Maryam(Mary), mother of Isa(Jesus), peace be upon them, is chosen above all the women in the world

 I take refuge with Allaah from the accursed devil.  

بِسْمِ اللَّهِ الرَّحْمَـنِ الرَّحِيمِ 

  Bismillah-ir-Rahman-ir-Raheem: In the name of Allah, the Compassionate, the Merciful.  

 Welcome to my blog and praise the Magnificent Lord as you enter: Allahu Akbar: Allah is the Greatest .

May the Peace and Blessing of Allah Azza wa Jal, our Lord Glorified and Praised be He, be upon our beloved Prophet, his Family, and Companions.

Maryam(Mary), mother of Isa(Jesus), peace be upon them, is chosen above all the women in the world.

فَتَقَبَّلَهَا رَبُّهَا بِقَبُولٍ حَسَنٍ وَأَنبَتَهَا نَبَاتًا حَسَنًا وَكَفَّلَهَا زَكَرِيَّا كُلَّمَا دَخَلَ عَلَيْهَا زَكَرِيَّا الْمِحْرَابَ وَجَدَ عِندَهَا رِزْقًا قَالَ يمَرْيَمُ أَنَّى لَكِ هَـذَا قَالَتْ هُوَ مِنْ عِندِ اللَّهِ إنَّ اللَّهَ يَرْزُقُ مَن يَشَآءُ بِغَيْرِ حِسَابٍ

(37. So her Lord (Allah) accepted her(Maryam) with goodly acceptance. He made her grow in a good manner and put her under the care of Zakariyya. Every time he entered the Mihrab to (visit) her, he found her supplied with sustenance. He said: “O Maryam! From where have you gotten this” She said, “This is from Allah.” Verily, Allah provides sustenance to whom He wills, without limit.)

Surah 3 Ala Imran Verse 37

Tafsir Ibn Kathir

Allah states that He has accepted Maryam as a result of her mother’s vow and that He,

(made her grow in a good manner) meaning, made her conduct becoming, her mannerism delightful and He made her well liked among people. He also made her accompany the righteous people, so that she learned righteousness, knowledge and religion.

(And put her under the care of Zakariyya) meaning, Allah made Zakariyya her sponsor. Allah made Zakariyya Maryam’s guardian for her benefit, so that she would learn from his tremendous knowledge and righteous conduct. He was the husband of her maternal aunt, as Ibn Ishaq and Ibn Jarir stated, or her brother-in-law, as mentioned in the Sahih,

(I saw John and `Isa, who are maternal cousins.)

We should state that in general terms, what Ibn Ishaq said is plausible, and in this case, Maryam was under the care of her maternal aunt. The Two Sahihs recorded that the Messenger of Allah decided that `Amarah, the daughter of Hamzah, be raised by her maternal aunt, the wife of Ja`far bin Abi Talib, saying,

(The maternal aunt is just like the mother.)

Allah then emphasizes Maryam’s honor and virtue at the place of worship she attended,

(Every time he entered the Mihrab to (visit) her, he found her supplied with sustenance.)

Mujahid, `Ikrimah, Sa`id bin Jubayr, Abu Ash-Sha`tha, Ibrahim An-Nakha`i, Ad-Dahhak, Qatadah, Ar-Rabi` bin Anas, `Atiyah Al-`Awfi and As-Suddi said, “He would find with her the fruits of the summer during winter, and the fruits of the winter during summer.” When Zakariyya would see this;

( He said: “O Maryam! From where have you gotten this”) meaning, where did you get these fruits from

(She said, “This is from Allah.” Verily, Allah provides sustenance to whom He wills, without limit.)

وَإِذْ قَالَتِ الْمَلَـئِكَةُ يمَرْيَمُ إِنَّ اللَّهَ اصْطَفَـكِ وَطَهَّرَكِ وَاصْطَفَـكِ عَلَى نِسَآءِ الْعَـلَمِينَ

(42. And (remember) when the angels said: “O Maryam! Verily, Allah has chosen you, purified you, and chosen you above the women of the nations.”)

يمَرْيَمُ اقْنُتِى لِرَبِّكِ وَاسْجُدِى وَارْكَعِى مَعَ الرَكِعِينَ

(43. “O Maryam! Submit yourself with obedience (Aqnuti) to your Lord and prostrate yourself, and bow down along with Ar-Raki`in.”)

ذَلِكَ مِنْ أَنبَآءِ الْغَيْبِ نُوحِيهِ إِلَيْكَ وَمَا كُنتَ لَدَيْهِمْ إِذْ يُلْقُون أَقْلَـمَهُمْ أَيُّهُمْ يَكْفُلُ مَرْيَمَ وَمَا كُنتَ لَدَيْهِمْ إِذْ يَخْتَصِمُونَ

(44. This is a part of the news of the Ghayb (Unseen) which We reveal to you. You were not with them, when they cast lots with their pens as to which of them should be charged with the care of Maryam; nor were you with them when they disputed.)

Surah 3 Ala Imran Verse 42-44

Tafsir Ibn Kathir

Allah states that the angels spoke to Maryam by His command and told her that He chose her because of her service to Him, because of her modesty, honor, innocence, and conviction. Allah also chose her because of her virtue over the women of the world. At-Tirmidhi recorded that `Ali bin Abi Talib said, “I heard the Messenger of Allah say,

(The best woman (in her time) was Maryam, daughter of `Imran, and the best woman (of the Prophet’s time) is Khadijah (his wife), daughter of Khuwaylid.)”

The Two Sahihs recorded this Hadith. Ibn Jarir recorded that Abu Musa Al-Ash`ari said that the Messenger of Allah said,

(Many men achieved perfection, but among women, only Maryam the daughter of `Imran and Asiah, the wife of Fir`awn, achieved perfection.)

The Six — with the exception of Abu Dawud – recorded it. Al-Bukhari’s wording for it reads,

(Many men reached the level of perfection, but no woman reached such a level except Asiah, the wife of Fir`awn, and Maryam, the daughter of `Imran. The superiority of `A’ishah (his wife) to other women, is like the superiority of Tharid (meat and bread dish) to other meals.)

We mentioned the various chains of narration and wordings for this Hadith in the story of `Isa, son of Maryam, in our book, Al-Bidayah wan-Nihayah, all the thanks are due to Allah.

Allah states that the angels commanded Maryam to increase acts of worship, humbleness, submission, prostration, bowing, and so forth, so that she would acquire what Allah had decreed for her, as a test for her. Yet, this test also earned her a higher grade in this life and the Hereafter, for Allah demonstrated His might by creating a son inside her without male intervention. Allah said,

(“O Maryam! Submit yourself with obedience (Aqnuti) and prostrate yourself, and bow down along with Ar-Raki`in.”)

As for Qunut (Aqnuti in the Ayah), it means to submit with humbleness. In another Ayah, Allah said,

(Nay, to Him belongs all that is in the heavens and on earth, and all surrender with obedience (Qanitun) to Him.) [2:116]

Allah next said to His Messenger after He mentioned Maryam’s story,

(This is a part of the news of the Ghayb which We reveal.) “and narrate to you (O Muhammad ), ” 

(You were not with them, when they cast lots with their pens as to which of them should be charged with the care of Maryam; nor were you with them when they disputed.) meaning, “You were not present, O Muhammad, when this occurred, so you cannot narrate what happened to the people as an eye witness. Rather, Allah disclosed these facts to you as if you were a witness, when they conducted a lottery to choose the custodian of Maryam, seeking the reward of this good deed.”

Ibn Jarir recorded that `Ikrimah said, “Maryam’s mother left with Maryam, carrying her in her infant cloth, and took her to the rabbis from the offspring of Aaron, the brother of Musa. They were responsible for taking care of Bayt Al-Maqdis (the Masjid) at that time, just as there were those who took care of the Ka`bah. Maryam’s mother said to them, `Take this child whom I vowed [to serve the Masjid], I have set her free, since she is my daughter, for no menstruating woman should enter the Masjid, and I shall not take her back home.’ They said, `She is the daughter of our Imam,’ as `Imran used to lead them in prayer, `who took care of our sacrificial rituals.’ Zakariyya said, `Give her to me, for her maternal aunt is my wife.’ They said, `Our hearts cannot bear that you take her, for she is the daughter of our Imam.’ So they conducted a lottery with the pens with which they wrote the Tawrah, and Zakariyya won the lottery and took Maryam into his care.”’. `Ikrimah, As-Suddi, Qatadah, Ar-Rabi` bin Anas, and several others said that the rabbis went into the Jordan river and conducted a lottery there, deciding to throw their pens into the river. The pen that remained afloat and idle would indicate that its owner would take care of Maryam. When they threw their pens into the river, the water took all the pens under, except Zakariyya’s pen, which remained afloat in its place. Zakariyya was also their master, chief, scholar, Imam and Prophet, may Allah’s peace and blessings be on him and the rest of the Prophets. 

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The daughter of Imran: Maryam (Mary), mother of Isa (Jesus), peace be upon him

 I take refuge with Allaah from the accursed devil.  

بِسْمِ اللَّهِ الرَّحْمَـنِ الرَّحِيمِ 

  Bismillah-ir-Rahman-ir-Raheem: In the name of Allah, the Compassionate, the Merciful.  

 Welcome to my blog and praise the Magnificent Lord as you enter: Allahu Akbar: Allah is the Greatest .

May the Peace and Blessing of Allah Azza wa Jal, our Lord Glorified and Praised be He, be upon our beloved Prophet, his Family, and Companions.

The daughter of Imran: Maryam (Mary), mother of Isa (Jesus), peace be upon him.

إِذْ قَالَتِ امْرَأَتُ عِمْرَنَ رَبِّ إِنِّي نَذَرْتُ لَكَ مَا فِي بَطْنِي مُحَرَّرًا فَتَقَبَّلْ مِنِّي إِنَّكَ أَنتَ السَّمِيعُ الْعَلِيمُ

(35. (Remember) when the wife of `Imran said: “O my Lord! I have vowed to You what is in my womb to be dedicated for Your services, so accept this from me. Verily, You are the All-Hearer, the All-Knowing.”)

فَلَمَّا وَضَعَتْهَا قَالَتْ رَبِّ إِنِّى وَضَعْتُهَآ أُنثَى وَاللَّهُ أَعْلَمُ بِمَا وَضَعَتْ وَلَيْسَ الذَّكَرُ كَالاٍّنثَى وَإِنِّى سَمَّيْتُهَا مَرْيَمَ وِإِنِّى أُعِيذُهَا بِكَ وَذُرِّيَّتَهَا مِنَ الشَّيْطَـنِ الرَّجِيمِ

(36. Then when she gave birth to her, she said: “O my Lord! I have given birth to a female child, ـ and Allah knew better what she bore, ـ “And the male is not like the female, and I have named her Maryam, and I seek refuge with You for her and for her offspring from Shaytan, the outcast.”)

Surah 3 Ala Imran Verse 35-36

Tafsir Ibn Kathir

The wife of `Imran mentioned here is the mother of Maryam, and her name is Hannah bint Faqudh. Muhammad bin Ishaq mentioned that Hannah could not have children and that one day, she saw a bird feeding its chick. She wished she could have children and supplicated to Allah to grant her offspring. Allah accepted her supplication, and when her husband slept with her, she became pregnant. She vowed to make her child concentrate on worship and serving Bayt Al-Maqdis (the Masjid in Jerusalem), when she became aware that she was pregnant. She said,

(O my Lord! I have vowed to You what is in my womb to be dedicated for Your services, so accept this from me. Verily, You are the All-Hearer, the All-Knowing.) meaning, You hear my supplication and You know my intention. She did not know then what she would give birth to, a male or a female.

(Then when she gave birth to her, she said: “O my Lord! I have given birth to a female child, ـ and Allah knew better what she bore.)

(And the male is not like the female,) in strength and the commitment to worship Allah and serve the Masjid in Jerusalem.

(And I have named her Maryam,) thus, testifying to the fact that it is allowed to give a name to the newly born the day it is born, as is apparent from the Ayah, which is also a part of the law of those who were before us. Further, the Sunnah of the Messenger of Allah mentioned that the Prophet said,

(This night, a son was born for me and I called him by my father’s name, Ibrahim.) Al-Bukhari and Muslim collected this Hadith.

They also recorded that Anas bin Malik brought his newborn brother to the Messenger of Allah who chewed a piece of date and put it in the child’s mouth and called him `Abdullah. Other new born infants were also given names on the day they were born.

Qatadah narrated that Al-Hasan Al-Basri said, that Samurah bin Jundub said that the Messenger of Allah said,

(Every new born boy held in security by his `Aqiqah, until his seventh day, a sacrifice is offered on his behalf, he is given a name, and the hair on his head is shaved.)

This Hadith was collected by Ahmad and the collectors of the Sunan, and was graded Sahih by At-Tirmidhi. We should mention that another narration for this Hadith contained the wording, “and blood is offered on his behalf,” which is more famous and established than the former narration, and Allah knows best.

Allah’s statement that Maryam’s mother said,

(“…And I seek refuge with You for her and for her offspring from Shaytan, the outcast.”) means, that she sought refuge with Allah from the evil of Shaytan, for her and her offspring, i.e., `Isa, peace be upon him. Allah accepted her supplication, for `Abdur-Razzaq recorded that Abu Hurayrah said that the Messenger of Allah said,

(Every newly born baby is touched by Shaytan when it is born, and the baby starts crying because of this touch, except Maryam and her son.)

Abu Hurayrah then said, “Read if you will,

(And I seek refuge with You for her and for her offspring from Shaytan, the outcast).” The Two Sahihs recorded this Hadith.

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The Power of Dhul-Qarnayn

 I take refuge with Allaah from the accursed devil.  

بِسْمِ اللَّهِ الرَّحْمَـنِ الرَّحِيمِ 

  Bismillah-ir-Rahman-ir-Raheem: In the name of Allah, the Compassionate, the Merciful.  

 Welcome to my blog and praise the Magnificent Lord as you enter: Allahu Akbar: Allah is the Greatest .

May the Peace and Blessing of Allah Azza wa Jal, our Lord Glorified and Praised be He, be upon our beloved Prophet, his Family, and Companions.

The Power of Dhul-Qarnayn.

وَيَسْأَلُونَكَ عَن ذِى الْقَرْنَيْنِ قُلْ سَأَتْلُواْ عَلَيْكُم مِّنْهُ ذِكْراً

(83. And they ask you about Dhul-Qarnayn. Say: “I shall recite to you something of his story.”)

إِنَّا مَكَّنَّا لَهُ فِى الاٌّرْضِ وَآتَيْنَـهُ مِن كُلِّ شَىْءٍ سَبَباً

(84. Verily, We established him in the earth, and We gave him the means of everything.)

Surah 18 Al Kahf Verse 83-84

Tafsir Ibn Kathir

(And they ask you) O Muhammad ,

(about Dhul-Qarnayn.) i.e., about his story. We have already mentioned how the disbelievers of Makkah sent word to the People of the Book and asked them for some information with which they could test the Prophet . They (the People of the Book) said, `Ask him about a man who traveled extensively throughout the earth, and about some young men who nobody knows what they did, and about the Ruh (the soul),’ then Surat Al-Kahf was revealed. Dhul-Qarnayn had great Power

(Verily, We established him in the earth,) means, `We have given him great power, so that he had all that kings could have of might, armies, war equipment and siege machinery.’ So he had dominion over the east and the west, all countries and their kings submitted to him, and all the nations, Arab and non-Arab, served him. Some of them said he was called Dhul-Qarnayn (the one with two horns) because he reached the two “Horns” of the sun, east and west, where it rises and where it sets.

(and We gave him the means of everything.) Ibn `Abbas, Mujahid, Sa`id bin Jubayr, `Ikrimah, As-Suddi, Qatadah, Ad-Dahhak and others said, “This means knowledge.” Qatadah also said,

(and We gave him the means of everything.) “The different parts and features of the earth.” Concerning Bilqis, Allah said,

(she has been given all things) [27:23], meaning all things that monarchs like her are given. Thus too was Dhul-Qarnayn: Allah gave him the means of all things, meaning the means and power to conquer all areas, regions and countries, to defeat enemies, suppress the kings of the earth and humiliate the people of Shirk. He was given all that a man like him would need. And Allah knows best.

فَأَتْبَعَ سَبَباً

(85. So he followed a way.)

حَتَّى إِذَا بَلَغَ مَغْرِبَ الشَّمْسِ وَجَدَهَا تَغْرُبُ فِى عَيْنٍ حَمِئَةٍ وَوَجَدَ عِندَهَا قَوْماً قُلْنَا يذَا الْقَرْنَيْنِ إِمَّآ أَن تُعَذِّبَ وَإِمَّآ أَن تَتَّخِذَ فِيهِمْ حُسْناً

(86. Until, when he reached the setting place of the sun, he found it setting in a spring of Hami’ah. And he found near it a people. We said: “O Dhul-Qarnayn! Either you punish them or treat them with kindness.”)

قَالَ أَمَّا مَن ظَلَمَ فَسَوْفَ نُعَذِّبُهُ ثُمَّ يُرَدُّ إِلَى رَبِّهِ فَيُعَذِّبُهُ عَذَاباً نُّكْراً

(87. He said: “As for him who does wrong, we shall punish him, and then he will be brought back unto his Lord, Who will punish him with a terrible torment (Hell).”)

 وَأَمَّا مَنْ آمَنَ وَعَمِلَ صَـلِحاً فَلَهُ جَزَآءً الْحُسْنَى وَسَنَقُولُ لَهُ مِنْ أَمْرِنَا يُسْراً

 (88. “But as for him who believes and works righteousness, he shall have the best reward, and we shall speak unto him mild words.”)

Surah 18 Al Kahf 85-88

Tafsir Ibn Kathir

(So he followed a way.) Ibn `Abbas said that he followed different routes to achieve what he wanted.

(So he followed a way.) Mujahid said that he followed different routes, east and west. According to one report narrated from Mujahid, he said:

(a way) means, “A route through the land.” Qatadah said, “It means he followed the routes and landmarks of the earth.”

