difficulty, (e.g., an old man)) to mean those who find it difficult to fast as Ibn Mas`ud stated. This is also the opinion of Al-Bukhari who said, “As for the old man (person) who cannot fast, (he should do like) Anas who, for one or two years after he became old fed some bread and meat to a poor person for each day he did not fast.”

This point, which Al-Bukhari attributed to Anas without a chain of narrators, was collected with a continuous chain of narrators by Abu Ya`la Mawsuli in his Musnad, that Ayyub bin Abu Tamimah said; “Anas could no longer fast. So he made a plate of Tharid (broth, bread and meat) and invited thirty poor persons and fed them.” The same ruling applies for the pregnant and breast-feeding women if they fear for themselves or their children or fetuses. In this case, they pay the Fidyah and do not have to fast other days in place of the days that they missed.

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The sea covers Firawn (Pharoah) and his hosts

I take refuge with Allaah, the Exalted, from the accursed devil.

بِسْمِ اللَّهِ الرَّحْمَـنِ الرَّحِيمِ

Bismillah-ir-Rahman-ir-Raheem: In the name of Allah, the Compassionate, the Merciful.

Welcome to my blog and praise the Magnificent Lord as you enter: Allahu Akbar: Allah is the Greatest .

May the Peace and Blessings of Allah Azza wa Jal, our Lord Glorified and Praised be He, be upon our beloved  Prophet, his Family, and Companions.

The sea covers Firawn (Pharoah) and his hosts.

وَلَقَدْ أَوْحَيْنَآ إِلَى مُوسَى أَنْ أَسْرِ بِعِبَادِى فَاضْرِبْ لَهُمْ طَرِيقاً فِى الْبَحْرِ يَبَساً لاَّ تَخَافُ دَرَكاً وَلاَ تَخْشَى

(77. And indeed We revealed to Musa: “Travel by night with My servants and strike a dry path for them in the sea, fearing neither to be overtaken nor being afraid.”)

– فَأَتْبَعَهُمْ فِرْعَوْنُ بِجُنُودِهِ فَغَشِيَهُمْ مِّنَ الْيَمِّ مَا غَشِيَهُمْ

(78. Then Fir`awn pursued them with his hosts, but the sea (Al-Yamm) completely overwhelmed them and covered them up.)

وَأَضَلَّ فِرْعَوْنُ قَوْمَهُ وَمَا هَدَى

(79. And Fir`awn led his people astray, and he did not guide them.)

Surah 20 TaHa Verse 77-79

Tafsir Ibn Kathir

Allah, the Exalted, informs that He commanded Musa to journey at night with the Children of Israel, when Fir`awn refused to release them and send them with Musa. He was to take them away from Fir`awn’s captivity. Allah expounds upon this in Surahs other than this noble Surah. Musa left with the Children of Israel, and when the people of Egypt awoke in the morning they found that not a single one of them remained in Egypt. Fir`awn became extremely furious. He sent callers into all of the cities to gather together his army from all of his lands and provinces. He said to them,

(Verily, these indeed are but a small band. And verily, they have done what has enraged us.) (26:54-55) Then when he gathered his army and organized his troops, he set out after them and they followed them at dawn when the sun began to rise.

(And when the two hosts saw each other) (26:61) This means that each person of the two parties was looking at the other party.

(The companions of Musa said: “We are sure to be overtaken.” (Musa) said: “Nay, verily, with me is my Lord. He will guide me.”) (26:61-62) Musa stopped with the Children of Israel and the sea was in front of them and Fir`awn was behind them. Then, at that moment, Allah revealed to Musa,

(And strike a dry path for them in the sea.) So Musa struck the sea with his stick and he said, “Split for me, by the leave of Allah.” Thus, it split, and each separate part of the water became like a huge mountain. Then, Allah sent a wind to the land of the sea and it burned the soil until it became dry like the ground that is on land. For this reason Allah said,

(nor being afraid.) meaning, “Do not be afraid of the sea drowning your people.” Then, Allah, the Exalted, said,

(Then Fir`awn pursued them with his hosts, but the sea (Al-Yamm) completely overwhelmed them) Al-Yamm means the sea.

(and covered them up. ) meaning, covered them up with a thing that was well-familiar to them in such a situation, as Allah states;

(And He destroyed the overthrown cities. So there covered them that which did cover.) (53:53-54) As Fir`awn pursued them into the sea, misled his people and did not lead them to the path of correct guidance, likewise, he will go ahead of his people on the Day of Resurrection, and will lead them in to the Hellfire. And evil indeed is the place to which they are led.

