The Night and Day, the Sun and Moon

 I take refuge with Allaah from the accursed devil.  

بِسْمِ اللَّهِ الرَّحْمَـنِ الرَّحِيمِ 

  Bismillah-ir-Rahman-ir-Raheem: In the name of Allah, the Compassionate, the Merciful.  

 Welcome to my blog and praise the Magnificent Lord as you enter: Allahu Akbar: Allah is the Greatest .

May the Peace and Blessing of Allah Azza wa Jal, our Lord Glorified and Praised be He, be upon our beloved Prophet, his Family, and Companions.

The Night and Day, the Sun and Moon.

يحَسْرَةً عَلَى الْعِبَادِ مَا يَأْتِيهِمْ مِّن رَّسُولٍ إِلاَّ كَانُواْ بِهِ يَسْتَهْزِءُونَ

(30. Alas for mankind! There never came a Messenger to them but they used to mock at him.)

 أَلَمْ يَرَوْاْ كَمْ أَهْلَكْنَا قَبْلَهُمْ مِّنَ الْقُرُونِ أَنَّهُمْ إِلَيْهِمْ لاَ يَرْجِعُونَ

(31. Do they not see how many of the generations We have destroyed before them Verily, they will not return to them.)

وَإِن كُلٌّ لَّمَّا جَمِيعٌ لَّدَيْنَا مُحْضَرُونَ

 (32. And surely, all — everyone of them will be brought before Us.)

Surah 36 Yasin Verse 30-32

Tafsir Ibn Kathir

Ali bin Abi Talhah reported that Ibn `Abbas commented on the Ayah:

(Alas for mankind!), this means, woe to mankind! Qatadah said:

(Alas for mankind!) means, “Alas for mankind, who have neglected the command of Allah.” The meaning is that they will feel regret and sorrow on the Day of Resurrection. When they see the punishment with their own eyes; they will regret how they disbelieved the Messengers of Allah and went against the commands of Allah, for they used to disbelieve in them in this world.

(There never came a Messenger to them but they used to mock at him.) means, they disbelieved him and made fun of him, and rejected the message of truth with which he had been sent.

Then Allah says:

(Do they not see how many of the generations We have destroyed before them Verily, they will not return to them.) meaning, `do you not learn a lesson from those whom Allah destroyed before you of those who disbelieved in the Messengers They came to this world only once, and will not return to it.’ It is not as many of those ignorant and immoral people claim that

(“There is nothing but our life of this world! We die and we live!”) (23:37). This was the belief in the cycle of reincarnation; in their ignorance they believed that they would come back to this world as they had been before. But Allah refuted their false belief and said:

(Do they not see how many of the generations We have destroyed before them Verily, they will not return to them.) Allah’s saying:

(And surely, all — everyone of them will be brought before Us.) means, all of the past nations and those that are yet to come, will be gathered and brought to account before Allah, may He be glorified and exalted, on the Day of Judgement, and they will be requitted according to their good and evil deeds. This is like the Ayah:

(And verily, to each of them your Lord will repay their works in full.) (11:111).

وَءَايَةٌ لَّهُمُ الاٌّرْضُ الْمَيْتَةُ أَحْيَيْنَـهَا وَأَخْرَجْنَا مِنْهَا حَبّاً فَمِنْهُ يَأْكُلُونَ

(33. And a sign for them is the dead land. We give it life, and We bring forth from it grains, so that they eat thereof.)

وَجَعَلْنَا فِيهَا جَنَّـتٍ مِّن نَّخِيلٍ وَأَعْنَـبٍ وَفَجَّرْنَا فِيهَا مِنَ الْعُيُونِ

 (34. And We have made therein gardens of date palms and grapes, and We have caused springs of water to gush forth therein.)

لِيَأْكُلُواْ مِن ثَمَرِهِ وَمَا عَمِلَتْهُ أَيْدِيهِمْ أَفَلاَ يَشْكُرُونَ

(35. So that they may eat of the fruit thereof — and their hands made it not. Will they not then give thanks)

 سُبْحَـنَ الَّذِى خَلَق الاٌّزْوَجَ كُلَّهَا مِمَّا تُنبِتُ الاٌّرْضُ وَمِنْ أَنفُسِهِمْ وَمِمَّا لاَ يَعْلَمُونَ

(36. Glory be to Him Who has created all the pairs of that which the earth produces, as well as of their own kind, and of that which they know not.)

Surah 36 Yasin Verse 33-36

Tafsir Ibn Kathir

Allah, may He be glorified and exalted, says:

(And a sign for them) means, evidence for them of the existence of the Creator and His perfect power and ability to resurrect the dead,

(is the dead land.) means, when it is dead and arid, with no vegetation, then Allah sends water upon it, it is stirred (to life), and it swells and puts forth every lovely kind (of growth). Allah says:

(We give it life, and We bring forth from it grains, so that they eat thereof.) meaning, `We have made it a provision for them and their cattle.’