(Until, when he reached the setting place of the sun,) means, he followed a route until he reached the furthest point that could be reached in the direction of the sun’s setting, which is the west of the earth. As for the idea of his reaching the place in the sky where the sun sets, this is something impossible, and the tales told by storytellers that he traveled so far to the west that the sun set behind him are not true at all. Most of these stories come from the myths of the People of the Book and the fabrications and lies of their heretics.

(he found it setting in a spring of Hami’ah) meaning, he saw the sun as if it were setting in the ocean. This is something which everyone who goes to the coast can see: it looks as if the sun is setting into the sea but in fact it never leaves its path in which it is fixed. Hami’ah is, according to one of the two views, derived from the word Hama’ah, which means mud. This is like the Ayah:

(“I am going to create a man (Adam) from dried clay of altered Hama’h (mud)) [15:28], which means smooth mud, as we have discussed above.

(And he found near it a people.) meaning a nation. They mentioned that they were a great nation from among the sons of Adam.

(We (Allah) said (by inspiration): “O Dhul-Qarnayn! Either you punish them or treat them with kindness”) means, Allah gave him power over them and gave him the choice: if he wanted to, he could kill the men and take the women and children captive, or if he wanted to, he could set them free, with or without a ransom. His justice and faith became apparent in the ruling he pronounced:

(As for him who does wrong,) meaning who persists in his Kufr and in associating others in worship with his Lord,

(we shall punish him,) Qatadah said, i.e., by killing him.

(and then he will be brought back unto his Lord, Who will punish him with a terrible torment.) meaning a severe, far-reaching and painful punishment. This implies a confirmation of the Hereafter and the reward and punishment.

(But as for him who believes), meaning `who follows us in our call to worship Allah Alone with no partner or associate,’

(he shall have the best reward,) meaning in the Hereafter, with Allah.

(and we (Dhul-Qarnayn) shall speak unto him mild words.) Mujahid said, `(words of) kindness.’

ثُمَّ أَتْبَعَ سَبَباً

(89. Then he followed (another) way,)

حَتَّى إِذَا بَلَغَ مَطْلِعَ الشَّمْسِ وَجَدَهَا تَطْلُعُ عَلَى قَوْمٍ لَّمْ نَجْعَل لَّهُمْ مِّن دُونِهَا سِتْراً

(90. Until, when he came to the rising place of the sun, he found it rising on a people for whom We (Allah) had provided no shelter against the sun.)

كَذَلِكَ وَقَدْ أَحَطْنَا بِمَا لَدَيْهِ خُبْراً

(91. So (it was)! And We knew all about him (Dhul-Qarnayn).)

Surah 18 Al Kahf Verse 89-91

Tafsir Ibn Kathir

Allah tells us that Dhul-Qarnayn then traveled from the west of the earth towards the east. Every time he passed a nation, he subjugated the people and called them to Allah. If they obeyed him, all well and good, otherwise he would humiliate them and take their wealth and possessions. From every nation he took what his armies needed to fight the next nation. When he reached the place where the sun rises, as Allah says,

(he found it rising on a people) meaning a nation,

(for whom We (Allah) had provided no shelter against the sun.) meaning, they had no buildings or trees to cover them and shade them from the heat of the sun. Qatadah said, “It was mentioned to us that they were in a land where nothing grew, so when the sun rose they would go into tunnels until it had passed its zenith, then they would come out to go about their daily lives and earn themselves a living.” 

(So (it was)! And We knew all about him.) Mujahid and As-Suddi said, “This means that Allah knew everything about him and his army, and nothing was hidden from Him, even though they came from so many different nations and lands. For,

(Truly, nothing is hidden from Allah, in the earth or in the heaven.)[3:5]”

ثُمَّ أَتْبَعَ سَبَباً

(92. Then he followed (another) way,)

حَتَّى إِذَا بَلَغَ بَيْنَ السَّدَّيْنِ وَجَدَ مِن دُونِهِمَا قَوْماً لاَّ يَكَادُونَ يَفْقَهُونَ قَوْلاً

(93. Until, when he reached between two mountains, he found before them a people who scarcely understood a word.)

 قَالُواْ يذَا الْقَرْنَيْنِ إِنَّ يَأْجُوجَ وَمَأْجُوجَ مُفْسِدُونَ فِى الاٌّرْضِ فَهَلْ نَجْعَلُ لَكَ خَرْجاً عَلَى أَن تَجْعَلَ بَيْنَنَا وَبَيْنَهُمْ سَدًّا

(94. They said: “O Dhul-Qarnayn! Verily, Ya’juj and Ma’juj are doing great mischief in the land. Shall we then pay you a tribute in order that you might erect a barrier between us and them”)

 قَالَ مَا مَكَّنِّى فِيهِ رَبِّى خَيْرٌ فَأَعِينُونِى بِقُوَّةٍ أَجْعَلْ بَيْنَكُمْ وَبَيْنَهُمْ رَدْمًا

(95. He said: “That in which my Lord had established me is better. So help me with strength, I will erect between you and them a barrier.”)

ءَاتُونِى زُبَرَ الْحَدِيدِ حَتَّى إِذَا سَاوَى بَيْنَ الصَّدَفَيْنِ قَالَ انفُخُواْ حَتَّى إِذَا جَعَلَهُ نَاراً قَالَ آتُونِى أُفْرِغْ عَلَيْهِ قِطْراً

 (96. “Give me Zubar of iron;” then, when he had filled up the gap between the two mountain-cliffs, he said: “Blow;” then when he had made them (red as) fire, he said: “Bring me Qitran to pour over them.”)

Surah 18 Al Kahf Verse 92-96

Tafsir Ibn Kathir

Allah says of Dhul-Qarnayn:

(Then he followed (another) way) meaning, he traveled from the east of the earth until he reached a place between the two mountains which were next to one another with a valley in between, from which Ya’juj and Ma’juj (God and Magog) will emerge into the land of the Turks and spread mischief there, destroying crops and people. Ya’juj and Ma’juj are among the progeny of Adam, peace be upon him, as was recorded in the Two Sahihs;

“Allah said: “O Adam.” Adam said, “Here I am at Your service.” Allah said, “Send forth the group of Hellfire.” Adam said, “What is the group of Hellfire” Allah said: “Out of every thousand, nine hundred and ninety-nine will go to Hell and one will go to Paradise.” At that time young men will turn grey and every pregnant female will drop her load. Among you are two nations who never come to anything but they overwhelm it with their huge numbers. (They are) Ya’juj and Ma’juj.”

(he found before them a people who scarcely understood a word. ) he could not understand their speech, because they were so isolated from other people.

(They said: “O Dhul-Qarnayn! Verily, Ya’juj and Ma’juj are doing great mischief in the land. Shall we then pay you a tribute”) Ibn Jurayj reported from `Ata’ from Ibn `Abbas that this meant a great reward, i.e., they wanted to collect money among themselves to give to him so that he would create a barrier between them and Ya’juj and Ma’juj. Dhul-Qarnayn said with kindness, righteousness and good intentions,

(That in which my Lord had established me is better (than your tribute).) meaning, the power and authority that Allah has given me is better for me than what you have collected. This is like when Sulayman (Solomon), peace be upon him, said:

(Will you help me in wealth What Allah has given me is better than that which He has given you!) [27:36] Similarly, Dhul-Qarnayn said: `What I have is better than what you want to give me, but help me with strength,’ i.e., with your labor and construction equipment,

(I will erect between you and them a barrier. Give me Zubar of iron,) Zubar is the plural of Zubrah, which means pieces or chunks of something. This was the view of Ibn `Abbas, Mujahid and Qatadah. These pieces were like bricks or blocks, and it was said that each block weighed one Damascene Qintar or more.

(then, when he had filled up the gap between the two mountain-cliffs,) means, he put the blocks on top of one another, starting at the bottom, until he reached the tops of the mountains, filling the width and height of the gap. The scholars differed about the precise width and height.

(he said: “Blow;”) means, he lit a fire until the whole thing was burning hot.

(he said: “Bring me Qitran to pour over them.”) Ibn `Abbas, Mujahid, `Ikrimah, Ad-Dahhak, Qatadah and As-Suddi said it was copper. Some of them added that it was molten. This is similar to the Ayah:

(And We caused a fount of Qitran to flow for him) [34:12]. So it resembled a striped cloak. Then Allah said:

فَمَا اسْطَـعُواْ أَن يَظْهَرُوهُ وَمَا اسْتَطَـعُواْ لَهُ نَقْبًا

(97. So they could not scale it or dig through it.)

 قَالَ هَـذَا رَحْمَةٌ مِّن رَّبِّى فَإِذَا جَآءَ وَعْدُ رَبِّى جَعَلَهُ دَكَّآءَ وَكَانَ وَعْدُ رَبِّى حَقّاً

 (98. He said: “This is a mercy from my Lord, but when the promise of my Lord comes, He shall Dakka’ it down to the ground. And the promise of my Lord is ever true.)

وَتَرَكْنَا بَعْضَهُمْ يَوْمَئِذٍ يَمُوجُ فِى بَعْضٍ وَنُفِخَ فِى الصُّورِ فَجَمَعْنَـهُمْ جَمْعاً

(99. And on that Day, We shall leave some of them to surge like waves on one another; and the Trumpet will be blown, and We shall collect them (the creatures) all together.)

Surah 18 Al Kahf Verse 97-99

Tafsir Ibn Kathir

Allah tells us that Ya’juj and Ma’juj could not climb over the barrier or penetrate its lower portion. Varying forms of the verb are used here in the Arabic text to reflect the difficulty of the action referred to.

(So they (Ya’juj and Ma’juj) could not scale it or dig through it.) This indicates that they could not penetrate it or dig through it. Imam Ahmad recorded that Zaynab bint Jahsh, the wife of the Prophet said, “The Prophet woke from sleep, and he was red in the face. He said,

(La ilaha illallah! Woe to the Arabs from the evil that has approached (them). Today a hole has been opened in the barrier of Ya’juj and Ma’juj like this.) and he made a circle with his index finger and thumb. I [Zaynab] said, `O Messenger of Allah, will we be destroyed even though there will be righteous people among us’ He said:

(Yes, if evil increases.)” This is a Sahih Hadith, both Al-Bukhari and Muslim recorded it.

((Dhul-Qarnayn) said: “This is a mercy from my Lord…”) meaning, after it was built by Dhul-Qarnayn.

(He said: This is a mercy from my Lord) for the people, when he placed a barrier between them and Ya’juj and Ma’juj, to stop them from spreading evil and corruption on earth.

(but when the promise of my Lord comes) means, when the true promise comes

(He shall Dakka’ it down to the ground.) means, will make it flat. The Arabs use Dakka’ to describe a female camel whose back is flat and has no hump. And Allah says:

(So when his Lord appeared to the mountain, He made it Dakkan) [7:143] meaning, level to the ground.

(And the promise of my Lord is ever true.) means, it will come to pass without a doubt.

(We shall leave some of them) meaning mankind, on that day, the day when the barrier will be breached and these people (Ya’juj and Ma’juj) will come out surging over mankind to destroy their wealth and property.

(We shall leave some of them to surge like waves on one another;) As-Suddi said: “That is when they emerge upon the people.” All of this will happen before the Day of Resurrection and after the Dajjal, as we will explain when discussing the Ayat:

(Until, when Ya’juj and Ma’juj are let loose, and they swoop down from every Hadab. And the true promise shall draw near…) [21:96-97]

(and As-Sur will be blown.) As-Sur, as explained in the Hadith, is a horn that is blown into. The one who will blow into it is (the angel) Israfil, peace be upon him, as has been explained in the Hadith quoted at length above, and there are many Hadiths on this topic. According to a Hadith narrated from `Atiyah from Ibn `Abbas and Abu Sa`id, and attributed to the Prophet ,

(How can I relax when the one with the Horn has put the Horn in his mouth and has knelt down, listening out for the command to be given to him) They said, “What should we say” He said:

(Say: “Allah is Sufficient for us and the best Disposer of affairs, in Allah have we put our trust.”)

(and We shall collect them (the creatures) all together.) means, `We shall bring them all together for Reckoning.’

(Say: “(Yes) verily, those of old, and those of later times. All will surely be gathered together for appointed meeting of a known Day.) [56:49-50]

(and we shall gather them all together so as to leave not one of them behind.) [18:47]

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Al Khidr and Prophet Musa (Moses), peace be on them: the boat, the boy, and the wall

 I take refuge with Allaah from the accursed devil.  

بِسْمِ اللَّهِ الرَّحْمَـنِ الرَّحِيمِ 

  Bismillah-ir-Rahman-ir-Raheem: In the name of Allah, the Compassionate, the Merciful.  

 Welcome to my blog and praise the Magnificent Lord as you enter: Allahu Akbar: Allah is the Greatest .

May the Peace and Blessing of Allah Azza wa Jal, our Lord Glorified and Praised be He, be upon our beloved Prophet, his Family, and Companions.

Al Khidr and Prophet Musa (Moses), peace be on them: The Boat, The Boy, and The Wall.

قَالَ لَهُ مُوسَى هَلْ أَتَّبِعُكَ عَلَى أَن تُعَلِّمَنِ مِمَّا عُلِّمْتَ رُشْداً

(66. Musa said to him: “May I follow you so that you teach me something of that knowledge which you have been taught (by Allah)”)

قَالَ إِنَّكَ لَن تَسْتَطِيعَ مَعِىَ صَبْراً

(67. He said: “Verily, you will not be able to have patience with me!”)

 وَكَيْفَ تَصْبِرُ عَلَى مَا لَمْ تُحِطْ بِهِ خُبْراً

(68. “And how can you have patience about a thing which you know not”)

قَالَ سَتَجِدُنِى إِن شَآءَ اللَّهُ صَابِرًا وَلاَ أَعْصِى لَكَ أمْراً

 (69. Musa said: “If Allah wills, you will find me patient, and I will not disobey you in aught.”)

قَالَ فَإِنِ اتَّبَعْتَنِى فَلاَ تَسْأَلْنى عَن شَىءٍ حَتَّى أُحْدِثَ لَكَ مِنْهُ ذِكْراً

(70. He said: “Then, if you follow me, ask me not about anything till I myself mention of it to you.”)

Surah 18 Al-Kahf 66-70

Tafsir Ibn Kathir

Allah tells us what Musa said to that learned man, who was Al-Khidr. He was one to whom Allah had given knowledge that He had not given to Musa, just as He had given Musa knowledge that He had not given to Al-Khidr.

(Musa said to him: “May I follow you…”) This is a question phrased in gentle terms, with no sense of force or coercion. This is the manner in which the seeker of knowledge should address the scholar.

(I follow you) means, I accompany you and spend time with you.

(so that you teach me something of that knowledge which you have been taught) meaning, teach me something from that which Allah has taught you so that I may be guided by it and learn something beneficial and do righteous deeds. At this point,

(He said) meaning, Al-Khidr said to Musa,

(Verily, you will not be able to have patience with me!) meaning, `You will not be able to accompany with me when you see me doing things that go against your law, because I have knowledge from Allah that He has not taught you, and you have knowledge from Allah that He has not taught me. Each of us has responsibilities before Allah that the other does not share, and you will not be able to stay with me,’

(And how can you have patience about a thing which you know not) `For I know that you will denounce me justifiably, but I have knowledge of Allah’s wisdom and the hidden interests which I can see but you cannot.’

(He said) meaning, Musa said:

(If Allah wills, you will find me patient,) with whatever I see of your affairs,

(and I will not disobey you in aught.) means, `I will not go against you in anything.’ At that point, Al-Khidr, upon him be peace, set a condition:

(Then, if you follow me, ask me not about anything) do not initiate any discussion of the matter,

(till I myself mention of it to you. ) meaning, `until I initiate the discussion, before you ask me about it.’

فَانْطَلَقَا حَتَّى إِذَا رَكِبَا فِى السَّفِينَةِ خَرَقَهَا قَالَ أَخَرَقْتَهَا لِتُغْرِقَ أَهْلَهَا لَقَدْ جِئْتَ شَيْئًا إِمْرًا

(71. So they both proceeded, till, when they boarded the boat, he (Khidr) damaged it. Musa said: “Have you damaged it wherein its people will drown Verily, you have committed a thing Imr.”)

 قَالَ أَلَمْ أَقُلْ إِنَّكَ لَن تَسْتَطِيعَ مَعِىَ صَبْراً

(72. He said: “Did I not tell you, that you would not be able to have patience with me”)

 قَالَ لاَ تُؤَاخِذْنِى بِمَا نَسِيتُ وَلاَ تُرْهِقْنِى مِنْ أَمْرِى عُسْراً

(73. He said: “Call me not to account for what I forgot, and be not hard upon me for my affair (with you).”)

Surah 18 Al Kahf Verse 71-73

Tafsir Ibn Kathir

Allah tells us that Musa and his companion Al-Khidr set out having come to an agreement and reached an understanding. Al-Khidr had made the condition that Musa should not ask him about anything he found distasteful until he himself initiated the discussion and offered an explanation. So they went on board the ship, as described in the Hadith quoted above — the crew recognized Al-Khidr and let them ride on board free of charge, as an honor to Al-Khidr. When the boat took them out to sea and they were far from the shore, Al-Khidr got up and damaged the boat, pulling out one of its planks and then patching it up again. Musa, peace be upon him, could not restrain himself from denouncing him, so he said:

(Have you damaged it wherein its people will drown) The grammatical structure of the sentence in Arabic implies that this was the consequence, not the purpose, of his action.

(Verily, you have committed a thing Imr.) About `Imr’, Mujahid said: “An evil thing.” Qatadah said, “An astounding thing.” At this point, reminding him of the previously-agreed condition, Al-Khidr said:

(Did I not tell you, that you would not be able to have patience with me) meaning, `this thing that I did deliberately is one of the things I told you not to denounce me for, because you do not know the full story, and there is a reason and purpose for it that you do not know about.’