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Firawn (Pharoah) and his people persisted in rebellion and disbelief

I take refuge with Allaah, the Exalted, from the accursed devil.

بِسْمِ اللَّهِ الرَّحْمَـنِ الرَّحِيمِ

Bismillah-ir-Rahman-ir-Raheem: In the name of Allah, the Compassionate, the Merciful.

Welcome to my blog and praise the Magnificent Lord as you enter: Allahu Akbar: Allah is the Greatest .

May the Peace and Blessings of Allah Azza wa Jal, our Lord Glorified and Praised be He, be upon our beloved  Prophet, his Family, and Companions.

Firawn (Pharoah) and his people persisted in rebellion and disbelief.

وَلَقَدْ أَرْسَلْنَا مُوسَى بِـَايَـتِنَآ إِلَى فِرْعَوْنَ وَمَلاًّيْهِ فَقَالَ إِنِّى رَسُولُ رَبِّ الْعَـلَمِينَ

(46. And indeed We did send Musa with Our Ayat to Fir`awn and his chiefs. He said: “Verily, I am a Messenger of the Lord of all that exists.”)

فَلَمَّا جَآءَهُم بِـَايَـتِنَآ إِذَا هُم مِّنْهَا يَضْحَكُونَ

(47. But when he came to them with Our Ayat, behold, they laughed at them).

وَمَا نُرِيِهِم مِّنْ ءَايَةٍ إِلاَّ هِىَ أَكْبَرُ مِنْ أُخْتِهَا وَأَخَذْنَـهُم بِالْعَذَابِ لَعَلَّهُمْ يَرْجِعُونَ

(48. And not an Ayah We showed them but it was greater than its fellow preceding it, and We seized them with torment, in order that they might turn.)

وَقَالُواْ يأَيُّهَ السَّاحِرُ ادْعُ لَنَا رَبَّكَ بِمَا عَهِدَ عِندَكَ إِنَّنَا لَمُهْتَدُونَ

(49. And they said (to Musa): “O you sorcerer! Invoke your Lord for us according to what He has made a pact with you. Verily, We shall guide ourselves.”)

فَلَمَّا كَشَفْنَا عَنْهُمُ الْعَذَابَ إِذَا هُمْ يَنكُثُونَ

(50. But when We removed the torment from them, behold, they broke their covenant.)

Surah 43 Az Zukhruf Verse 46-50

Tafsir Ibn Kathir

Here Allah tells us about His servant and Messenger Musa, peace be upon him, and how He sent him to Fir`awn and his chiefs. That is, his governors, ministers, leaders and followers among the Egyptians and the Children of Israel. Allah sent him to call them to worship Allah alone, with no partner or associate, and to forbid them from worshipping anything other than Him. He sent him with mighty signs, such as his hand and his staff, other signs such as the flood, locusts, Qummal, frogs and blood, and the loss of their crops and lives. Yet despite all that they remained arrogant and stubbornly refused to follow him; they rejected his message and made fun of it, and laughed at the one who had brought it.

(And not an Ayah We showed them but it was greater than its fellow preceding it,) but despite that they would not give up their sin, misguidance, ignorance and confusion. Every time one of these signs came to them, they would go and implore Musa, saying,

(“O you sorcerer!…”) meaning, expert or knowledgeable one — this was the view of Ibn Jarir. The scholars of that time were the sorcerers or magicians, and magic was not regarded as something reprehensible by them at that time, so this was not a slight on their part. They were in a state of need, so it would not have been appropriate for them to insult him. This was a way of honoring him, as they thought. On each occasion, they promised Musa that if the torment was lifted from them, they would believe in him and let the Children of Israel go with him, but on each occasion they went back on their word. This is like the Ayat:

(So We sent on them: the flood, the locusts, the Qummal, the frogs, and the blood; manifest signs, yet they remained arrogant, and they were of those people who were criminals. And when the punishment struck them, they said: “O Musa! Invoke your Lord for us because of His promise to you. If you remove the punishment from us, we indeed shall believe in you, and we shall let the Children of Israel go with you.” But when We removed the punishment from them to a fixed term, which they had to reach, behold! they broke their word!) (7:133-135)