(And We have made therein gardens of date palms and grapes, and We have caused springs of water to gush forth therein.) means, `We have created therein rivers which flow to the places where they are needed, so that they may eat of their fruits.’ When Allah reminds them of the blessing that He bestows upon His creation by creating crops and plants, He mentions the different types and kinds of fruits. Allah says:

(and their hands made it not.) means, all of that could only come about by the mercy of Allah towards them, not by their own efforts and labor and strength. This was the view of Ibn `Abbas and Qatadah. Allah says:

(Will they not then give thanks) meaning, will they not then give thanks for the innumerable blessings that He has bestowed upon them. Ibn Jarir, however, understood the word Ma to mean Alladhi (i.e., a relative pronoun). In this case the meaning of the Ayah would be that they eat from the fruits provided by Allah’s bounty and from what their own hands have done, i.e., by planting the seeds and tending the plants. Ibn Jarir mentioned other possible interpretations in his Tafsir, but this is the interpretation that he favored. This interpretation also fits with the recitation of Ibn Mas`ud: (لِيَأْكُلُوا مِنْ ثَمَرِهِ وَمِمَّا عَمِلَتْهُ أَيْدِيهِمْ أَفَلَا يَشْكُرُونَ) (So that they may eat of the fruit thereof — and from what their own hands have done.) Then Allah says:

(Glory be to Him Who has created all the pairs of that which the earth produces,) meaning, of crops and fruits and plants.

(as well as of their own (human) kind, ) means, He made them into male and female.

(and of that which they know not.) means, different kinds of creatures of which they know nothing. This is like the Ayah:

(And of everything We have created pairs, that you may remember.) (51:49)

وَءَايَةٌ لَّهُمُ الَّيْلُ نَسْلَخُ مِنْهُ النَّهَارَ فَإِذَا هُم مُّظْلِمُونَ

(37. And a sign for them is the night. We withdraw therefrom the day, and behold, they are in darkness.)

 وَالشَّمْسُ تَجْرِى لِمُسْتَقَرٍّ لَّهَـا ذَلِكَ تَقْدِيرُ الْعَزِيزِ الْعَلِيمِ

(38. And the sun runs on its fixed course for a term (appointed). That is the decree of the Almighty, the All-Knowing.)

 وَالْقَمَرَ قَدَّرْنَـهُ مَنَازِلَ حَتَّى عَادَ كَالعُرجُونِ الْقَدِيمِ

 (39. And the moon, We have decreed for it stages, till it returns like the old dried curved date stalk.)

لاَ الشَّمْسُ يَنبَغِى لَهَآ أَن تدْرِكَ القَمَرَ وَلاَ الَّيْلُ سَابِقُ النَّهَارِ وَكُلٌّ فِى فَلَكٍ يَسْبَحُونَ

 (40. It is not for the sun to overtake the moon, nor does the night outstrip the day. They all float, each in an orbit.)

Surah 36 Yasin Verse 37-40

Tafsir Ibn Kathir

(He brings the night as a cover over the day, seeking it rapidly) (7:54). Allah says here:

(And a sign for them is the night. We withdraw therefrom the day,) meaning, `We take it away from it, so it goes away and the night comes.’ Allah says:

(and behold, they are in darkness.) As it says in the Hadith:

(When the night comes from here, and the day departs from here, and the sun has set, then the fasting person should break his fast.) This is the apparent meaning of the Ayah. Allah’s saying:

(And the sun runs on its fixed course for a term (appointed). That is the decree of the Almighty, the All-Knowing) There are two views over the meaning of the phrase

(on its fixed course for a term (appointed). ) (The first view) is that it refers to its fixed course of location, which is beneath the Throne, beyond the earth in that direction. Wherever it goes, it is beneath the Throne, it and all of creation, because the Throne is the roof of creation and it is not a sphere as many astronomers claim. Rather it is a dome supported by legs or pillars, carried by the angels, and it is above the universe, above the heads of people. When the sun is at its zenith at noon, it is in its closest position to Throne, and when it runs in its fourth orbit at the opposite point to its zenith, at midnight, it is in its furthest position from the Throne. At that point it prostrates and asks for permission to rise, as mentioned in the Hadiths. Al-Bukhari recorded that Abu Dharr, may Allah be pleased with him, said, “I was with the Prophet in the Masjid at sunset, and he said: :

(O Abu Dharr! Do you know where the sun sets) I said, `Allah and His Messenger know best.’ He said:

(It goes and prostrates beneath the Throne, and that is what Allah says: (And the sun runs on its fixed course for a term. That is the decree of the Almighty, the All-Knowing.))” It was also reported that Abu Dharr, may Allah be pleased with him, said, “I asked the Messenger of Allah about the Ayah:

(And the sun runs on its fixed course for a term. ) He said:

(Its fixed course is beneath the Throne.)” (The second view) is that this refers to when the sun’s appointed time comes to an end, which will be on the Day of Resurrection, when its fixed course will be abolished, it will come to a halt and it will be rolled up. This world will come to an end, and that will be the end of its appointed time. This is the fixed course of its time. Qatadah said:

(on its fixed course for a term (appointed).) means, “It has an appointed time and it will not go beyond that.” It was also said that this means, it keeps moving in its summer orbit for a certain time, and it does not exceed that, then it moves to its winter orbit for a certain time, and it does not exceed that. This was narrated from `Abdullah bin `Amr, may Allah be pleased with him. Ibn Mas`ud and Ibn `Abbas, may Allah be pleased with them, recited this Ayah as: (وَالشَّمْسُ تَجْرِي لَامُسْتَقَرَّ لَهَا) (And the sun runs with no fixed course for a term,) meaning that it has no destination and it does not settle in one place, rather it keeps moving night and day, never slowing down or stopping, as in the Ayah:

(And He has made the sun and the moon, both constantly pursuing their courses, to be of service to you) (14:33). which means, they will never slow down or stop, until the Day of Resurrection.

(That is the decree of the Almighty, ) means, which none can oppose or prevent.

(the All-Knowing.) Who knows every movement and every cessation of movement, Who has decreed that and Who has set it in motion following a pattern in which there are no differences or inversions, as Allah says:

((He is the) Cleaver of the daybreak. He has appointed the night for resting, and the sun and the moon for reckoning. Such is the measuring of the Almighty, the All-Knowing.) (6:96) And this is how this Ayah ends:

(That is the decree of the Almighty, the All-Knowing.) Then Allah says:

(And the moon, We have decreed for it stages,) meaning, `We have caused it to run in a different orbit, from which passing of the months can be deduced, just as night and day are known from the sun.’ This is like the Ayah:

(They ask you about the crescent moons. Say: “These are signs to mark fixed periods of time for mankind and for the pilgrimage (Hajj). ”) (2:189),

(It is He Who made the sun a shining thing and the moon as a light and measured out for it stages that you might know the number of years and the reckoning) (10:5), and

(And We have appointed the night and the day as two Ayat (signs). Then, We have obliterated the sign of the night while We have made the sign of the day illuminating, that you may seek bounty from your Lord, and that you may know the number of the years and the reckoning. And We have explained everything with full explanation.) (17:12) So, He has given the sun its own light, and the moon its (reflection of) light, and has given each its own orbit. So the sun rises each day and sets at the end of the day, giving one kind of light all the time, but it moves, rising and setting at different points in the summer and winter, thus making the days and nights longer or shorter alternatively according to the season. Its authority is in the daytime, for it is the heavenly body that dominates the day. As for the moon, Allah has decreed that it should pass through different phases. At the beginning of the month, the moon appears small when it rises. It gives off little light, then on the second night its light increases and it rises to a higher position, and the higher it rises the more light it gives — even though it is reflected from the sun — until it becomes full on the fourteenth night of the month. Then it starts to wane until the end of the month, until it appears like the old dried curved date stalk. Ibn `Abbas, may Allah be pleased with him, said, “This is the original stem (which connects the bunch of dates to the tree).” The Arabs have a name for each set of three nights in a month, according to the phases of the moon. They call the first three nights Ghurar; the next three nights Nufal; the next three nights Tusa` (nine) — because the last of them is the ninth. The next three nights are called `Ushar (ten) — because the first of them is the tenth. The next three nights are called Al-Bid (white) — because of the light of the moon which shines brightly throughout these three nights. The next three nights are called Dura`, the plural of Dar`a’, because on the first of them the night is dark from the moon rising late. Dar`a’ refers to the black sheep, i.e., the one whose head is black; the next three nights Zulam; then Hanadis, then Da’adi; then Mihaq, because of the absence of moonlight at the beginning of the month. Abu `Ubayd did not recognize the names Tusa` and `Ushar, in the book Gharib Al-Musannaf.

(It is not for the sun to overtake the moon,) Mujahid said, “Each of them has a limit which it does not transgress or fall short of. When the time of one comes, the other goes away, and when the time for one to prevail comes, the time of the other ceases.” `Ikrimah said concerning the Ayah,

(It is not for the sun to overtake the moon,) this means that each of them has its time when it prevails. So it is not appropriate for the sun to rise at night.

(nor does the night outstrip the day.) means, after night has passed, it is not right for another night to come until it has been day. The authority of the sun is during the day and the authority of the moon is at night. Ad-Dahhak said, “The night does not depart from here until the day comes from here — and he pointed to the east.” Mujahid said:

(nor does the night outstrip the day.) “They seek one another rapidly.” The meaning is that there is no gap between night and day; each of them follows the other with no interval, because they have been subjugated and are both constantly pursuing one another.

(They all float, each in an orbit.) means, night and day, the sun and the moon, all of them are floating, i.e., revolving, in their orbits in the heaven. This was the view of Ibn `Abbas, `Ikrimah, Ad-Dahhak, Al-Hasan, Qatadah and `Ata’ Al-Khurasani. Ibn `Abbas, may Allah be pleased with him, and others among the Salaf said, “In an orbit like the arc of a spinning wheel.”

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