(He said), meaning, Musa said:

(Call me not to account for what I forgot, and be not hard upon me for my affair (with you).) meaning, `do not be harsh with me.’ Hence it says in the Hadith quoted above from the Messenger of Allah :

(In the first instance, Musa asked Al-Khidr because he had forgotten his promise.)

فَانْطَلَقَا حَتَّى إِذَا لَقِيَا غُلاَمًا فَقَتَلَهُ قَالَ أَقَتَلْتَ نَفْسًا زَكِيَّةً بِغَيْرِ نَفْسٍ لَّقَدْ جِئْتَ شَيْئاً نُّكْراً

(74. Then they both proceeded till they met a boy, and he (Khidr) killed him. Musa said: “Have you killed an innocent person without Nafs Verily, you have committed a thing Nukr!”)

 قَالَ أَلَمْ أَقُلْ لَّكَ إِنَّكَ لَن تَسْتَطِيعَ مَعِىَ صَبْراً

 (75. He said: “Did I not tell you that you can have no patience with me”)

قَالَ إِن سَأَلْتُكَ عَن شَىْءٍ بَعْدَهَا فَلاَ تُصَاحِبْنِى قَدْ بَلَغْتَ مِن لَّدُنِّى عُذْراً

 (76. He said: “If I ask you anything after this, keep me not in your company, you have received an excuse from me.”)

Surah 18 Al Kahf Verse 74-76

Tafsir Ibn Kathir

(Then they both proceeded,) means, after the first incident,

(till they met a boy, and he (Khidr) killed him.) It has been stated previously that this boy was playing with other boys in one of the towns, and that Al-Khidr deliberately singled him out. He was the finest and most handsome of them all, and Al-Khidr killed him. When Musa, peace be upon him, saw that he denounced him even more fervently than in the first case, and said hastily:

(Have you killed an innocent person) meaning, a young person who had not yet committed any sin or done anything wrong, yet you killed him

(without Nafs) with no reason for killing him.

(Verily, you have committed a thing Nukr!) meaning, something that is clearly evil.

(He said: “Did I not tell you that you can have no patience with me”) Once again, Al-Khidr reiterates the condition set in the first place, so Musa says to him:

(If I ask you anything after this,) meaning, `if I object to anything else you do after this,’

(keep me not in your company, you have received an excuse from me.) `you have accepted my apology twice.’ Ibn Jarir narrated from Ibn `Abbas that Ubayy bin Ka`b said: “Whenever the Prophet mentioned anyone, he would pray for himself first. One day he said:

(May the mercy of Allah be upon us and upon Musa. If he had stayed with his companion he would have seen wonders, but he said, (`If I ask you anything after this, keep me not in your company, you have received an excuse from me.’))”

فَانطَلَقَا حَتَّى إِذَآ أَتَيَآ أَهْلَ قَرْيَةٍ اسْتَطْعَمَآ أَهْلَهَا فَأَبَوْاْ أَن يُضَيِّفُوهُمَا فَوَجَدَا فِيهَا جِدَاراً يُرِيدُ أَن يَنقَضَّ فَأَقَامَهُ قَالَ لَوْ شِئْتَ لاَتَّخَذْتَ عَلَيْهِ أَجْراً

(77. Then they both proceeded till when they came to the people of a town, they asked them for food, but they refused to entertain them. Then they found therein a wall about to collapse and he set it up straight. (Musa) said: “If you had wished, surely you could have taken wages for it!”)

 قَالَ هَـذَا فِرَاقُ بَيْنِى وَبَيْنِكَ سَأُنَبِّئُكَ بِتَأْوِيلِ مَا لَمْ تَسْتَطِع عَّلَيْهِ صَبْراً

 (78. He said: “This is the parting between you and I, I will tell you the interpretation of (those) things over which you were not able to be patient.”)

Surah 18 Al Kahf Verse 77-78

Tafsir Ibn Kathir

(they both proceeded) after the first two instances,

(till when they came to the people of a town,) Ibn Jarir narrated from Ibn Sirin that this was Al-Aylah. According to the Hadith;

(When they came there, the people of the town were mean.) i.e., miserly

(they asked them for food, but they refused to entertain them. Then they found therein a wall about to collapse and he (Khidr) set it up straight.) means, he fixed it so it was standing upright properly. We have already seen in the Hadith quoted above that he set it up with his own hands, supporting it until it was standing straight again, which is something extraordinary. At this point Musa said to him:

(If you had wished, surely you could have taken wages for it!) meaning, because they did not entertain us as guests, you should not have worked for them for free.

(He said: “This is the parting between you and I) meaning, because you said after the boy was killed that if you asked me anything after that, you would not accompany me any further. So this is the parting of the ways between me and you.

(I will tell you the interpretation) meaning explanation,

(of (those) things over which you were not able to be patient.)

أَمَّا السَّفِينَةُ فَكَانَتْ لِمَسَـكِينَ يَعْمَلُونَ فِى الْبَحْرِ فَأَرَدتُّ أَنْ أَعِيبَهَا وَكَانَ وَرَآءَهُم مَّلِكٌ يَأْخُذُ كُلَّ سَفِينَةٍ غَصْباً

(79. “As for the boat, it belonged to poor people working in the sea. So I wished to make a defective damage in it, as there was a king behind them who seized every boat by force.”)

Surah 18 Al Kahf Verse 79

Tafsir Ibn Kathir

This is an explanation of what Musa found so hard to understand, and the appearence of which he condemed. Allah showed Al-Khidr the hidden reasons, so he said, “I damaged the ship to make it faulty, because they used to pass by a king who was one of the oppressors, who

(seized every boat), i.e., every good, sound boat

(by force.) `So I wanted to prevent him from taking this boat by making it appear faulty, so that its poor owners who had nothing else could benefit from it.’ It was also said that they were orphans.

وَأَمَّا الْغُلَـمُ فَكَانَ أَبَوَاهُ مُؤْمِنَيْنِ فَخَشِينَآ أَن يُرْهِقَهُمَا طُغْيَـناً وَكُفْراً

(80. “And as for the boy, his parents were believers, and we feared he would oppress them by rebellion and disbelief.”)

فَأَرَدْنَآ أَن يُبْدِلَهُمَا رَبُّهُمَا خَيْراً مِّنْهُ زَكَـوةً وَأَقْرَبَ رُحْماً

 (81. “So we intended that their Lord should exchange him for them for one better in righteousness and nearer to mercy.”)

Surah 18 Al Kahf Verse 80-81

Tafsir Ibn Kathir

Ibn `Abbas narrated from Ubayy bin Ka`b that the Prophet said:

(The boy Al-Khidr killed was destined to be a disbeliever from the day he was created.) It was recorded by Ibn Jarir from Ibn `Abbas. He said:

(his parents were believers, and we feared he would oppress them by rebellion and disbelief) Their love for him might make them follow him in disbelief. Qatadah said, “His parents rejoiced when he was born and grieved for him when he was killed. If he had stayed alive, he would have been the cause of their doom. So let a man be content with the decree of Allah, for the decree of Allah for the believer, if he dislikes it, is better for him than if He were to decree something that he likes for him.” An authentic Hadith says;

(Allah does not decree anything for the believer except it is good for him.) And Allah says:

(and it may be that you dislike a thing which is good for you.) [2:216].

(So we intended that their Lord should exchange him for them for one better in righteousness and nearer to mercy. ) A child who was better than this one, a child for whom they would feel more compassion. This was the view of Ibn Jurayj.

وَأَمَّا الْجِدَارُ فَكَانَ لِغُلَـمَيْنِ يَتِيمَيْنِ فِى الْمَدِينَةِ وَكَانَ تَحْتَهُ كَنزٌ لَّهُمَا وَكَانَ أَبُوهُمَا صَـلِحاً فَأَرَادَ رَبُّكَ أَن يَبْلُغَآ أَشُدَّهُمَا وَيَسْتَخْرِجَا كَنزَهُمَا رَحْمَةً مِّن رَّبِّكَ وَمَا فَعَلْتُهُ عَنْ أَمْرِى ذَلِكَ تَأْوِيلُ مَا لَمْ تَسْطِـع عَّلَيْهِ صَبْراً

(82. “And as for the wall, it belonged to two orphan boys in the town; and there was under it a treasure belonging to them; and their father was a righteous man, and your Lord intended that they should attain their age of full strength and take out their treasure as a mercy from your Lord. And I did them not of my own accord. That is the interpretation of those (things) over which you could not be patient.)

Surah 18 Al Kahf Verse 82

Tafsir Ibn Kathir

In this Ayah there is a proof that the word Qaryah (village) may be used to refer to a city (Madinah), because Allah first says,

(till when they came to the people of a town (Qaryah)) [18:77], but here He says:

(it belonged to two orphan boys in the town (Al-Madinah);) This is like the Ayat:

(And many a town (Qaryah), stronger than your town which has driven you out We have destroyed) [47:13] and;

(And they say: “Why is not this Qur’an sent down to some great man of the two towns (Al-Qaryatayn)”)[43:31] meaning Makkah and At-Ta’if. The meaning of the Ayah [18:82] is: “I repaired this wall because it belonged to two orphan boys in the city, and underneath it was some treasure belonging to them.” `Ikrimah, Qatadah and others said, “Underneath it there was some wealth that was buried for them.” This meaning is apparent from the context of the Ayah, and is the view chosen by Ibn Jarir (may Allah have mercy on him).

(their father was a righteous man,) indicates that a righteous person’s offspring will be taken care of, and that the blessing of his worship will extend to them in this world and in the Hereafter. This will occur through his intercession for them, as well as their status being raised to the highest levels of Paradise, so that he may find joy in them. This was stated in the Qur’an and reported in the Sunnah. Sa`id bin Jubayr narrated from Ibn `Abbas: “They were taken care of because their father was a righteous man, although it is not stated that they themselves were righteous.”

(your Lord intended that they should attain their age of full strength and take out their treasure) Here will is attributed to Allah, the Exalted, because no one else is able to bring them to the age of full strength and puberty except Allah. In contrast, He said about the boy:

(So we intended that their Lord should exchange him for them for one better in righteousness) and concerning the ship:

(So I wished to make a defective damage in it,) And Allah knows best.

(as a mercy from your Lord. And I did them not of my own accord.) Meaning, `These three things that I did, come from the mercy of Allah for those we have mentioned, the crew of the ship, the parents of the boy and the two sons of the righteous man; I was only commanded to do these things that were enjoined upon me.’ This is proof and evidence in support of those who say that Al-Khidr, peace be upon him, was a Prophet, along with the Ayah which we have already quoted:

(Then they found one of Our servants, on whom We had bestowed mercy from Us, and whom We had taught knowledge from Us.) [18:65]

Imam Ahmad recorded that Abu Hurayrah, may Allah be pleased with him, said that the Prophet said concerning Al-Khidr؛

(He was called Al-Khidr because he sat on a barren Farwah that turned white, then it turned green (Khadra’) beneath him.) Imam Ahmad also recorded this from `Abdur-Razzaq. It was also recorded in Sahih Al-Bukhari from Hammam from Abu Hurayrah that the Messenger of Allah said,

(He was called Al-Khidr because he sat on a barren Farwah and it turned green (Khadra’) beneath him.) The meaning of Farwah here is a patch of withered vegetation. This was the view of `Abdur-Razzaq. It was also said that it means the face of the earth.

(That is the interpretation of those (things) over which you could not be patient.) meaning, `this is the explanation of the things which you could not put up with or be patient with until I took the initiative of explaining them to you.’ When he explained them and made them clear and solved the confusion, he used a milder form of the verb,

(you could) When the matter was still confusing and very difficult, a more intensive form was used,

(I will tell you the interpretation of (those) things over which you were unable to be patient with) [18:78]. The intensity of the verbal form used reflects the intensity of the confusion felt. This is like the Ayah:

(So they (Ya`juj and Ma`juj) were not able to scale it) [18:97] which means ascending to its highest point,

(nor are they able to dig through it) [18:97] which is more difficult than the former. The intensity of the verbal form used reflects the difficulty of the action, which has to do with the subtleties of meaning. And Allah knows best. If one were to ask, what happened to the boy-servant of Musa who appears at the beginning of the story but then is not mentioned The answer is that the objective of the story is what happened between Musa and Al-Khidr. Musa’s boy-servant was with him, following him. It is clearly mentioned in the Sahih Hadiths referred to above that he was Yusha` bin Nun, who was the one who became the leader of the Children of Israel after Musa, peace be upon him.

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Prophet Musa (Moses) Alaihi Salaam, meets Al-Khidr

 I take refuge with Allaah from the accursed devil.  

بِسْمِ اللَّهِ الرَّحْمَـنِ الرَّحِيمِ 

  Bismillah-ir-Rahman-ir-Raheem: In the name of Allah, the Compassionate, the Merciful.  

 Welcome to my blog and praise the Magnificent Lord as you enter: Allahu Akbar: Allah is the Greatest .

May the Peace and Blessing of Allah Azza wa Jal, our Lord Glorified and Praised be He, be upon our beloved Prophet, his Family, and Companions.

وَإِذْ قَالَ مُوسَى لِفَتَـهُ لا أَبْرَحُ حَتَّى أَبْلُغَ مَجْمَعَ الْبَحْرَيْنِ أَوْ أَمْضِىَ حُقُباً

Prophet Musa (Moses) Alaihi Salaam, meets Al-Khidr.

(60. And (remember) when Musa said to his boy-servant: “I will not give up until I reach the junction of the two seas or a Huqub passes.”)

فَلَمَّا بَلَغَا مَجْمَعَ بَيْنِهِمَا نَسِيَا حُوتَهُمَا فَاتَّخَذَ سَبِيلَهُ فِى الْبَحْرِ سَرَباً

(61. But when they reached the junction of the two seas, they forgot their fish, and it took its way through the sea as in a tunnel.)

فَلَمَّا جَاوَزَا قَالَ لِفَتَـهُ ءَاتِنَا غَدَآءَنَا لَقَدْ لَقِينَا مِن سَفَرِنَا هَـذَا نَصَباً

(62. So when they passed further on, Musa said to his boy-servant: “Bring us our morning meal; truly, we have suffered Nasaban in this, our journey.”)

قَالَ أَرَأَيْتَ إِذْ أَوَيْنَآ إِلَى الصَّخْرَةِ فَإِنِّى نَسِيتُ الْحُوتَ وَمَآ أَنْسَانِيهُ إِلاَّ الشَّيْطَـنُ أَنْ أَذْكُرَهُ وَاتَّخَذَ سَبِيلَهُ فِى الْبَحْرِ عَجَبًا

(63. He said: “Do you remember when we betook ourselves to the rock I indeed forgot the fish; none but Shaytan made me forget to remember it. It took its course into the sea in a strange (way)!”)

 قَالَ ذَلِكَ مَا كُنَّا نَبْغِ فَارْتَدَّا عَلَى ءَاثَارِهِمَا قَصَصًا

 (64. [Musa] said: “That is what we have been seeking.” So they went back retracing their footsteps.)

فَوَجَدَا عَبْدًا مِّنْ عِبَادِنَآ ءَاتَيْنَاهُ رَحْمَةً مِّنْ عِندِنَا وَعَلَّمْنَاهُ مِن لَّدُنَّا عِلْمًا

(65. Then they found one of Our servants, on whom We had bestowed mercy from Us, and whom We had taught knowledge from Us.)

Surah 18 Al-Kahf Verse 60-65

Tafsir Ibn Kathir

The reason for Musa’s conversation with the boy-servant, Yusha` bin Nun, was that he had been told about one of the servants of Allah at the junction of the two seas, who had knowledge which Musa had not been granted, so he wanted to travel to meet him. So he said to that boy-servant of his:

(I will not give up) meaning, I will keep on traveling,

(until I reach the junction of the two seas) meaning, the place where the two seas met.

(or a Huqub passes.) meaning, even if I have to travel for a very long time. Ibn Jarir (may Allah have mercy on him) said, “Some of the scholars of the Arabic language said that Huqub means a year in the dialect of [the tribe of] Qays,” then he narrated that `Abdullah bin `Amr said, “Huqub means eighty years.” Mujahid said, “Seventy years.” `Ali bin Abi Talhah reported that Ibn `Abbas said that it means a lifetime. Qatadah and Ibn Zayd said likewise.

(But when they reached the junction of the two seas, they forgot their fish,) He had been commanded to carry a salted fish with him, and it had been said to him, when you lose the fish, that will be a sign that you have reached the right place. So they set out and traveled until they reached the junction of the two seas, where there was a spring called `Ayn Al-Hayat (the Spring of Life). They went to sleep there, and the fish felt the drops of that water, so it came back to life. It was in a vessel with Yusha`, upon him be peace, and it jumped out of the vessel towards the sea. Yusha` woke up and the fish fell into the water and started to swim through the water, leaving a track or channel behind it. Allah said:

(and it took its way through the sea as in a tunnel.) meaning, like going through a tunnel on land. Ibn Jurayj said, “Ibn `Abbas said, `It left a trace as if it were a rock.'”

(So when they had passed further on,) means, past the place where they had forgotten the fish. Forgetfulness is attributed to them both even though it was actually Yusha` who forgot. This is like the Ayah:

(Out of them both come out pearl and coral.) [55:22], although they come from the salt water, according to one of the two opinions. When they had passed one stage beyond the place where they had forgotten the fish,

([Musa] said to his boy-servant: “Bring us our morning meal; truly, we have suffered in this, our journey) meaning, their journey beyond the place where they should have stopped.

(Nasaban) means, exhaustion.

(He said: “Do you remember when we betook ourselves to the rock I indeed forgot the fish; none but Shaytan made me forget to remember it…”) Then he said,

(It took its course), meaning its path,

(“…into the sea in a strange (way)!” [Musa] said: “That is what we have been seeking.”) meaning, this is what we have been looking for.

(So they went back )

(their footsteps.)