وَنَادَى فِرْعَوْنُ فِى قَوْمِهِ قَالَ يقَوْمِ أَلَيْسَ لِى مُلْكُ مِصْرَ وَهَـذِهِ الاٌّنْهَـرُ تَجْرِى مِن تَحْتِى أَفَلاَ تُبْصِرُونَ

(51. And Fir`awn proclaimed among his people (saying): “O my people! Is not mine the dominion of Egypt, and these rivers flowing underneath me. See you not then”)

أَمْ أَنَآ خَيْرٌ مِّنْ هَـذَا الَّذِى هُوَ مَهِينٌ وَلاَ يَكَادُ يُبِينُ

(52. “Am I not better than this one (Musa) who is despicable and can scarcely express himself clearly”)

– فَلَوْلاَ أُلْقِىَ عَلَيْهِ أَسْوِرَةٌ مِّن ذَهَبٍ أَوْ جَآءَ مَعَهُ الْمَلَـئِكَةُ مُقْتَرِنِينَ

(53. Why then are not golden bracelets bestowed on him, or angels sent along with him”)

فَاسْتَخَفَّ قَوْمَهُ فَأَطَاعُوهُ إِنَّهُمْ كَانُواْ قَوْماً فَـسِقِينَ

(54. Thus he fooled his people, and they obeyed him. Verily, they were ever a people who were rebellious.)

فَلَمَّآ ءَاسَفُونَا انتَقَمْنَا مِنْهُمْ فَأَغْرَقْنَـهُمْ أَجْمَعِينَ

(55. So when they angered Us, We punished them, and drowned them all.)

فَجَعَلْنَـهُمْ سَلَفاً وَمَثَلاً لِّلاٌّخِرِينَ

(56. And We made them a precedent, and an example to later generations.)

Surah 43 Az Zukhruf Verse 51-56

Tafsir Ibn Kathir

Allah tells us how Fir`awn stubbornly persisted in his rebellion and disbelief. He assembled his people and addressed them in a vainglorious fashion, boasting of his dominion over Egypt.

(Is not mine the dominion of Egypt, and these rivers flowing underneath me) Qatadah said, “They had gardens and rivers of flowing water.”

(See you not then) means, `do you not see my position of might and power’ — implying that Musa and his followers were poor and weak. This is like the Ayah:

(Then he gathered (his people) and cried aloud, saying: “I am your lord, most high.” So Allah seized him with punishment for his last and first transgression.) (79:23-25)

(Am I not better than this one who is despicable) As-Suddi said, “He was saying, `indeed I am better than this one, who is despicable’.” Some of the grammarians of Basrah said that Fir`awn — may the curse of Allah be upon him — was saying that he was better than Musa, peace be upon him. But this is an obvious lie, may continued curses be upon him until the Day of Resurrection. By describing Musa as despicable he meant — as Sufyan said — insignificant. Qatadah and As-Suddi said, “He meant, weak.” Ibn Jarir said, “He meant, he had no power, authority or wealth.”

(and can scarcely express himself clearly) means, he cannot speak clearly, he stammers and cannot speak well. Fir`awn’s description of Musa as “despicable” is a lie; rather it is he who was despicable and insignificant, lacking in physical, moral and religious terms, and it is Musa who was noble, truthful, righteous and upright.

(and can scarcely express himself clearly). This was also a lie. Although something happened to Musa’s tongue when he was a child, when it was burnt by a coal. He asked Allah to loosen the knot from his tongue (i.e., to correct his speech defect) so that they could understand what he said, and Allah had answered his prayer and said:

(You are granted your request, O Musa) (20:36). It may be the case that some problem remained which he had not asked to be relieved of, as Al-Hasan Al-Basri suggested, and that he had asked only to be relieved of that which stood in the way of his conveying the Message. A person cannot be blamed for physical matters over which he has no control. Even though Fir`awn had the intelligence to understand that, he wanted to confuse and mislead his people, who were ignorant and stupid. So he said:

(Why then are not golden bracelets bestowed on him…) meaning, adornments which are placed on the arms. This was the view of Ibn `Abbas, may Allah be pleased with him, Qatadah and others.

(or angels sent along with him) meaning, to serve him and to testify that he is telling the truth. He looked only at outward appearances and did not understand the true inner matters that are clearer than what he focused on, if only he had understood that. Allah says:

(Thus he fooled his people, and they obeyed him.) meaning, he confused them and invited them to misguidance, and they responded to him.

(Verily, they were ever a people who were rebellious.) Then Allah says:

(So when they angered Us, We punished them, and drowned them all.) `Ali bin Abi Talhah reported that Ibn `Abbas, may Allah be pleased with him, said it means: “When they angered Us means, they provoked Our wrath.” Ad-Dahhak said, it means “They made Us angry.” This was also the view of Ibn `Abbas, Mujahid, `Ikrimah, Sa`id bin Jubayr, Muhammad bin Ka`b Al-Qurazi, Qatadah, As-Suddi and other scholars of Tafsir. Ibn Abi Hatim recorded that `Uqbah bin `Amir, may Allah be pleased with him, said that the Messenger of Allah said:

(When you see that Allah gives a person what he wants even though he is persisting in sin, that means that Allah is enticing him into destruction.) Then he recited:

(So when they angered Us, We punished them, and drowned them all.) It was reported that Tariq bin Shihab said, “I was with `Abdullah, may Allah be pleased with him, and the issue of sudden death was mentioned. He said, `It is a relief for the believer and a source of regret for the disbeliever.’ Then he recited the Ayah:

(So when they angered Us, We punished them, and drowned them all). ” `Umar bin `Abdul-`Aziz, may Allah be pleased with him, said, “I found that punishment comes with negligence, meaning the Ayah:

(So when they angered Us, We punished them, and drowned them all).”

(And We made them a precedent, and an example to later generations.) Abu Mijlaz said, “Precedent for others who do the same as they did.” He and Mujahid said, “An example, i.e., a lesson to those who come after them.” Allah is the One Who guides to the straight path, and unto Him is the final return.

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Firawn (Pharoah) threatens the Magicians

I take refuge with Allaah, the Exalted, from the accursed devil.

بِسْمِ اللَّهِ الرَّحْمَـنِ الرَّحِيمِ

Bismillah-ir-Rahman-ir-Raheem: In the name of Allah, the Compassionate, the Merciful.

Welcome to my blog and praise the Magnificent Lord as you enter: Allahu Akbar: Allah is the Greatest .

May the Peace and Blessings of Allah Azza wa Jal, our Lord Glorified and Praised be He, be upon our beloved  Prophet, his Family, and Companions.

Firawn (Pharoah) threatens the Magicians.

قَالَ فِرْعَوْنُ ءَامَنتُمْ بِهِ قَبْلَ أَنْ ءَاذَنَ لَكُمْ إِنَّ هَـذَا لَمَكْرٌ مَّكَرْتُمُوهُ فِى الْمَدِينَةِ لِتُخْرِجُواْ مِنْهَآ أَهْلَهَا فَسَوْفَ تَعْلَمُونَ

(123. Fir`awn said: “You have believed in him (Musa) before I gave you permission. Surely, this is a plot which you have plotted in the city to drive out its people, but you shall come to know.”)

لأُقَطِّعَنَّ أَيْدِيَكُمْ وَأَرْجُلَكُمْ مِّنْ خِلاَفٍ ثُمَّ لأصَلِّبَنَّكُمْ أَجْمَعِينَ

(124. “Surely, I will cut off your hands and your feet from opposite sides, then I will crucify you all.”)

قَالُواْ إِنَّآ إِلَى رَبِّنَا مُنقَلِبُونَ

(125. They said: “Verily, we are returning to our Lord.”)

وَمَا تَنقِمُ مِنَّآ إِلاَ أَنْ ءَامَنَّا بِـَايَـتِ رَبِّنَا لَمَّا جَآءَتْنَا رَبَّنَآ أَفْرِغْ عَلَيْنَا صَبْرًا وَتَوَفَّنَا مُسْلِمِينَ

(126. “And you take vengeance on us only because we believed in the Ayat of our Lord when they reached us! Our Lord! pour out on us patience, and cause us to die as Muslims.”)