(Then they found one of Our servants, on whom We had bestowed mercy from Us, and whom We had taught knowledge from Us.) This was Al-Khidr, peace be upon him, as is indicated by the authentic Hadiths narrated from the Messenger of Allah . Al-Bukhari recorded that Sa`id bin Jubayr said, “I said to Ibn `Abbas: `Nawf Al-Bikali claims that Musa, the companion of Al-Khidr was not the Musa of the Children of Israel.’ Ibn `Abbas said, `The enemy of Allah has told a lie.’ Ubayy bin Ka`b narrated that he heard the Messenger of Allah say,

(Musa got up to deliver a speech before the Children of Israel and he was asked, “Who is the most learned person among the people” Musa replied, “I am.” Allah rebuked him because he did not refer the knowledge to Allah. So Allah revealed to him: “At the junction of the two seas there is a servant of Ours who is more learned than you.” Musa asked, “O my Lord, how can I meet him” Allah said, “Take a fish and put it in a vessel and then set out, and where you lose the fish, you will find him.” So Musa took a fish, put it in a vessel and set out, along with his boy-servant Yusha` bin Nun, peace be upon him, till they reached a rock (on which) they both lay down their heads and slept. The fish moved vigorously in the vessel and got out of it and fell into the sea and there it took its way through the sea (straight) as in a tunnel. Allah stopped the flow of water on both sides of the way created by the fish, and so that way was like a tunnel. When Musa got up, his companion forgot to tell him about the fish, and so they carried on their journey during the rest of the day and the whole night. The next morning Musa said to his boy-servant, (“Bring us our morning meal; truly, we have suffered much fatigue in this, our journey.”)

Musa did not get tired till he had passed the place that Allah had ordered him to look for. His boy-servant then said to him, (“Do you remember when we betook ourselves to the rock I indeed forgot the fish; none but Shaytan made me forget to remember it. It took its course into the sea in a strange way.”) There was a tunnel for the fish and Musa and his boy-servant were amazed. Musa said, (“That is what we have been seeking.” So they went back retracing their footsteps.”) So they went back retracing their steps until they reached the rock. There they found a man covered with a garment. Musa greeted him. Al-Khidr said, “Is there such a greeting in your land” Musa said, “I am Musa.” He said, “Are you the Musa of the Children of Israel” Musa said, “Yes,” and added, “I have come to you so that you may teach me something of that knowledge which you have been taught.” Al-Khidr said, (“You will not be able to have patience with me.) O Musa! I have some of Allah’s knowledge which He has bestowed upon me but you do not know it; and you too, have some of Allah’s knowledge which He has bestowed upon you, but I do not know it.

Musa said, (“If Allah wills, you will find me patient, and I will not disobey you in aught.”) Al-Khidr said to him, (“Then, if you follow me, ask me not about anything till I myself mention it to you.”) So they set out walking along the shore, until a boat passed by and they asked the crew to let them go on board. The crew recognized Al-Khidr and allowed them to go on board free of charge. When they went on board, suddenly Musa saw that Al-Khidr had pulled out one of the planks of the ship with an adz. Musa said to him, “These people gave us a free ride, yet you have broken their boat so that its people will drown! Verily, you have done a terrible thing! (“Al-Khidr said, “Did I not tell you, that you would not be able to have patience with me”) (Musa said, “Call me not to account for what I forgot and be not hard upon me for my affair (with you). ”)) The Messenger of Allah said,

(In the first instance, Musa asked Al-Khidr because he had forgotten his promise. Then a bird came and sat on the edge of the boat, dipping its beak once or twice in the sea. Al-Khidr said to Musa, “My knowledge and your knowledge, in comparison to Allah’s knowledge, is like what this bird has taken out of the sea.” Then they both disembarked from the boat, and while they were walking on the shore, Al-Khidr saw a boy playing with other boys. Al-Khidr took hold of the boy’s head and pulled it off with his hands, killing him. Musa said to him, (“Have you killed an innocent person who had killed none! Verily, you have committed a thing Nukr!” He said, “Did I not tell you that you would not be able to have patience with me”)

[The narrator] said, “The second blame was stronger than the first one”. (Musa said, “If I ask you anything after this, keep me not in your company; you have received an excuse from me.” Then they both proceeded until they came to the people of a town. They asked them for food but they refused to entertain them. (Then) they found there a wall on the point of falling down.) (Al-Khidr) set it up straight with his own hands. Musa said, “We came to these people, but they neither fed us nor received us as guests. (If you had wished, surely, you could have taken wages for it!” (Al-Khidr) said: “This is the parting between you and I. I will tell you the interpretation of (those) things over which you were unable to be patient.”) The Messenger of Allah said:

(We wish that Musa was patient so that Allah would have told us more about both of them.) Sa`id bin Jubayr said: “Ibn `Abbas used to recite [Ayah no. 79] There was a king before them who seized every good-conditioned ship by force) and [Ayah no 80] (وَأَمَّا الْغُلَامُ فَكَانَ كَافِرًا وَكَانَ أَبَوَاهُ مُؤْمِنَيْنِ) (As for the boy, he was a disbeliever and his parents were believers.) Then (in another narration) Al-Bukhari recorded a similar account which says:

(…then Musa set out and with him was his boy-servant Yusha` bin Nun, and they had the fish with them. When they reached the rock, they camped there, and Musa lay down his head and slept. At the base of the rock there was a spring called Al-Hayat; its water never touched a thing but it brought it to life. Some of its water touched the fish, so it began to move and jumped out of the vessel and into the sea. When he woke up, Musa said to his boy-servant: (Bring us our morning meal.)) Then he quoted the rest of the Hadith. Then a bird came and perched on the edge of the ship, and dipped its beak in the sea, and Al-Khidr said to Musa, “My knowledge and your knowledge and the knowledge of all of creation, in comparison to the knowledge of Allah, is like what this bird has taken from the sea.” Then he mentioned the rest of the report.

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The Children of Israel are scattered into groups throughout the earth

 I take refuge with Allaah from the accursed devil.  

بِسْمِ اللَّهِ الرَّحْمَـنِ الرَّحِيمِ 

  Bismillah-ir-Rahman-ir-Raheem: In the name of Allah, the Compassionate, the Merciful.  

 Welcome to my blog and praise the Magnificent Lord as you enter: Allahu Akbar: Allah is the Greatest .

May the Peace and Blessing of Allah Azza wa Jal, our Lord Glorified and Praised be He, be upon our beloved Prophet, his Family, and Companions.

The Children of Israel are scattered into groups throughout the earth.

وَقَطَّعْنَـهُمْ فِي الاٌّرْضِ أُمَمًا مِّنْهُمُ الصَّـلِحُونَ وَمِنْهُمْ دُونَ ذَلِكَ وَبَلَوْنَـهُمْ بِالْحَسَنَـتِ وَالسَّيِّئَاتِ لَعَلَّهُمْ يَرْجِعُونَ

(168. And We have broken them (the Jews) up into various separate groups on the earth: some of them are righteous and some are away from that. And We tried them with good (blessings) and evil (calamities) in order that they might turn (to Allah).)

فَخَلَفَ مِن بَعْدِهِمْ خَلْفٌ وَرِثُواْ الْكِتَـبَ يَأْخُذُونَ عَرَضَ هَـذَا الاٌّدْنَى وَيَقُولُونَ سَيُغْفَرُ لَنَا وَإِن يَأْتِهِمْ عَرَضٌ مِّثْلُهُ يَأْخُذُوهُ أَلَمْ يُؤْخَذْ عَلَيْهِم مِّيثَاقُ الْكِتَـبِ أَن لاَّ يِقُولُواْ عَلَى اللَّهِ إِلاَّ الْحَقَّ وَدَرَسُواْ مَا فِيهِ وَالدَّارُ الاٌّخِرَةُ خَيْرٌ لِّلَّذِينَ يَتَّقُونَ أَفَلاَ تَعْقِلُونَ

(169. Then after them succeeded an (evil) generation, which inherited the Book, but they chose (for themselves) the goods of this low life saying: “(Everything) will be forgiven to us.” And if (again) the offer of the like (evil pleasures of this world) came their way, they would (again) seize them (would commit those sins). Was not the covenant of the Book taken from them that they would not say about Allah anything but the truth And they have studied what is in it (the Book). And the home in the Hereafter is better for those who have Taqwa. Do not you then understand)

 وَالَّذِينَ يُمَسِّكُونَ بِالْكِتَـبِ وَأَقَامُواْ الصَّلَوةَ إِنَّا لاَ نُضِيعُ أَجْرَ الْمُصْلِحِينَ

 (170. And as to those who hold fast to the Book (act on its teachings) and perform the Salah, certainly We shall never waste the reward of those who do righteous deeds.)

Surah 7 Al Araf Verse 168-170

Tafsir Ibn Kathir

Allah states that He divided the Jews into various nations, sects and groups,

(And We said to the Children of Israel after him (after Musa died): “Dwell in the land, then, when the final and the last promise comes near, We shall bring you altogether as a mixed crowd (gathered out of various nations).”)[17:104]

(some of them are righteous and some are away from that), some of them are led aright and some are not righteous, just as the Jinns declared,

(“There are among us some that are righteous, and some the contrary; we are groups having different ways (religious sects).”) [72:11] Allah said here,

(And We tried them), and tested them,

(with good and evil), with times of ease, difficulty, eagerness, fear, well-being and affliction,

(in order that they might turn (to Allah)) Allah said next,

(Then after them succeeded an (evil) generation, which inherited the Book, but they chose (for themselves) the goods of this low life) This Ayah means, after the generation made up of righteous and unrighteous people, another generation came that did not have goodness in them, and they inherited the Tawrah and studied it. Mujahid commented on Allah’s statement,

(They chose (for themselves) the goods of this low life) “They will consume anything they can consume in this life, whether legally or illegally. Yet, they wish for forgiveness,

(Saying: “(Everything) will be forgiven for us.” And if (again) the offer of the like came their way, they would (again) seize them.)” Qatadah commented on Allah’s statement,

(they chose (for themselves) the goods of this low life) “This, by Allah, is an evil generation,

(which inherited the Book) after their Prophets and Messengers, for they were entrusted with this job by Allah’s command to them. Allah said in another Ayah,

(Then, there has succeeded them a posterity who neglect the Salah (the prayers).) [19:59] Allah said next,

(They chose the goods of this low life saying: “(Everything) will be forgiven to us.”) They wish and hope from Allah, while deceiving themselves,

(And if (again) the offer of the like came their way, they would (again) seize them.) Nothing stops them from this behavior, for whenever they are given an opportunity in this life, they will consume regardless of it being allowed or not.” As-Suddi said about Allah’s statement,

(Then after them succeeded an (evil) generation) until,

(and they have studied what is in it (the Book).) “Every time the Children of Israel appointed a judge, he used to take bribes. The best ones among them held a counsel and took covenants from each that they would not take bribes. However, when one of them would take bribes in return for judgment and was asked, `What is the matter with you; you take a bribe to grant judgment’, he replied, `I will be forgiven.’ So the rest of his people would admonish him for what he did. But when he died, or was replaced, the one who replaced him would take bribes too. Therefore, Allah says, if the others (who admonished him) would have a chance to loot this world, they will take it.”’ Allah said,

(Was not the covenant of the Book taken from them that they would not say about Allah anything but the truth) thus, admonishing them for this behavior. Allah took a pledge from them that they would declare the truth to people and not hide it. Allah said in another Ayah,

((And remember) when Allah took a covenant from those who were given the Scripture to make it known and clear to mankind, and not to hide it, but they threw it away behind their backs, and purchased with it some miserable gain! And indeed worst is that which they bought) [3:187]. Ibn Jurayj said that Ibn `Abbas said about the Ayah

(Was not the covenant of the Book taken from them that they would not say about Allah anything but the truth), “Their claim that Allah will forgive the sins they keep committing without repenting from them.” Allah said,

(And the home in the Hereafter is better for those who have Taqwa Do not you then understand) Encouraging them to seek Allah’s tremendous reward and warning them against His severe torment. Allah says here, `My reward and what I have are better for those who avoid prohibitions, abandon lusts and become active in the obedience of their Lord.’

(Do not you then understand) Allah says’ Do not these people, who preferred this life instead of what is with Me, have any sense to prohibit them from their foolish and extravagant ways’ Allah then praises those who adhere to His Book, which directs them to follow His Messenger Muhammad ,

(And as to those who hold fast to the Book) adhere to it, implement its commands and refrain from its prohibitions,

(and perform the Salah, certainly We shall never waste the reward of those who do righteous deeds.)

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The Murdered Man and the Cow

 I take refuge with Allaah from the accursed devil.  

بِسْمِ اللَّهِ الرَّحْمَـنِ الرَّحِيمِ 

  Bismillah-ir-Rahman-ir-Raheem: In the name of Allah, the Compassionate, the Merciful.  

 Welcome to my blog and praise the Magnificent Lord as you enter: Allahu Akbar: Allah is the Greatest .

May the Peace and Blessing of Allah Azza wa Jal, our Lord Glorified and Praised be He, be upon our beloved Prophet, his Family, and Companions.

The Murdered Man and the Cow.

وَإِذْ قَالَ مُوسَى لِقَوْمِهِ إِنَّ اللَّهَ يَأْمُرُكُمْ أَن تَذْبَحُواْ بَقَرَةً قَالُواْ أَتَتَّخِذُنَا هُزُوًا قَالَ أَعُوذُ بِاللَّهِ أَنْ أَكُونَ مِنَ الْجَـهِلِينَ

(67. And (remember) when Musa said to his people: “Verily, Allah commands you that you slaughter a cow.” They said, “Do you make fun of us” He said, “I take Allah’s refuge from being among Al-Jahilin (the ignorant or the foolish).”)

Surah 2 Al Baqarah Verse 67

Tafsir Ibn Kathir

Allah said, `O Children of Israel! Remember how I blessed you with miracle of the cow that was the means for discovering the identity of the murderer, when the murdered man was brought back to life.’

Ibn Abi Hatim recorded `Ubaydah As-Salmani saying, “There was a man from among the Children of Israel who was impotent. He had substantial wealth, and only a nephew who would inherit from him. So his nephew killed him and moved his body at night, placing it at the doorstep of a certain man. The next morning, the nephew cried out for revenge, and the people took up their weapons and almost fought each other. The wise men among them said, `Why would you kill each other, while the Messenger of Allah is still among you’ So they went to Musa and mentioned the matter to him and Musa said,

(“Verily, Allah commands you that you slaughter a cow.” They said, “Do you make fun of us” He said, “I take Allah’s refuge from being among Al-Jahilin (the ignorant or the foolish)).” “Had they not disputed, it would have been sufficient for them to slaughter any cow. However, they disputed, and the matter was made more difficult for them, until they ended up looking for the specific cow that they were later ordered to slaughter. They found the designated cow with a man, only who owned that cow. He said, `By Allah! I will only sell it for its skin’s fill of gold.’ So they paid the cow’s fill of its skin in gold, slaughtered it and touched the dead man with a part of it. He stood up, and they asked him, `Who killed you’ He said, `That man,’ and pointed to his nephew. He died again, and his nephew was not allowed to inherit him. Thereafter, whoever committed murder for the purpose of gaining inheritance was not allowed to inherit.” Ibn Jarir reported something similar to that. Allah knows best.

قَالُواْ ادْعُ لَنَا رَبَّكَ يُبَيِّنَ لَّنَا مَا هِىَ قَالَ إِنَّهُ يَقُولُ إِنَّهَا بَقَرَةٌ لاَّ فَارِضٌ وَلاَ بِكْرٌ عَوَانٌ بَيْنَ ذلِكَ فَافْعَلُواْ مَا تُؤْمَرونَ

(68. They said, “Call upon your Lord for us that He may make plain to us what it is!” He said, “He says, `Verily, it is a cow neither too old nor too young, but (it is) between the two conditions’, so do what you are commanded.”)

 قَالُواْ ادْعُ لَنَا رَبَّكَ يُبَيِّن لَّنَا مَا لَوْنُهَا قَالَ إِنَّهُ يَقُولُ إِنَّهَا بَقَرَةٌ صَفْرَآءُ فَاقِـعٌ لَّوْنُهَا تَسُرُّ النَّـظِرِينَ

(69. They said, “Call upon your Lord for us to make plain to us its colour.” He said, “He says, `It is a yellow cow, bright in its colour, pleasing the beholders.’ ”)

قَالُواْ ادْعُ لَنَا رَبَّكَ يُبَيِّن لَّنَا مَا هِىَ إِنَّ البَقَرَ تَشَـبَهَ عَلَيْنَا وَإِنَّآ إِن شَآءَ اللَّهُ لَمُهْتَدُونَ

(70. They said, “Call upon your Lord for us to make plain to us what it is. Verily, to us all cows are alike. And surely, if Allah wills, we will be guided.”)

قَالَ إِنَّهُ يَقُولُ إِنَّهَا بَقَرَةٌ لاَّ ذَلُولٌ تُثِيرُ الاٌّرْضَ وَلاَ تَسْقِى الْحَرْثَ مُسَلَّمَةٌ لاَّ شِيَةَ فِيهَا قَالُواْ الَـنَ جِئْتَ بِالْحَقِّ فَذَبَحُوهَا وَمَا كَادُواْ يَفْعَلُونَ

(71. He (Musa) said, “He says, `It is a cow neither trained to till the soil nor water the fields, sound, having no blemish in it.’ ” They said, “Now you have brought the truth.” So they slaughtered it though they were near to not doing it.)

Surah 2 Al Baqarah Verse 68-71

Tafsir Ibn Kathir

Allah mentioned the stubbornness of the Children of Israel and the many unnecessary questions they asked their Messengers. This is why when they were stubborn, Allah made the decisions difficult for them. Had they slaughtered a cow, any cow, it would have been sufficient for them, as Ibn `Abbas and `Ubaydah have said. Instead, they made the matter difficult, and this is why Allah made it even more difficult for them. They said,

(Call upon your Lord for us that He may make plain to us what it is!), meaning, “What is this cow and what is its description” Musa said,

(He says, `Verily, it is a cow neither too old nor too young’), meaning, that it is neither old nor below the age of breeding. This is the opinion of Abu Al-`Aliyah, As-Suddi, Mujahid, `Ikrimah, `Atiyah Al-`Awfi, `Ata’, Al-Khurasani, Wahb bin Munabbih, Ad-Dahhak, Al-Hasan, Qatadah and Ibn `Abbas. Ad-Dahhak reported that Ibn `Abbas said that,

(But (it is) between the two conditions) means, “Neither old nor young. Rather, she was at the age when the cow is strongest and fittest.” In his Tafsir Al-`Awfi reported from Ibn `Abbas that,

(bright in its colour) “A deep yellowish white.”

As-Suddi said,

(pleasing the beholder) meaning, that it pleases those who see it. This is also the opinion of Abu Al-`Aliyah, Qatadah and Ar-Rabi` bin Anas. Furthermore, Wahb bin Munabbih said, “If you look at the cow’s skin, you will think that the sun’s rays radiate through its skin.” The modern version of the Tawrah mentions that the cow in the Ayah was red, but this is an error. Or, it might be that the cow was so yellow that it appeared blackish or reddish in color. Allah’s knows best.

(Verily, to us all cows are alike) this means, that since cows are plentiful, then describe this cow for us further,

(And surely, if Allah wills) and if you further describe it to us,

(we will be guided.)

(He says, `It is a cow neither trained to till the soil nor water the fields’) meaning, it is not used in farming, or for watering purposes. Rather, it is honorable and fair looking. `Abdur-Razzaq said that Ma`mar said that Qatadah said that,

(sound) means, “The cow does not suffer from any defects.” This is also the opinion of Abu Al-`Aliyah and Ar-Rabi`. Mujahid also said that the Ayah means the cow is free from defects. Further, `Ata’ Al-Khurasani said that the Ayah means that its legs and body are free of physical defects.

Also, Ad-Dahhak said that Ibn `Abbas said that the Ayah,

(So they slaughtered it though they were near to not doing it) means, “They did not want to slaughter it.”

This means that even after all the questions and answers about the cow’s description, the Jews were still reluctant to slaughter the cow. This part of the Qur’an criticized the Jews for their behavior, because their only goal was to be stubborn, and this is why they nearly did not slaughter the cow. Also, `Ubaydah, Mujahid, Wahb bin Munabbih, Abu Al-`Aliyah and `Abdur-Rahman bin Zayd bin Aslam said, “The Jews bought the cow with a large amount of money.” There is a difference of opinion over this.

 وَإِذْ قَتَلْتُمْ نَفْسًا فَادَرَأْتُمْ فِيهَا وَاللَّهُ مُخْرِجٌ مَّا كُنتُمْ تَكْتُمُونَ

(72. And (remember) when you killed a man and disagreed among yourselves as to the crime. But Allah brought forth that which you were Taktumun.)

فَقُلْنَا اضْرِبُوهُ بِبَعْضِهَا كَذَلِكَ يُحْىِ اللَّهُ الْمَوْتَى وَيُرِيكُمْ آيَـتِهِ لَعَلَّكُمْ تَعْقِلُونَ

(73. So We said: “Strike him (the dead man) with a piece of it (the cow).” Thus Allah brings the dead to life and shows you His Ayat (proofs, evidences, etc.) so that you may understand.)

Surah 2 Al Baqarah Verse 72-73

Tafsir Ibn Kathir

Al-Bukhari said that,

(And disagreed among yourselves as to the crime) means, “Disputed.”

This is also the Tafsir of Mujahid. `Ata’ Al-Khurasani and Ad-Dahhak said, “Disputed about this matter.” Also, Ibn Jurayj said that,

 (And (remember) when you killed a man and disagreed among yourselves as to the crime) means, some of them said, “You killed him,” while the others said, “No you killed him.” This is also the Tafsir of `Abdur-Rahman bin Zayd bin Aslam. Mujahid said that,

(But Allah brought forth that which you were Taktumun) means, “what you were hiding.”

Allah said,

(So We said: “Strike him (the dead man) with a piece of it (the cow)”) meaning, “any part of the cow will produce the miracle (if they struck the dead man with it).” We were not told which part of the cow they used, as this matter does not benefit us either in matters of life or religion. Otherwise, Allah would have made it clear for us. Instead, Allah made this matter vague, so this is why we should leave it vague. Allah’s statement, 

(Thus Allah brings the dead to life) means, “They struck him with it, and he came back to life.” This Ayah demonstrates Allah’s ability in bringing the dead back to life. Allah made this incident proof against the Jews that the Resurrection shall occur, and ended their disputing and stubbornness over the dead person.

Allah mentioned His bringing the dead back to life in five instances in Surat Al-Baqarah. First Allah said,

(Then We raised you up after your death). He then mentioned the story about the cow. Allah also mentioned the story of those who escaped death in their land, while they were numbering in the thousands. He also mentioned the story of the Prophet who passed by a village that was destroyed, the story of Abraham and the four birds, and the land that comes back to life after it has died. All these incidents and stories alert us to the fact that bodies shall again become whole, after they were rotten. The proof of Resurrection is also reiterated in Allah’s statement,

(And a sign for them is the dead land. We give it life, and We bring forth from it grains, so that they eat thereof. And We have made therein gardens of date palms and grapes, and We have caused springs of water to gush forth therein. So that they may eat of the fruit thereof ـ and their hands made it not. Will they not then give thanks) (36:33-35).

ثُمَّ قَسَتْ قُلُوبُكُمْ مِّن بَعْدِ ذلِكَ فَهِىَ كَالْحِجَارَةِ أَوْ أَشَدُّ قَسْوَةً وَإِنَّ مِنَ الْحِجَارَةِ لَمَا يَتَفَجَّرُ مِنْهُ الأَنْهَـرُ وَإِنَّ مِنْهَا لَمَا يَشَّقَّقُ فَيَخْرُجُ مِنْهُ الْمَآءُ وَإِنَّ مِنْهَا لَمَا يَهْبِطُ مِنْ خَشْيَةِ اللَّهِ وَمَا اللَّهُ بِغَـفِلٍ عَمَّا تَعْمَلُونَ

(74. Then after that your hearts were hardened and became as stones or even worse in hardness. And indeed, there are stones out of which rivers gush forth, and indeed, there are of them (stones) which split asunder so that water flows from them, and indeed, there are of them (stones) which fall down for fear of Allah. And Allah is not unaware of what you do.)

Surah 2 Al Baqarah Verse 74

Tafsir Ibn Kathir

Allah criticized the Children of Israel because they witnessed the tremendous signs and the Ayat of Allah, including bringing the dead back to life, yet,

(Then after that your hearts were hardened).

So their hearts were like stones that never become soft. This is why Allah forbade the believers from imitating the Jews when He said,

( Has not the time come for the hearts of those who believe (in the Oneness of Allah ـ Islamic Monotheism) to be affected by Allah’s Reminder (this Qur’an), and that which has been revealed of the truth, lest they become as those who received the Scripture (the Tawrah) and the Injil (Gospel)) before (i.e. Jews and Christians), and the term was prolonged for them and so their hearts were hardened And many of them were Fasiqun (the rebellious, the disobedient to Allah)) (57:16). v In his Tafsir, Al-`Awfi said that Ibn `Abbas said, “When the dead man was struck with a part of the cow, he stood up and became more alive than he ever was. He was asked, `Who killed you’ He said, `My nephews killed me.’ He then died again. His nephews said, after Allah took his life away, `By Allah! We did not kill him’ and denied the truth while they knew it. Allah said,

(And became as stones or even worse in hardness). ”

And by the passage of time, the hearts of the Children of Israel were unlikely to accept any admonishment, even after the miracles and signs they withnessed. Their hearts became harder than stones, with no hope of ever softening. Sometimes, springs and rivers burst out of stones, some stones split and water comes out of them, even if there are no springs or rivers around them, sometimes stones fall down from mountaintops out of their fear of Allah. Muhammad bin Ishaq narrated that Ibn `Abbas said that,

(And indeed, there are stones out of which rivers gush forth, and indeed, there are of them (stones) which split asunder so that water flows from them, and indeed, there are of them (stones) which fall down for fear of Allah), means, “Some stones are softer than your hearts, they acknowledge the truth that you are being called to,

(And Allah is not unaware of what you do).”

Some claimed that the Ayat mentioned the stones being humble as a metaphor. However, Ar-Razi, Al-Qurtubi and other Imams said that there is no need for this explanation, because Allah creates this characteristic – humbleness – in stones. For instance, Allah said,

(Truly, We did offer Al-Amanah (the trust) to the heavens and the earth, and the mountains, but they declined to bear it and were afraid of it (i.e. afraid of Allah’s torment)) (33:72),

(The seven heavens and the earth and all that is therein, glorify Him) (17:44),

(And the stars and the trees both prostrate themselves (to Allah)) (55:6),

(Have they not observed things that Allah has created: (how) their shadows incline) (16:48),

(They both said: “We come willingly.”) (41:11),

(Had We sent down this Qur’an on a mountain) (59:21), and,

(And they will say to their skins, “Why do you testify against us” They will say: “Allah has caused us to speak.”) (41:21).

It is recorded in the Sahih that the Prophet said,

(This (Mount Uhud) is a mount that loves us and that we love.)

Similarly, the compassion of the stump of the palm tree for the Prophet as confirmed in authentic narrations. In Sahih Muslim it is recorded that the Prophet said,

(I know a stone in Makkah that used to greet me with the Salam before I was sent. I recognize this stone now.)

He said about the Black Stone that,

(On the Day of Resurrection it will testifiy for those who kiss it.)

There are several other texts with this meaning. The scholars of the Arabic language disagreed over the meaning of Allah’s statement,

(And became as stones or even worse in hardness) after agreeing that `or’ here is not being used to reflect doubt. Some scholars said that `or’ here means, `and’. So the meaning becomes, “As hard as stones, and harder.” For instance, Allah said,

(And obey not a sinner or a disbeliever among them) (76:24), and,

(To cut off all excuses or to warn) (77:6).

Some other scholars said that `or’ here means, `rather’. Hence, the meaning becomes, `As hard as stones. Rather, harder.’ For instance, Allah said,

(A section of them fear men as they fear Allah or even more) (4:77),

(And We sent him to a hundred thousand (people) or even more) (37:147), and,

(And was at a distance of two bows’ length or (even) nearer) (53:9).

Some other scholars said that this Ayah means their hearts are only of two types, as hard as stone or harder than stone. Further, Ibn Jarir commented that this Tafsir means that some of their hearts are as hard as stone and some hearts are harder than stone. Ibn Jarir said that he favored this last Tafsir, although the others are plausible. I – Ibn Kathir – say that the last Tafsir is similar to Allah’s statement,

 (Their likeness is as the likeness of one who kindled a fire) (2:17), and then His statement,

(Or like a rainstorm from the sky) (2:19).

It is also similar to Allah’s statement,

(As for those who disbelieved, their deeds are like a mirage in a desert) (24:39), and then His statement, 

(Or (the state of a disbeliever) is like the darkness in a vast deep sea) (24:40).

This then means that some of them are like the first example, and some others are like the second example. Allah knows best.

www.tafsir.com

The Sabbath and its Violations

 I take refuge with Allaah from the accursed devil.  

بِسْمِ اللَّهِ الرَّحْمَـنِ الرَّحِيمِ 

  Bismillah-ir-Rahman-ir-Raheem: In the name of Allah, the Compassionate, the Merciful.  

 Welcome to my blog and praise the Magnificent Lord as you enter: Allahu Akbar: Allah is the Greatest .

May the Peace and Blessing of Allah Azza wa Jal, our Lord Glorified and Praised be He, be upon our beloved Prophet, his Family, and Companions.

The Sabbath and its Violations.

يَسْأَلُكَ أَهْلُ الْكِتَـبِ أَن تُنَزِّلَ عَلَيْهِمْ كِتَـباً مِّنَ السَّمَآءِ فَقَدْ سَأَلُواْ مُوسَى أَكْبَرَ مِن ذلِكَ فَقَالُواْ أَرِنَا اللَّهِ جَهْرَةً فَأَخَذَتْهُمُ الصَّـعِقَةُ بِظُلْمِهِمْ ثُمَّ اتَّخَذُواْ الْعِجْلَ مِن بَعْدِ مَا جَآءَتْهُمُ الْبَيِّنَـتُ فَعَفَوْنَا عَن ذلِكَ وَءَاتَيْنَا مُوسَى سُلْطَـناً مُّبِيناً

(153. The People of the Scripture (Jews) ask you to cause a book to descend upon them from heaven. Indeed, they asked Musa for even greater than that, when they said: “Show us Allah in public,” but they were struck with a bolt of lightning for their wickedness. Then they worshipped the calf even after Al-Bayyinat had come to them. (Even) so We forgave them. And We gave Musa a clear proof of authority.)

 وَرَفَعْنَا فَوْقَهُمُ الطُّورَ بِمِيثَـقِهِمْ وَقُلْنَا لَهُمُ ادْخُلُواْ الْبَابَ سُجَّداً وَقُلْنَا لَهُمْ لاَ تَعْدُواْ فِى السَّبْتِ وَأَخَذْنَا مِنْهُمْ مِّيثَـقاً غَلِيظاً

(154. And for their covenant, We raised over them the mount and (on the other occasion) We said: “Enter the gate prostrating (or bowing) with humility;” and We commanded them: “Transgress not on the Sabbath (Saturday).” And We took from them a firm covenant.)

Surah 4 An Nisa Verse 153-154

Tafsir Ibn Kathir

Muhammad bin Ka`b Al-Qurazi, As-Suddi and Qatadah said that the Jews asked the Messenger of Allah to cause a book to come down to them from heaven, just as the Tawrah was sent down to Musa. Ibn Jurayj said that the Jews asked the Messenger to cause books to come down to them addressed to so-and-so among them, testifying to the truth of what he was sent with. The Jews only asked for this because of their stubbornness, defiance, rejection and disbelief. The disbelievers of Quraysh also asked for similar things from the Prophet, as is mentioned in Surat Al-Isra’,

(And they say: “We shall not believe in you, until you cause a spring to gush forth from the earth for us;) (17:90) Allah said,

(Indeed, they asked Musa for even greater than that, when they said, “Show us Allah in public,” but they were struck with a bolt of lightning for their wickedness.) injustice, transgression, defiance and rebellion. This part was explained in Surat Al-Baqarah,

(And (remember) when you said: “O Musa! We shall never believe in you until we see Allah plainly.” But you were struck by a bolt of lightning while you were looking. Then We raised you up after your death, so that you might be grateful.) (2:55,56) Allah’s statement,

(Then they worshipped the calf even after Al-Bayyinat had come to them.) meaning, after they witnessed the tremendous miracles and unequivocal proofs at the hand of Musa in Egypt. They also witnessed the demise of their enemy, Fir`awn and his soldiers, when they all drowned in the sea. Yet soon after, when they passed by a people who were worshipping idols, they said to Musa,

(Make for us a god as they have gods.) Allah explains the story of the Jews worshipping the calf in Surat Al-A`raf (7) and Surah Ta Ha (20) after Musa went to meet with his Lord. When Musa returned, Allah decreed that in order for the Jews to earn accepted repentance, then those who did not worship the calf would have to kill those who worshipped it. They complied with this command, and Allah resurrected them afterwards. Allah said here,

((Even) so We forgave them. And We gave Musa a clear proof of authority. ) Allah then said,

(And for their covenant, We raised over them the mount,) This was when they refrained from implementing the rulings of the Tawrah and refused what Musa brought them from Allah. So Allah raised the mountain above their heads and they were ordered to prostrate, which they did. Even so, they were looking above when they were prostrating for fear that the mountain might fall on them,

(And (remember) when We raised the mountain over them as if it had been a canopy, and they thought that it was going to fall on them. (We said): “Hold firmly to what We have given you.”) Allah then said,

(and We said, “Enter the gate prostrating (or bowing) with humility;”) meaning that they also defied this command in word and action. They were commanded to enter Bayt Al-Quds (in Jerusalem) while bowing and saying “Hittah”, meaning: `O Allah! take from us our sin of abandoning Jihad.’ This was the cause of their wandering in the desert of Tih for forty years. Yet, they entered the House while crawling on their rear ends and saying `Hintah (a wheat grain) in Sha`rah (the hair)’.

(and We commanded them, “Transgress not the Sabbath (Saturday).”) meaning, We commanded them to honor the Sabbath and honor what Allah prohibited them on that day.

(And We took from them a firm covenant.) meaning, strong covenant. They rebelled, transgressed and committed what Allah prohibited by using deceit and trickery, as is mentioned in Surat Al-A`raf (7),

(And ask them about the town that was by the sea.)

وَسْئَلْهُمْ عَنِ الْقَرْيَةِ الَّتِى كَانَتْ حَاضِرَةَ الْبَحْرِ إِذْ يَعْدُونَ فِى السَّبْتِ إِذْ تَأْتِيهِمْ حِيتَانُهُمْ يَوْمَ سَبْتِهِمْ شُرَّعًا وَيَوْمَ لاَ يَسْبِتُونَ لاَ تَأْتِيهِمْ كَذَلِكَ نَبْلُوهُم بِمَا كَانُوا يَفْسُقُونَ

(163. And ask them about the town that was by the sea; when they transgressed in the matter of the Sabbath: when their fish came to them openly on the Sabbath day, and did not come to them on the day they had no Sabbath. Thus We made a trial for them, for they used to rebel against Allah’s command.)