Surah 7 Al Araf Verse  123-126

Tafsir Ibn Kathir

Allah mentions the threats that the Fir`awn – may Allah curse him – made to the magicians after they believed Musa, peace be upon him, and the deceit and cunning that Fir`awn showed the people. Fir`awn said,

(Surely, this is a plot which you have plotted in the city to drive out its people,) meaning Fir`awn proclaimed, `Musa’s defeating you today was because you plotted with him and agreed to that.’ Fir`awn also said,

(He (Musa) is your chief who has taught you magic.) (20:71) However, Fir`awn and all those who had any sense of reason knew for sure that what Fir`awn said was utterly false. As soon as Musa came from Madyan, he called Fir`awn to Allah and demonstrated tremendous miracles and clear proofs for the Truth that he brought. Fir`awn then sent emissaries to various cities of his kingdom and collected magicians who were scattered throughout Egypt. Fir`awn and his people chose from them, summoned them, and Fir`awn promised them great rewards. These magicians were very eager to prevail over Musa in front of Fir`awn, so that they might become closer to him. Musa neither knew any of them nor saw or met them before. Fir`awn knew that, but he claimed otherwise to deceive the ignorant masses of his kingdom, just as Allah described them,

(Thus he (Fir`awn) fooled his people, and they obeyed him.) (43:54) Certainly, a people who believed Fir`awn in his statement,

(“I am your lord, most high.”) (79:24), are among the most ignorant and misguided creatures of Allah. In his Tafsir, As-Suddi reported that Ibn Mas`ud, Ibn `Abbas, and several other Companions, commented,

(“Surely, this is a plot which you have plotted in the city…”) “Musa met the leader of the magicians and said to him, `If I defeat you, will you believe in me and bear witness that what I brought is the truth’ The magician said, `Tomorrow, I will produce a type of magic that cannot be defeated by another magic. By Allah! If you defeat me, I will believe in you and testify to your truth.’ Fir`awn was watching them, and this is why he said what he said.” His statement,

(“to drive out its people”), means, so that you all cooperate to gain influence and power, replacing the chiefs and masters of this land. In this case, power in the state will be yours,

(“but you shall come to know”), what I will do to you. He then explained his threat,

(“Surely, I will cut off your hands and your feet from opposite sides.”) by cutting the right hand and the left leg or the opposite,

(“then I will crucify you all.”) just as he said in another Ayah,

(“Fi the trunks of date palms”) (20:71), Fi in this Ayah means “on”. Ibn `Abbas said that Fir`awn was the first to crucify and cut off hands and legs on opposite sides. The magicians said,

(“Verily, we are returning to our Lord.”) They said, `We are now sure that we will go back to Allah. Certainly, Allah’s punishment is more severe than your punishment and His torment for what you are calling us to, this day, and the magic you forced us to practice, is greater than your torment. Therefore, we will observe patience in the face of your punishment today, so that we are saved from Allah’s torment.’ They continued,

(“Our Lord! pour out on us patience”), with your religion and being firm in it,

(“and cause us to die as Muslims.”), as followers of Your Prophet Musa, peace be upon him. They also said to Fir`awn,

(“So decide whatever you desire to decree, for you can only decide for the life of this world. Verily, we have believed in our Lord, that He may forgive us our faults, and the magic to which you did compel us. And Allah is better (to reward) and more lasting (in punishment). Verily, whoever comes to his Lord as a criminal, then surely, for him is Hell, wherein he will neither die nor live. But whoever comes to Him (Allah) as a believer, and has done righteous good deeds, for such are the high ranks (in the Hereafter).) (20:72-75). The magicians started the day as sorcerers and ended as honorable martyrs! Ibn `Abbas, `Ubayd bin `Umayr, Qatadah and Ibn Jurayj commented, “They started the day as sorcerers and ended it as martyrs.”

قَالَ ءَامَنتُمْ لَهُ قَبْلَ أَنْ ءَاذَنَ لَكُمْ إِنَّهُ لَكَبِيرُكُمُ الَّذِى عَلَّمَكُمُ السِّحْرَ فَلأُقَطِّعَنَّ أَيْدِيَكُمْ وَأَرْجُلَكُمْ مِّنْ خِلاَفٍ وَلأُصَلِّبَنَّكُمْ فِى جُذُوعِ النَّخْلِ وَلَتَعْلَمُنَّ أَيُّنَآ أَشَدُّ عَذَاباً وَأَبْقَى

(71. (Fir`awn) said: “Believe you in him before I give you permission Verily, he is your chief who has taught you magic. So I will surely cut off your hands and feet on opposite sides, and I will surely crucify you on the trunks of date palms, and you shall surely know which of us can give the severe and more lasting torment. ”)

– قَالُواْ لَن نُّؤْثِرَكَ عَلَى مَا جَآءَنَا مِنَ الْبَيِّنَـتِ وَالَّذِى فَطَرَنَا فَاقْضِ مَآ أَنتَ قَاضٍ إِنَّمَا تَقْضِى هَـذِهِ الْحَيَوةَ الدُّنْيَآ

(72. They said: “We prefer you not over what have come to us of the clear signs and to Him (Allah) Who created us. So, decree whatever you desire to decree, for you can only’ decree (regarding) this life of the world.”)