Surah 7 Al Araf Verse 163

Tafsir Ibn Kathir

This Ayah explains Allah’s statement,

(And indeed you knew those among you who transgressed in the matter of the Sabbath..) [2:65] Allah says to His Prophet here,

(And ask them) ask the Jews who are with you, about the story of their fellow Jews who defied Allah’s command, so that His punishment overtook them all of a sudden for their evil actions, transgression and defiance by way of deceit. Also, warn the Jews (O Muhammad) against hiding your description that they find in their books, so that they do not suffer what their forefathers suffered. The village mentioned here is Aylah, on the shore of the Qulzum (Red) Sea. Muhammad bin Ishaq recorded from Dawud bin Al-Husayn from `Ikrimah that Ibn `Abbas commented on Allah’s statement,

(And ask them about the town that was by the sea…) “A village called Aylah between Madyan and At-Tur (which is in Sinai). `Ikrimah, Mujahid, Qatadah and As-Suddi said similarly. Allah’s statement,

(when they transgressed in the matter of the Sabbath;) means, they transgressed in the Sabbath and defied Allah’s command to them to keep it sanctified,

(when their fish came to them openly on the Sabbath day,) visible on top of the water, according to Ad-Dahhak who reported it from Ibn `Abbas. Ibn Jarir said, “Allah’s statement,

(and did not come to them on the day they had no Sabbath. Thus We made a trial of them,) means, this is how We tested them by making the fish swim close to the surface of the water , on the day which they were prohibited to fish. The fish would be hidden from them on the day when they were allowed to fish,

(Thus We made a trial for them,) so that We test them,

(for they used to rebel against Allah’s command) by defying His obedience and rebelling against it.” Therefore, these were a people who used a trick to violate Allah’s prohibitions, taking an action that seemed legal on the surface. However, in reality, this action was meant to transgress the prohibition. Imam and scholar Abu `Abdullah Ibn Battah reported that Abu Hurayrah said that the Messenger of Allah said,

(Do not repeat what the Jews committed, and violate Allah’s prohibitions using deceitful tricks.) This Hadith has a reasonable chain.

وَإِذْ قَالَتْ أُمَّةٌ مِّنْهُمْ لِمَ تَعِظُونَ قَوْمًا اللَّهُ مُهْلِكُهُمْ أَوْ مُعَذِّبُهُمْ عَذَاباً شَدِيدًا قَالُواْ مَعْذِرَةً إِلَى رَبِّكُمْ وَلَعَلَّهُمْ يَتَّقُونَ

(164. And when a community among them said: “Why do you preach to a people whom Allah is about to destroy or to punish with a severe torment” (The preachers) said: “In order to be free from guilt before your Lord (Allah), and perhaps they may fear Allah.”)

فَلَمَّا نَسُواْ مَا ذُكِّرُواْ بِهِ أَنجَيْنَا الَّذِينَ يَنْهَوْنَ عَنِ السُّوءِ وَأَخَذْنَا الَّذِينَ ظَلَمُواْ بِعَذَابٍ بَئِيسٍ بِمَا كَانُواْ يَفْسُقُونَ

(165. So when they forgot the reminder that had been given to them, We rescued those who forbade evil, but with a severe torment We seized those who did wrong, because they used to rebel against Allah’s command.)

فَلَمَّا عَتَوْاْ عَن مَّا نُهُواْ عَنْهُ قُلْنَا لَهُمْ كُونُواْ قِرَدَةً خَـسِئِينَ

(166. So when they exceeded the limits of what they were prohibited, We said to them: “Be you monkeys, despised.”)

Surah 7 Al Araf verse 164-166

Tafsir Ibn Kathir

Allah said that the people of this village were divided into three groups, a group that committed the prohibition, catching fish on the Sabbath, as we described in the Tafsir of Surat Al-Baqarah. Another group prohibited them from transgression and avoided them. A third group neither prohibited them, nor participated in their action. The third group said to the preachers,

(“Why do you preach to a people whom Allah is about to destroy or to punish with a severe torment”). They said, `why do you forbid these people from evil, when you know that they are destroyed and have earned Allah’s punishment’ Therefore, they said, there is no benefit in forbidding them. The preachers replied,

(“In order to be free from guilt before your Lord (Allah),”) `for we were commanded to enjoin righteousness and forbid evil,’

(“and perhaps they may fear Allah”) for on account of our advice, they might stop this evil and repent to Allah. Certainly, if they repent to Allah, Allah will accept their repentance and grant them His mercy.’ Allah said,

( when they forgot the reminder that had been given to them, ) when the evil doers refused the advice,

(We rescued those who forbade evil, but We seized who did wrong,) who committed the transgression,

(with a severe torment). Allah stated that those who enjoined good were saved, while those who committed the transgression were destroyed, but He did not mention the end of those who were passive (the third group), for the compensation is comparable to the deed. This type did not do what would warrant praise, nor commit wrong so that they are admonished. `Ikrimah said, “Ibn `Abbas said about the Ayah: `I do not know whether or not the people were saved who said;

(“Why do you preach to a people whom Allah is about to destroy…”) So I continued discussing it with him until I convinced him that they were. Then he gave me [the gift of] a garment.” Allah said,

(and We seized those who did wrong with a Ba’is torment) indicating that those who remained were saved. As for `Ba’is’, it means `severe’, according to Mujahid, or `painful’, according to Qatadah. These meanings are synonymous, and Allah knows best. Allah said next,

(despised), humiliated, disgraced and rejected.

وَلَقَدْ عَلِمْتُمُ الَّذِينَ اعْتَدَواْ مِنكُمْ فِى السَّبْتِ فَقُلْنَا لَهُمْ كُونُواْ قِرَدَةً خَـسِئِينَ

(65. And indeed you knew those amongst you who transgressed in the matter of the Sabbath (i.e. Saturday). We said to them: “Be you monkeys, despised and rejected.”)

فَجَعَلْنَـهَا نَكَـلاً لِّمَا بَيْنَ يَدَيْهَا وَمَا خَلْفَهَا وَمَوْعِظَةً لِّلْمُتَّقِينَ

(66. So We made this punishment an example for those in front of it and those behind it, and a lesson for Al-Muttaqin (the pious.)

Surah 2 Al Baqarah Verse 65-66

Tafsir Ibn Kathir

Allah said,

(And indeed you knew). This Ayah means, O Jews! Remember that Allah sent His torment on the village that disobeyed Him and broke their pledge and their covenant to observe the sanctity of the Sabbath. They began using deceitful means to avoid honoring the Sabbath by placing nets, ropes and artificial pools of water for the purpose of fishing before the Sabbath. When the fish came in abundance on Saturday as usual, they were caught in the ropes and nets for the rest of Saturday. During the night, the Jews collected the fish after the Sabbath ended. When they did that, Allah changed them from humans into monkeys, the animals having the form closest to humans. Their evil deeds and deceit appeared lawful on the surface, but they were in reality wicked. This is why their punishment was compatible with their crime. This story is explained in detail in Surat Al-A`raf, where Allah said (7:163),

(And ask them (O Muhammad ) about the town that was by the sea; when they transgressed in the matter of the Sabbath (i.e. Saturday): when their fish came to them openly on the Sabbath day, and did not come to them on the day they had no Sabbath. Thus We made a trial of them, for they used to rebel (disobey Allah).)(7:163)

In his Tafsir, Al-`Awfi reported from Ibn `Abbas that he said,

 (We said to them: “Be you monkeys, despised and rejected”) means, “Allah changed their bodies into those of monkeys and swines. The young people turned into monkeys while the old people turned into swine.” Shayban An-Nahwi reported that Qatadah commented on,

(We said to them: “Be you monkeys, despised and rejected”), “These people were turned into howling monkeys with tails, after being men and women.”

وَإِذْ تَأَذَّنَ رَبُّكَ لَيَبْعَثَنَّ عَلَيْهِمْ إِلَى يَوْمِ الْقِيَـمَةِ مَن يَسُومُهُمْ سُوءَ الْعَذَابِ إِنَّ رَبَّكَ لَسَرِيعُ الْعِقَابِ وَإِنَّهُ لَغَفُورٌ رَّحِيمٌ

(167. And (remember) when your Lord declared that He would certainly keep on sending against them, till the Day of Resurrection, those who would afflict them with a humiliating torment. Verily, your Lord is quick in retribution and certainly He is Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful.)

Surah 7 Al Araf Verse 167

Tafsir Ibn Kathir

(Ta’dhdhana) means `declared’, according to Mujahid, or `ordained’, according to others. This part of the Ayah indicates a vow,

(that He will keep on sending against them) against the Jews,

(till the Day of Resurrection, those who would afflict them with a humiliating torment.) on account of their disobedience, defying Allah’s orders and Law and using tricks to transgress the prohibitions. It was reported that Musa required the Jews to pay the production tax for seven or thirteen years, and he was the first to do so. Also, the Jews fell under the humiliating rule of the Greek Kushdanin, Chaldeans and later on the Christians, who subjugated and disgraced them, and required them to pay the Jizyah (tribute tax). When Islam came and Muhammad was sent, they became under his power and had to pay the Jizyah, as well. Therefore, the humiliating torment mentioned here includes disgrace and paying the Jizyah, as Al-`Awfi narrated from Ibn `Abbas. In the future, the Jews will support the Dajjal (False Messiah); and the Muslims, along with `Isa, son of Mary, will kill the Jews. This will occur just before the end of this world. Allah said next,

(Verily, your Lord is quick in retribution), with those who disobey Him and defy His Law,

(and certainly He is Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful.) for those who repent and go back to Him. This Ayah mentions both the mercy, as well as, the punishment, so that no despair is felt. Allah often mentions encouragement and warning together, so that hearts always have a sense of hope and fear.

Ibn Abi Hatim recorded that Ibn `Abbas said, “Those who violated the sanctity of the Sabbath were turned into monkeys, then they perished without offspring.” Ad-Dahhak said that Ibn `Abbas said, “Allah turned them into monkeys because of their sins. They only lived on the earth for three days, for no transformed person ever lives more than three days. They did not eat, drink or have offspring. Allah transformed their shapes into monkeys, and He does what He wills, with whom He wills and He changes the shape of whomever He wills. On the other hand, Allah created the monkeys, swines and the rest of the creation in the six days (of creation) that He mentioned in His Book.”

Allah’s statement,

 (So We made this punishment an example) means, Allah made the people of this village, who violated the sanctity of the Sabbath,

(an example) via the way they were punished. Similarly, Allah said about Pharaoh,

(So Allah, seized him with punishing example for his last and first transgression) (79:25). nAllah’s statement,

(for those in front of it and those behind it) meaning, for the other villages. Ibn `Abbas commented, “Meaning, `We made this village an example for the villages around it by the manner in which We punished its people.”’ Similarly, Allah said,

(And indeed We have destroyed towns (populations) round about you, and We have (repeatedly) shown (them) the Ayat (proofs, evidences, verses, lessons, signs, revelations, etc.) in various ways that they might return (to the truth and believe in the Oneness of Allah ـ Islamic Monotheism)).(46:27)

Therefore, Allah made them an example for those who lived during their time as well as a reminder for those to come, by preserving their story. This is why Allah said,

( and a lesson for Al-Muttaqin (the pious)), meaning, a reminder. This Ayah means, “The torment and punishment that this village suffered was a result of indulging in Allah’s prohibitions and their deceit. Hence, those who have Taqwa should be aware of their evil behavior, so that what occurred to this village does not befall them as well.” Also, Imam Abu `Abdullah bin Battah reported that Abu Hurayrah said that the Messenger of Allah said,

(Do not commit what the Jews committed, breaching what Allah has forbidden, by resorting to the lowest types of deceit.)

This Hadith has a good (Jayid) chain of narration. Allah knows best.

www.tafsir.com

The Twelve Tribes of Israel

 I take refuge with Allaah from the accursed devil.  

بِسْمِ اللَّهِ الرَّحْمَـنِ الرَّحِيمِ 

  Bismillah-ir-Rahman-ir-Raheem: In the name of Allah, the Compassionate, the Merciful.  

 Welcome to my blog and praise the Magnificent Lord as you enter: Allahu Akbar: Allah is the Greatest .

May the Peace and Blessing of Allah Azza wa Jal, our Lord Glorified and Praised be He, be upon our beloved Prophet, his Family, and Companions.

The Twelve Tribes of Israel.

وَقَطَّعْنَـهُمُ اثْنَتَىْ عَشْرَةَ أَسْبَاطًا أُمَمًا وَأَوْحَيْنَآ إِلَى مُوسَى إِذِ اسْتَسْقَـهُ قَوْمُهُ أَنِ اضْرِب بِّعَصَاكَ الْحَجَرَ فَانبَجَسَتْ مِنْهُ اثْنَتَا عَشْرَةَ عَيْنًا قَدْ عَلِمَ كُلُّ أُنَاسٍ مَّشْرَبَهُمْ وَظَلَّلْنَا عَلَيْهِمُ الْغَمَـمَ وَأَنزَلْنَا عَلَيْهِمُ الْمَنَّ وَالسَّلْوَى كُلُواْ مِن طَيِّبَـتِ مَا رَزَقْنَـكُمْ وَمَا ظَلَمُونَا وَلَـكِن كَانُواْ أَنفُسَهُمْ يَظْلِمُونَ

(160. And We divided them into twelve tribes (as distinct) nations. We revealed to Musa when his people asked him for water (saying): “Strike the stone with your stick,” and there gushed forth out of it twelve springs, each group knew its own place for water. We shaded them with the clouds and sent down upon them the manna and the quail (saying): “Eat of the good things with which We have provided you.” They harmed Us not but they used to harm themselves.)

وَإِذْ قِيلَ لَهُمُ اسْكُنُواْ هَـذِهِ الْقَرْيَةَ وَكُلُواْ مِنْهَا حَيْثُ شِئْتُمْ وَقُولُواْ حِطَّةٌ وَادْخُلُواْ الْبَابَ سُجَّدًا نَّغْفِرْ لَكُمْ خَطِيئَـتِكُمْ سَنَزِيدُ الْمُحْسِنِينَ

(161. And (remember) when it was said to them: “Dwell in this town (Jerusalem) and eat therefrom wherever you wish, and say, `(O Allah) forgive our sins’; and enter the gate prostrating (bowing with humility). We shall forgive you your wrongdoings. We shall increase (the reward) for the good-doers.”)

فَبَدَّلَ الَّذِينَ ظَلَمُواْ مِنْهُمْ قَوْلاً غَيْرَ الَّذِى قِيلَ لَهُمْ فَأَرْسَلْنَا عَلَيْهِمْ رِجْزًا مِّنَ السَّمَآءِ بِمَا كَانُواْ يَظْلِمُونَ

(162. But those among them who did wrong, changed the word that had been told to them. So We sent on them a torment from the heaven in return for their wrongdoings.)

Surah 7 Al Araf Verse 160-162

وَإِذْ قَالَ مُوسَى لِقَوْمِهِ يَـقَوْمِ اذْكُرُواْ نِعْمَةَ اللَّهِ عَلَيْكُمْ إِذْ جَعَلَ فِيكُمْ أَنْبِيَآءَ وَجَعَلَكُمْ مُّلُوكاً وَءَاتَـكُمْ مَّا لَمْ يُؤْتِ أَحَداً مِّن الْعَـلَمِينَ

(20. And (remember) when Musa said to his people: “O my people! Remember the favor of Allah to you: when He made Prophets among you, made you kings and gave you what He had not given to any other among the nations (Al-`Alamin).”)

 يَاقَوْمِ ادْخُلُوا الاٌّرْضَ المُقَدَّسَةَ الَّتِى كَتَبَ اللَّهُ لَكُمْ وَلاَ تَرْتَدُّوا عَلَى أَدْبَـرِكُمْ فَتَنْقَلِبُوا خَـسِرِينَ

 (21. “O my people! Enter the Holy Land which Allah has assigned to you and turn not back; for then you will be returned as losers.”)

 قَالُوا يَامُوسَى إِنَّ فِيهَا قَوْماً جَبَّارِينَ وَإِنَّا لَن نَّدْخُلَهَا حَتَّى يَخْرُجُواْ مِنْهَا فَإِن يَخْرُجُواْ مِنْهَا فَإِنَّا دَخِلُونَ

(22. They said: “O Musa! In it are a people of great strength, and we shall never enter it, till they leave it; when they leave, then we will enter.”)

 قَالَ رَجُلاَنِ مِنَ الَّذِينَ يَخَافُونَ أَنْعَمَ اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِمَا ادْخُلُواْ عَلَيْهِمُ الْبَابَ فَإِذَا دَخَلْتُمُوهُ فَإِنَّكُمْ غَـلِبُونَ وَعَلَى اللَّهِ فَتَوَكَّلُواْ إِن كُنتُم مُّؤْمِنِينَ

(23. Two men of those who feared (Allah and) on whom Allah had bestowed His grace said: “Assault them through the gate; for when you are in, victory will be yours. And put your trust in Allah if you are believers indeed.”)

قَالُواْ يَـمُوسَى إِنَّا لَنْ نَّدْخُلَهَآ أَبَداً مَّا دَامُواْ فِيهَا فَاذْهَبْ أَنتَ وَرَبُّكَ فَقَاتِلا إِنَّا هَـهُنَا قَـعِدُونَ

(24. They said: “O Musa! We shall never enter it as long as they are there. So go, you and your Lord, and fight you two, we are sitting right here.”)

قَالَ رَبِّ إِنِّى لا أَمْلِكُ إِلاَّ نَفْسِى وَأَخِى فَافْرُقْ بَيْنَنَا وَبَيْنَ الْقَوْمِ الْفَـسِقِينَ

(25. He [Musa] said: “O my Lord! I have power only over myself and my brother, so Ifruq us from the rebellious people!”)

قَالَ فَإِنَّهَا مُحَرَّمَةٌ عَلَيْهِمْ أَرْبَعِينَ سَنَةً يَتِيهُونَ فِى الاٌّرْضِ فَلاَ تَأْسَ عَلَى الْقَوْمِ الْفَـسِقِينَ

(26. (Allah) said: “Therefore it is forbidden to them for forty years; in distraction they will wander through the land. So do not greive for the rebellious people.”)

Surah 5 Al Maidah Verse 20-26

Tafsir ibn Kathir

Allah states that His servant, Messenger, to whom He spoke directly, Musa, the son of `Imran, reminded his people that among the favors Allah granted them, is that He will give them all of the good of this life and the Hereafter, if they remain on the righteous and straight path. Allah said,

(And (remember) when Musa said to his people: “O my people! Remember the favor of Allah to you, when He made Prophets among you,) for whenever a Prophet died, another rose among them, from the time of their father Ibrahim and thereafter. There were many Prophets among the Children of Israel calling to Allah and warning against His torment, until `Isa was sent as the final Prophet from the Children of Israel. Allah then sent down the revelation to the Final Prophet and Messenger, Muhammad, the son of `Abdullah, from the offspring of Isma`il, the son of Ibrahim, peace be upon them. Muhammad is the most honorable Prophet of all times. Allah said next,

(made you kings) `Abdur-Razzaq recorded that Ibn `Abbas commented: “Having a servant, a wife and a house.” In his Mustadrak, Al-Hakim recorded that Ibn `Abbas said, “A wife and a servant, and, a

(and gave you what He had not given to any other among the nations (`Alamin).) means, during their time.” Al-Hakim said, “Sahih according to the criteria of the Two Sahihs, but they did not collect it.” Qatadah said, “They were the first people to take servants.” A Hadith states,

(He among you who wakes up while healthy in body, safe in his family and having the provision for that very day, is as if the world and all that was in it were collected for him.) Allah’s statement,

(and gave you what He had not given to any other among the nations (Al-`Alamin).) means, during your time, as we stated. The Children of Israel were the most honorable among the people of their time, compared to the Greek, Copts and the rest of mankind. Allah said in another Ayah,

(And indeed We gave the Children of Israel the Scripture, and the understanding of the Scripture and its laws, and the Prophethood; and provided them with good things, and preferred them above the nations (Al-`Alamin).) Allah said,

(They said: “O Musa! Make for us a god as they have gods.” He said: “Verily, you are an ignorant people.” [Musa added:] “Verily, these people will be destroyed for that which they are engaged in (idol worship).” And all that they are doing is in vain. He said: “Shall I seek for you a god other than Allah, while He has given you superiority over the nations.”) Therefore, they were the best among the people of their time. The Muslim Ummah is more respected and honored before Allah, and has a more perfect legislative code and system of life, it has the most honorable Prophet, the larger kingdom, more provisions, wealth and children, a larger domain and more lasting glory than the Children of Israel. Allah said,

(Thus We have made you, a just (the best) nation, that you be witnesses over mankind.) We mentioned the Mutawatir Hadiths about the honor of this Ummah and its status and honor with Allah, when we explained Allah’s statement in Surah Al-`Imran (3),

Allah states next that Musa encouraged the Children of Israel to perform Jihad and enter Jerusalem, which was under their control during the time of their father Ya`qub. Ya`qub and his children later moved with his children and household to Egypt during the time of Prophet Yusuf. His offspring remained in Egypt until their exodus with Musa. They found a mighty, strong people in Jerusalem who had previously taken it over. Musa, Allah’s Messenger, ordered the Children of Israel to enter Jerusalem and fight their enemy, and he promised them victory and triumph over the mighty people if they did so. They declined, rebelled and defied his order and were punished for forty years by being lost, wandering in the land uncertain of where they should go. This was their punishment for defying Allah’s command. Allah said that Musa ordered them to enter the Holy Land,

(which Allah has assigned to you) meaning, which Allah has promised to you by the words of your father Isra’il, that it is the inheritance of those among you who believe.

(and turn not back) in flight from Jihad.

(“. ..for then you will be returned as losers.” They said, “O Musa! In it are a people of great strength, and we shall never enter it, till they leave it; when they leave, then we will enter.”) Their excuse was this, in this very town you commanded us to enter and fight its people, there is a mighty, strong, vicious people who have tremendous physique and physical ability. We are unable to stand against these people or fight them. Therefore, they said, we are incapable of entering this city as long as they are still in it, but if they leave it, we will enter it. Otherwise, we cannot stand against them.

Allah said,

(Two men of those who feared (Allah and) on whom Allah had bestowed His grace said…) When the Children of Israel declined to obey Allah and follow His Messenger Musa, two righteous men among them, on whom Allah had bestowed a great bounty and who were afraid of Allah and His punishment, encouraged them to go forward. It was also said that the Ayah reads in a way that means that these men were respected and honored by their people. These two men were Yuwsha`, the son of Nun, and Kalib, the son of Yufna, as Ibn `Abbas, Mujahid, `Ikrimah, `Atiyyah, As-Suddi, Ar-Rabi` bin Anas and several other Salaf and latter scholars stated. These two men said to their people,

(“Assault them through the gate, for when you are in, victory will be yours. And put your trust in Allah if you are believers indeed.”) Therefore, they said, if you rely on and trust in Allah, follow His command and obey His Messenger, then Allah will give you victory over your enemies and will give you triumph and dominance over them. Thus, you will conquer the city that Allah has promised you. This advice did not benefit them in the least,

(They said, “O Musa! We shall never enter it as long as they are there. So go, you and your Lord, and fight you two, we are sitting right here.”) This is how they declined to join Jihad, defied their Messenger, and refused to fight their enemy.

Musa said,

(“O my Lord! I have power only over myself and my brother, so separate us from the rebellious people!”) When the Children of Israel refused to fight, Musa became very angry with them and supplicated to Allah against them,

(O my Lord! I have power only over myself and my brother’) meaning, only I and my brother Harun among them will obey, implement Allah’s command and accept the call,

(So Ifruq us from the rebellious people!) Al-`Awfi reported that Ibn `Abbas said, “Meaning, judge between us and them.” `Ali bin Abi Talhah reported similarly from him. Ad-Dahhak said that the Ayah means, “Judge and decide between us and them.” Other scholars said that the Ayah means, “Separate between us and them.”

Allah said,

(Therefore it is forbidden to them for forty years; in distraction they will wander through the land.) When Musa supplicated against the Jews for refusing to fight in Jihad, Allah forbade them from entering the land for forty years. They wandered about lost in the land of At-Tih, unable to find their way out. During this time, tremendous miracles occurred, such as the clouds that shaded them and the manna and quails Allah sent down for them. Allah brought forth water springs from solid rock, and the other miracles that He aided Musa bin `Imran with. During this time, the Tawrah was revealed and the Law was established for the Children of Israel and the Tabernacle of the Covenant was erected.

Allah’s statement,

(for forty years;) defines,

(in distraction they will wander through the land.) When these years ended, Yuwsha` bin Nun led those who remained among them and the second generation, and laid siege to Jerusalem, conquering it on a Friday afternoon. When the sun was about to set and Yuwsha` feared that the Sabbath would begin, he said (to the sun), “You are commanded and I am commanded, as well. O Allah! Make it stop setting for me.” Allah made the sun stop setting until Yuwsha` bin Nun conquered Jerusalem. Next, Allah commanded Yuwsha` to order the Children of Israel to enter Jerusalem from its gate while bowing and saying Hittah, meaning, `remove our sins.’ Yet, they changed what they were commanded and entered it while dragging themselves on their behinds and saying, `Habbah (a seed) in Sha`rah (a hair).” We mentioned all of this in the Tafsir of Surat Al-Baqarah. Ibn Abi Hatim recorded that Ibn `Abbas commented,

(Therefore it is forbidden to them for forty years; in distraction they will wander through the land.) “They wandered in the land for forty years, during which Musa and Harun died, as well as everyone above forty years of age. When the forty years ended, Yuwsha` son of Nun assumed their leadership and later conquered Jerusalem. When Yuwsha` was reminded that the day was Friday and the sun was about to set, while they were still attacking Jerusalem, he feared that the Sabbath might begin. Therefore, he said to the sun, `I am commanded and you are commanded.’ Allah made the sun stop setting and the Jews conquered Jerusalem and found wealth unseen before. They wanted to let the fire consume the booty, but the fire would not do that. Yuwsha` said, `Some of you have committed theft from the booty.’ So he summoned the twelve leaders of the twelve tribes and took the pledge from them. Then, the hand of one of them became stuck to the hand of Yuwsha` and Yuwsha` said, `You committed the theft, so bring it forth.’ So, that man brought a cow’s head made of gold with two eyes made of precious stones and a set of teeth made of pearls. When Yuwsha` added it to the booty, the fire consumed it, as they were prohibited to keep the booty.” There is evidence supporting all of this in the Sahih.

Comforting Musa, Allah said

(So do not greive for the rebellious people.) Allah said: Do not feel sorrow or sadness over My judgment against them, for they deserve such judgment.

وَإِذْ قُلْنَا ادْخُلُواْ هَـذِهِ الْقَرْيَةَ فَكُلُواْ مِنْهَا حَيْثُ شِئْتُمْ رَغَدًا وَادْخُلُواْ الْبَابَ سُجَّدًا وَقُولُواْ حِطَّةٌ نَّغْفِرْ لَكُمْ خَطَـيَـكُمْ وَسَنَزِيدُ الْمُحْسِنِينَ

(58. And (remember) when We said: “Enter this town (Jerusalem) and eat bountifully therein with pleasure and delight wherever you wish, and enter the gate in prostration (or bowing with humility) and say: `Forgive us,’ and We shall forgive you your sins and shall increase (reward) for the good-doers.”)

فَبَدَّلَ الَّذِينَ ظَلَمُواْ قَوْلاً غَيْرَ الَّذِي قِيلَ لَهُمْ فَأَنزَلْنَا عَلَى الَّذِينَ ظَلَمُواْ رِجْزًا مِّنَ السَّمَآءِ بِمَا كَانُواْ يَفْسُقُونَ

(59. But those who did wrong changed the word from that which had been told to them for another, so We sent upon the wrongdoers Rijz (a punishment) from the heaven because of their rebellion.)

Surah 2 Al Baqarah Verse 58-59

Tafsir ibn Kathir

Allah admonished the Jews for avoiding Jihad and not entering the holy land as they had been ordered to do when they came from Egypt with Musa. They were also commanded to fight the disbelieving `Amaliq (Canaanites) dwelling in the holy land at that time. But they did not want to fight, because they were weak and exhausted. Allah punished them by causing them to become lost, and to continue wandering, as Allah has stated in Surat Al-Ma’idah (5). The correct opinion about the meaning of, `the holy land’ mentioned here is that it was Bayt Al-Maqdis (Jerusalem), as As-Suddi, Ar-Rabi` bin Anas, Qatadah and Abu Muslim Al-Asfahani, as well as others have stated. Musa said,

(O people! Enter the holy land which Allah has assigned to you and turn not back (in flight).) (5:21)

However, some scholars said that the holy land is Jericho, (Ariha’) and this opinion was mentioned from Ibn `Abbas and `Abdur-Rahman bin Zayd.

After the years of wandering ended forty years later, in the company of Yuwsha` (Joshua) bin Nun, Allah allowed the Children of Israel to conquer the holy land on the eve of a Friday. On that day, the sun was kept from setting for a little more time, until victory was achieved. When the Children of Israel conquered the holy land, they were commanded to enter its gate while,

( prostrating) in appreciation to Allah for making them victorious, triumphant, returning them to their land and saving them from being lost and wandering. Al-`Awfi said that Ibn `Abbas said that,

(and enter the gate Sujjadan) means, “While bowing”. Ibn Jarir reported Ibn `Abbas saying,

(and enter the gate in prostration) means, “Through a small door while bowing.” Al-Hakim narrated it, and Ibn Abi Hatim added, “And they went through the door backwards!” Al-Hasan Al-Basri said that they were ordered to prostrate on their faces when they entered the city, but Ar-Razi discounted this explanation. It was also said that the Sujud mentioned here means, `submissiveness’, for actually entering while prostrating is not possible.

Khasif said that `Ikrimah said that Ibn `Abbas said, “The door mentioned here was facing the Qiblah.” Ibn `Abbas, Mujahid, As-Suddi, Qatadah and Ad-Dahhak said that the door is the door of Hittah in Iylya’, which is Jerusalem. Ar-Razi also reported that some of them said that it was a door in the direction of the Qiblah”. Khasif said that `Ikrimah said that Ibn `Abbas said that the Children of Israel entered the door sideways. As-Suddi said that Abu Sa`id Al-Azdy said that Abu Al-Kanud said that `Abdullah bin Mas`ud said that they were commanded to,

(enter the gate in prostration (or bowing with humility)) but instead, they entered while their heads were raised in defiance.

Allah said next,

( and say: `Hittah’). Ibn `Abbas commented, “Seek Allah’s forgiveness.” Al-Hasan and Qatadah said that it means, “Say, `Relieve us from our errors.”

(and We shall forgive you your sins and shall increase (reward) for the good-doers) Here is the reward for fulfilling Allah’s commandment. This Ayah means, “If you implement what We commanded you, We will forgive your sins and multiply your good deeds.” In summary, upon achieving victory, the Children of Israel were commanded to submit to Allah in tongue and deed and, to admit to their sins and seek forgiveness for them, to be grateful to Allah for the blessings He gave them, hastening to do the deeds that Allah loves, as He said,

(When there comes the help of Allah (to you, O Muhammad against your enemies) and the conquest (of Makkah). And you see that the people enter Allah’s religion (Islam) in crowds. So glorify the praises of your Lord, and ask His forgiveness. Verily, He is the One Who accepts the repentance.) (110).

Allah said,

(But those who did wrong changed the word from that which had been told to them for another).

Al-Bukhari recorded Abu Hurayrah saying that the Prophet said,

(The Children of Israel were commanded to enter the door while bowing and to say `Hittah’. Yet, they entered the door on their behinds, distorting the words. They said; `Habbah (seed), in Sha`rah (a hair).’)

An-Nasa’i recorded this part of it from Abu Hurayrah only, but he has a chain from the Prophet , explaining Allah’s statement,

(`Hittah’), saying, “So they deviated and said `Habbah.” Similar was recorded by `Abdur-Razzaq, and his route was also collected by Al-Bukhari. Muslim and At-Tirmidhi narrated similar versions of this Hadith, At-Tirmidhi said, “Hasan Sahih.”

The summary of what the scholars have said about this subject is that the Children of Israel distorted Allah’s command to them to submit to Him in tongue and deed. They were commanded to enter the city while bowing down, but they entered while sliding on their rear ends and raising their heads! They were commanded to say, `Hittah’ meaning, “Relieve us from our errors and sins.” However, they mocked this command and said, “Hintah (grain seed) in Sha`irah (barley).” This demonstrates the worst type of rebellion and disobedience, and it is why Allah released His anger and punishment upon them, all because of their sinning and defying His commands. Allah said,

(So We sent upon the wrongdoers Rijz (a punishment) from the heaven because of their rebellion.)

Ad-Dahhak said that Ibn `Abbas said, “Every word in Allah’s Book that says Rijz means, `a punishment.”’ Mujahid, Abu Malik, As-Suddi, Al-Hasan and Qatadah were reported to have said that Rijz means `Torment.’ Ibn Abi Hatim narrated that Sa`d bin Malik, Usamah bin Zayd and Khuzaymah bin Thabit said that the Messenger of Allah said,

(The plague is a Rijz, a punishment with which Allah punished those before you.)

This is also how An-Nasa’i recorded this Hadith. In addition, the basis of this Hadith was collected in the Two Sahihs,

(If you hear of the plague in a land, then do not enter it.)

Ibn Jarir recorded Usamah bin Zayd saying that the Messenger of Allah said,

(This calamity and sickness (i.e. the plague) is a Rijz, a punishment with which some nations who were before you were punished.)

The basis of this Hadith was also collected in the Two Sahihs.

وَإِذِ اسْتَسْقَى مُوسَى لِقَوْمِهِ فَقُلْنَا اضْرِب بِّعَصَاكَ الْحَجَرَ فَانفَجَرَتْ مِنْهُ اثْنَتَا عَشْرَةَ عَيْنًا قَدْ عَلِمَ كُلُّ أُنَاسٍ مَّشْرَبَهُمْ كُلُواْ وَاشْرَبُواْ مِن رِّزْقِ اللَّهِ وَلاَ تَعْثَوْاْ فِى الاٌّرْضِ مُفْسِدِينَ

(60. And (remember) when Musa asked for water for his people, We said: “Strike the stone with your stick.” Then gushed forth therefrom twelve springs. Each (group of) people knew its own place for water. “Eat and drink of that which Allah has provided and do not act corruptly, making mischief on the earth.”) 

Surah 2 Al Baqarah Verse 60

Tafsir Ibn Kathir

Allah said, “Remember My favor on you when I answered the supplication of your Prophet, Musa, when he asked Me to provide you with water. I made the water available for you, making it gush out through a stone. Twelve springs burst out of that stone, a designated spring for each of your tribes. You eat from the manna and the quails and drink from the water that I provided for you, without any effort or hardship for you. So worship the One Who did this for you.

(And do not act corruptly, making mischief on the earth) meaning, “Do not return the favor by committing acts of disobedience that cause favors to disappear.”

Ibn `Abbas said that the Children of Israel, “Had a square stone that Musa was commanded to strike with his staff and, as a result, twelve springs burst out of that stone, three on each side. Each tribe was, therefore, designated a certain spring, and they used to drink from their springs. They never had to travel from their area, they would find the same bounty in the same manner they had in the first area.”This narration is part of the long Hadith that An-Nasa’i, Ibn Jarir and Ibn Abi Hatim recorded about the trials.

This story is similar to the story in Surat Al-`Araf (Chapter 7) although the latter was revealed in Makkah. In Surat Al-A`raf, Allah used the third person when He mentioned the Children of Israel to the Prophet and narrated what He favored them with. In this Surat Al-Baqarah, which was revealed in Al-Madinah, Allah directed His Speech at the Children of Israel. Further, Allah said in Surat Al-A`raf,

 (And there gushed forth out of it twelve springs) (7:160), describing what first occurred when the water begins to gush out. In the Ayah in Surat Al-Baqarah, Allah described what happened later on, meaning when the water burst out in full force. Allah knows best.

وَظَلَّلْنَا عَلَيْكُمُ الْغَمَامَ وَأَنزَلْنَا عَلَيْكُمُ الْمَنَّ وَالسَّلْوَى كُلُواْ مِن طَيِّبَـتِ مَا رَزَقْنَـكُمْ وَمَا ظَلَمُونَا وَلَـكِن كَانُواْ أَنفُسَهُمْ يَظْلِمُونَ

(57. And We shaded you with clouds and sent down on you Al-Manna and the quail, (saying): “Eat of the good lawful things We have provided for you,” (but they rebelled). And they did not wrong Us but they wronged themselves.)