– إِنَّآ آمَنَّا بِرَبِّنَا لِيَغْفِرَ لَنَا خَطَـيَـنَا وَمَآ أَكْرَهْتَنَا عَلَيْهِ مِنَ السِّحْرِ وَاللَّهُ خَيْرٌ وَأَبْقَى

(73. “Verily, we have believed in our Lord, that He may forgive us our faults, and the magic to which you did compel us. And Allah is better as regards reward in comparison to your reward, and more lasting.”)

Surah 20 Taha Verse 71-74

Tafsir Ibn Kathir

Allah, the Exalted, informs of Fir`awn’s disbelief, obstinance, transgression and haughtiness against the truth in favor of falsehood. When he saw what he saw of the magnificent miracle and the great sign, and he saw those whose help he sought accept faith in the presence of all of the people, and he was absolutely defeated, he began to behave arrogantly and cast accusations. He resorted to using his esteemed honor and might against the magicians. He warned them and threatened them saying,

(Believe you in him (Musa)) This means, “Do you have faith in him”

(before I give you permission) meaning, “I have not commanded you to do so, by which you have rebelled against me.” Then he said a statement that he, the magicians and all creatures knew was a forgery and an utter lie.

(Verily, he is your chief who has taught you magic.) meaning “You all only took your magic from Musa and you have made an agreement with him against me and my subjects, that you would help him be victorious.” Allah says in another Ayah,

(Surely, this is a plot which you have plotted in the city to drive out its people, but you shall come to know.) (7:123) Then he began threatening them. He said to them,

(So I will surely cut off your hands and feet on opposite sides, and I will surely crucify you on the trunks of date palms,) meaning, “I will certainly make an example of you, I will kill you in a public execution.” Ibn `Abbas said, “Thus, he was the first person to ever do this (public execution, crucifixion).” This was reported by Ibn Abi Hatim. Concerning Allah’s statement,

(And you shall surely know which of us can give the severe and more lasting torment.) This means, “You say that my people and I are astray and that you (magicians), Musa and his people are following correct guidance, but you will come to know who will be punished and remain punished.” So when he attacked with this and threatened them, their souls eased them because of their belief in Allah, the Mighty and Sublime. They exclaimed,

(They said: “We prefer you not over what have come to us of the clear signs…”) meaning, “We do not chose you over the guidance and conviction that we have received. ”

(and to Him (Allah) Who created us.) It could be that they were swearing, “By He Who has created us.” It also could be connected in meaning to the clear signs mentioned before it. In this case it would mean, “We do not prefer you over our Originator and Creator, Who produced us from a beginning that was nothing. He created us from clay (or mud). Therefore, He alone deserves worship and humility and you do not (Fir`awn)!”

(So decree whatever you desire to decree,) “Do whatever you wish and whatever your hands are able to achieve.”

(for you can only decree (regarding) this life of the world.) meaning, “You only have power in this world and it is a world that will come to an end. Verily, we are hoping in the eternal abode.”

(Verily, we have believed in our Lord, that He may forgive us our faults,) “Whatever evils that we did.” It specifically means, `which we were forced to do of magic, in order to oppose the sign of Allah and the miracle of His Prophet.’ Ibn Abi Hatim recorded that Ibn `Abbas said concerning Allah’s statement,

(and the magic to which you compelled us.) “Fir`awn took forty boys from the Children of Israel and commanded that they be taught magic at Al-Farama. He said, `Teach them knowledge that no one in the land knows.”’ Ibn `Abbas then said, “They were of those who believed in Musa and they were of those who said,

(We have believed in our Lord, that He may forgive us our faults, and the magic to which you did compel us.)” `Abdur-Rahman bin Zayd bin Aslam said the same. Allah’s statement,

(And Allah is better as regards reward in comparison to your reward, and more lasting.) means, “He is better for us than you.”

(and more lasting.) More lasting in reward than what you pro- mised us and made us aspire to. It is apparent that Fir`awn (may Allah curse him) was bent upon their punishment, and that what he did to them was a mercy from Allah for them. This is why Ibn `Abbas and others of the Salaf said, “They woke up in that morning as magicians, but they became witnesses of faith by the evening.”

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