Surah 2 Al Baqarah Verse 57

Tafsir Ibn Kathir

After Allah mentioned the calamities that He saved the Children of Israel from, He mentioned the favors that He granted them, saying,

And We shaded you with clouds. This Ayah mentions the white clouds that provided shade for the Children of Israel, protecting them from the sun s heat during their years of wandering. In the Hadith about the trials, An-Nasa i recorded Ibn Abbas saying, Allah shaded the Children of Israel with clouds during the years of wandering. Ibn Abi Hatim said, Narrations similar to that of Ibn Abba0s were reported from Ibn Umar, Ar-Rab bin Anas, Abu Mijlaz, Ad-Dahhak, and As-Suddi. Al-Hasan and Qatadah said that,

(And We shaded you with clouds) “This happened when they were in the desert and the clouds shielded them from the sun.” Ibn Jarir said that several scholars said that the type of cloud the Ayah mentioned, “was cooler and better than the type we know.”

`Ali bin Abi Talhah reported that Ibn `Abbas commented on Allah’s statement,

And sent down on you Al-Manna, The manna used to descend to them to the trees, and they used to eat whatever they wished of it. Also, Qatadah said, The manna, which was whiter than milk and sweeter than honey, used to rain down on the Children of Israel, just as the snow falls, from dawn until sunrise. One of them would collect enough for that particular day, for if it remained more than that, it would spoil. On the sixth day, Friday, one would collect enough for the sixth and the seventh day, which was the Sabbath during which one would not leave home to seek his livelihood, or for anything else. All this occurred in the wilderness. The type of manna that we know provides sufficient food when eaten alone, because it is nutritious and sweet. When manna is mixed with water, it becomes a sweet drink. It also changes composition when mixed with other types of food. However, this is not the only type. The evidence to this fact is that Al-Bukhari narrated, that Sad bin Zayd said that the Messenger of Allah said,

(Kam’ah (truffles) is a type of manna, and its liquid is a remedy for the eyes.)

This Hadith was also collected by Imam Ahmad. The group of Hadith compilers, with the exception of Abu Dawud, also collected it, and At-Tirmidhi graded it Hasan Sahih. At-Tirmidhi recorded Abu Hurayrah saying that the Messenger of Allah said,

(The `Ajwah (pressed, dried date) is from Paradise and it cures poison, Al-Kam’ah (truffles) is a form of manna, and its liquid heals the eye.”) At-Tirmidhi is the only one of them who recorded this Hadith.

As for the quail (Salwa) in question, `Ali bin Abi Talhah reported that Ibn `Abbas said, “The (Salwa) is a bird that looks like the quail.” This is the same opinion reported from Mujahid, Ash-Sha`bi, Ad-Dahhak, Al-Hasan, `Ikrimah and Ar-Rabi` bin Anas, may Allah have mercy upon them. Also, `Ikrimah said that the Salwa is a bird in Paradise about the size of a sparrow. Qatadah said “The Salwa is a bird that is similar to a sparrow. During that time, an Israelite could catch as many quails as was sufficient for that particular day, otherwise the meat would spoil. On the sixth day, Friday, he would collect what is enough for the sixth and the seventh day, the Sabbath, during which one was not allowed to depart his home to seek anything.”

Allah said,

 (Eat of the good lawful things We have provided for you,) (7:160) this form of command is a simple order of allowance, guiding to what is good. Allah said,

(And they did not wrong Us but they wronged themselves) means, `We commanded them to eat from what We gave them, and to perform the acts of worship (but they rebelled).’ This Ayah is similar to Allah’s statement,

(Eat of the provision of your Lord, and be grateful to Him) (34:15).

Yet, the Children of Israel rebelled, disbelieved and committed injustice against themselves, even though they saw the clear signs, tremendous miracles and extraordinary events.

Here it is important to point out the virtue of Muhammad’s Companions over the companions of the other Prophets. This includes firmness in the religion, patience and the lack of arrogance, may Allah be pleased with them. Although the Companions accompanied the Prophet in his travels and battles, such as during the battle of Tabuk, in intense heat and hardship, they did not ask for a miracle, though this was easy for the Prophet by Allah’s leave. And when the Companions became hungry, they merely asked the Prophet – to invoke Allah – for an increase in the amount of food. They collected whatever food they had and brought it to the Prophet , and he asked Allah to bless it, told each of them to take some food, and they filled every pot they had. Also, when they needed rain, the Prophet asked Allah to send down rain, and a rain cloud came. They drank, gave water to their camels and filled their water skins. When they looked around, they found that the cloud had only rained on their camp. This is the best example of those who were willing to accept Allah’s decision and follow the Messenger of Allah .

وَإِذْ قُلْتُمْ يَـمُوسَى لَن نَّصْبِرَ عَلَى طَعَامٍ وَحِدٍ فَادْعُ لَنَا رَبَّكَ يُخْرِجْ لَنَا مِمَّا تُنبِتُ الأَرْضُ مِن بَقْلِهَا وَقِثَّآئِهَا وَفُومِهَا وَعَدَسِهَا وَبَصَلِهَا قَالَ أَتَسْتَبْدِلُونَ الَّذِى هُوَ أَدْنَى بِالَّذِى هُوَ خَيْرٌ اهْبِطُواْ مِصْرًا فَإِنَّ لَكُم مَّا سَأَلْتُمْ

(61. And (remember) when you said, “O Musa ! We cannot endure one kind of food. So invoke your Lord for us to bring forth for us of what the earth grows, its herbs, its cucumber its Fum, its lentils and its onions.” He said, “Would you exchange that which is better for that which is lower Go you down to any town and you shall find what you want!”)

Surah 2 Al Baqarah Verse 61

Tafsir Ibn Kathir

Allah said, “And remember My favor on you when I sent down the manna and quails to you, a good, pure, beneficial, easily acquired food. And remember your ungratefulness for what We granted you. Remember how you asked Musa to exchange this type of food for an inferior type that consists of vegetation, and so forth.” Al-Hasan Al-Basri said about the Children of Israel, “They were bored and impatient with the type of food they were provided. They also remembered the life they used to live, when their diet consisted of lentils, onions, garlic and herbs.” They said,

(O Musa ! We cannot endure one kind of food. So invoke your Lord for us to bring forth for us of what the earth grows, its herbs, its cucumbers, its Fum, its lentils and its onions). They said,

(One kind of food) meaning, the manna and quails, because they ate the same food day after day. The Ayah mentioned lentils, onions and herbs, which are all known types of foods. As for the Fum, Ibn Mas`ud read it, Thum (garlic). Also, Ibn Abi Hatim narrated that Al-Hasan said about the Ayah,

(Its Fum), “Ibn `Abbas said that Fum means, garlic.”

He also said that the expression, `Fumu-lanna’ means, `bake for us’, according to the languages of old. Ibn Jarir commented, “If this is true, then `Fum’ is one of the words whose pronounciation were altered, the letter `fa’ was replaced by the letter `tha’, since they are similar in sound.” And Allah knows best. Others said that Fum is wheat, the kind used for bread. Al-Bukhari said, “Some of them said that Fum includes all grains or seeds that are eaten.”

Allah’s statement,

(He said, “Would you exchange that which is better for that which is lower”) criticized the Jews for asking for inferior foods, although they were living an easy life, eating tasty, beneficial and pure food. Allah’s statement,

(Go you down to any Misr) means, `any city’, as Ibn `Abbas said. Ibn Jarir also reported that Abu Al-`Aliyah and Ar-Rabi` bin Anas said that the Ayah refers to Misr, the Egypt of Fir`awn. The truth is that the Ayah means any city, as Ibn `Abbas and other scholars stated. Therefore, the meaning of Musa’s statement to the Children of Israel becomes, “What you are asking for is easy, for it is available in abundance in any city that you might enter. So since what you asked for is available in all of the villages and cities, I will not ask Allah to provide us with it, especially when it is an inferior type of food. ” This is why Musa said to them,

(Would you exchange that which is better for that which is lower Go you down to any town and you shall find what you want!)

Since their request was the result of boredom and arrogance and since fulfilling it was unnecessary, their request was denied. Allah knows best.

وَضُرِبَتْ عَلَيْهِمُ الذِّلَّةُ وَالْمَسْكَنَةُ وَبَآءُوا بِغَضَبٍ مِّنَ اللَّهِ ذَلِكَ بِأَنَّهُمْ كَانُواْ يَكْفُرُونَ بِآيَـتِ اللَّهِ وَيَقْتُلُونَ النَّبِيِّينَ بِغَيْرِ الْحَقِّ ذلِكَ بِمَا عَصَواْ وَّكَانُواْ يَعْتَدُونَ

(61. And they were covered with humiliation and misery, and they drew on themselves the wrath of Allah. That was because they used to disbelieve in the Ayat (proofs, evidence) of Allah and killed the Prophets wrongfully. That was because they disobeyed and used to transgress the bounds (in their disobedience to Allah, i.e. commit crimes and sins.))

Surah 2 Al Baqarah Verse 61

Tafsir Ibn Kathir

Allah, Glorified and Praised, said,

(And they were covered with humiliation and misery). This Ayah indicates that the Children of Israel were plagued with humiliation, and that this will continue, meaning that it will never cease. They will continue to suffer humiliation at the hands of all who interact with them, along with the disgrace that they feel inwardly. Al-Hasan commented, “Allah humiliated them, and they shall have no protector. Allah put them under the feet of the Muslims, who appeared at a time when the Majus (Zoroastrians) were taking the Jizyah (tax) from the Jews.” Also, Abu Al-`Aliyah, Ar-Rabi` bin Anas and As-Suddi said that `misery’ used in the Ayah means, `poverty.’ `Atiyah Al-`Awfi said that `misery’ means, `paying the tilth (tax).’ In addition, Ad-Dahhak commented on Allah’s statement,

(and they drew on themselves the wrath of Allah), “They deserved Allah’s anger.” Also, Ibn Jarir said that,

(and they drew on themselves the wrath of Allah) means, “They went back with the wrath. Similarly, Allah said,

(Verily, I intend to let you draw my sin on yourself as well as yours) (Al-Ma’idah 5:29) meaning, `You will end up carrying my, and your, mistakes instead of me’. Thus, the meaning of the Ayah becomes, `They went back carrying Allah’s anger; Allah’s wrath descended on them; they deserved Allah’s anger.”’

Allah’s statement,

(That was because they used to disbelieve in the Ayat (proofs, evidences, etc.) of Allah and killed the Prophets wrongfully.) means, “This is what We rewarded the Children of Israel with: humiliation and misery.” Allah’s anger that descended on the Children of Israel was a part of the humiliation they earned, because of their defiance of the truth, disbelief in Allah’s Ayat and belittling the carriers of Allah’s Law i.e. the Prophets and their following. The Children of Israel rejected the Messengers and even killed them. Surely, there is no form of disbelief worse than disbelieving in Allah’s Ayat and murdering the Prophets of Allah.

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Death and Resurrection for the People of Prophet Musa (Moses), peace be upon him

 I take refuge with Allaah from the accursed devil.  

بِسْمِ اللَّهِ الرَّحْمَـنِ الرَّحِيمِ 

  Bismillah-ir-Rahman-ir-Raheem: In the name of Allah, the Compassionate, the Merciful.  

 Welcome to my blog and praise the Magnificent Lord as you enter: Allahu Akbar: Allah is the Greatest .

May the Peace and Blessing of Allah Azza wa Jal, our Lord Glorified and Praised be He, be upon our beloved Prophet, his Family, and Companions.

Death and Resurrection for the People of Prophet Musa (Moses) Alaihi Salaam.

 وَاخْتَارَ مُوسَى قَوْمَهُ سَبْعِينَ رَجُلاً لِّمِيقَـتِنَا فَلَمَّا أَخَذَتْهُمُ الرَّجْفَةُ قَالَ رَبِّ لَوْ شِئْتَ أَهْلَكْتَهُم مِّن قَبْلُ وَإِيَّـىَ أَتُهْلِكُنَا بِمَا فَعَلَ السُّفَهَآءُ مِنَّآ إِنْ هِىَ إِلاَّ فِتْنَتُكَ تُضِلُّ بِهَا مَن تَشَآءُ وَتَهْدِى مَن تَشَآءُ أَنتَ وَلِيُّنَا فَاغْفِرْ لَنَا وَارْحَمْنَا وَأَنتَ خَيْرُ الْغَـفِرِينَ

(155. And Musa chose out of his people seventy (of the best) men for Our appointed time and place of meeting, and when they were seized with a violent earthquake, he said: “O my Lord, if it had been Your Will, You could have destroyed them and me before; would You destroy us for the deeds of the foolish among us It is only Your trial by which You lead astray whom You will, and keep guided whom You will. You are our protector, so forgive us and have mercy on us: for You are the best of those who forgive.)

 وَاكْتُبْ لَنَا فِى هَـذِهِ الدُّنْيَا حَسَنَةً وَفِي الاٌّخِرَةِ إِنَّا هُدْنَـآ إِلَيْكَ قَالَ عَذَابِى أُصِيبُ بِهِ مَنْ أَشَآءُ وَرَحْمَتِى وَسِعَتْ كُلَّ شَىْءٍ فَسَأَكْتُبُهَا لِلَّذِينَ يَتَّقُونَ وَيُؤْتُونَ الزَّكَـوةَ وَالَّذِينَ هُم بِـَايَـتِنَا يُؤْمِنُونَ

(156. “And ordain for us good in this world, and in the Hereafter. Certainly we have Hudna unto You.” He said: (As to) My punishment I afflict therewith whom I will and My mercy embraces all things. That (mercy) I shall ordain for those who have Taqwa, and give Zakah; and those who believe in Our Ayat.)

Surah 7 Al Araf Verse 155-156

Tafsir Ibn Kathir

Ali bin Abi Talhah reported that Ibn `Abbas commented; “Allah commanded Musa to choose seventy men. So he chose them and proceeded with them in order that they supplicate to their Lord. Their supplication included asking Allah, `O Allah! Give us what you have never given anyone before us and will never give anyone after us!’ Allah disliked this supplication and they were seized with a violent earthquake, Musa said:

(“O my Lord, if it had been Your will, You could have destroyed them and me before.)”’ As-Suddi said, “Allah commanded Musa to come with thirty men from the Children of Israel, apologizing for worshipping the calf; and He gave them an appointed time and place.

(And Musa chose out of his people seventy (of the best) men.) He chose these men and went along with them so that they could apologize. When they reached the appointed place, they said,

(We shall never believe in you), [2:55] `O Musa,

(until we see Allah plainly, ) for you spoke to Him,’ they said, `therefore, show Him to us,’

(but they were struck with a bolt of lightning) [4:153] and they died. Musa stood up crying, invoking Allah, `O Lord! What should I tell the Children of Israel, when I go back to them after You destroyed their best men’

(“O my Lord, if it had been Your will, You could have destroyed them and me before”).”’ Muhammad bin Ishaq said, “Musa chose seventy of the best men from the Children of Israel. He said to them, `Go to the meeting with Allah and repent for what you committed. Beg His forgiveness for those of your people whom you left behind. Fast, purify yourselves and clean your clothes.’ So, he went with them to Mount Tur in Sinai for the meeting place and time designated by his Lord. He went there only with the leave and knowledge of Allah. According to what has been mentioned to me, when the seventy did what he ordered them to do, and went with him to the meeting of Musa with his Lord, they said, `Request that we may also hear the words of our Lord.’ So he replied, `I shall.’ When Musa approached the mountain it became completely covered with columns of clouds, Musa approached it and entered in them. He said to the people, `Approach.’ But when Allah spoke to Musa, his cloak was surrounded by a brilliant light which no human could bear to look at, so below him a barrier was placed and the people approached. When they entered the cloud they fell prostrate and they heard Him while he was speaking to Musa, commanding him and forbidding him, saying what to do and what not to do. When He completed commanding him, and removed the cloud from Musa, he faced the people and they said, `O Musa! We will not believe in you unless we see Allah directly.’ So the thunder shook them, their souls were captured and they all died. Musa stood up invoking, begging and supplicating to his Lord,

(“O my Lord, if it had been Your will, You could have destroyed them and me before.”)’ meaning, `They were foolish. Would You destroy anyone who comes after me from the Children of Israel’ Ibn `Abbas, Qatadah, Mujahid and Ibn Jarir At-Tabari said, “They were seized by the tremor or lightning, because they neither shunned nor forbade their people who worshipped the calf.” This is supported by Musa’s statement,

(“would You destroy us for the deeds of the fools among us”) He said next,

(“It is only Your Fitnah”) affliction, test and trial, according to Ibn `Abbas, Sa`id bin Jubayr, Abu Al-`Aliyah, Ar-Rabi` bin Anas and several among the Salaf and latter scholars. This is the only plausible meaning, in which Musa says, “The decision is Yours (O Allah), and the judgment, and whatever You will occurs. You misguide whom You will, guide whom You will, and none can guide whom You misguide or misguide whom You guide. There is none who can give what You deprive or avert what You give. The sovereignty is all Yours, and Yours is the judgment, the creation and the decision.” The Ayah,

(“You are our protector, so forgive us and have mercy on us: for You are the best of those who forgive.”), pertains to (Allah’s) covering the mistake and not punishing for the sin. Whenever mercy is mentioned along with forgiveness [such as in Musa’s supplication to Allah], it includes the hope that Allah does not permit one to fall into that act again.

(for You are the best of those who forgive,”) for none except You can forgive the sin.

(“And ordain for us good in this world, and in the Hereafter.”) The first part of Musa’s supplication was to fend off what should be avoided, while this part is a request for what is sought. The meaning of,

(“And ordain for us good in this world, and in the Hereafter. ”) is, `ordain for us and grant us all that is good in both lives. We mentioned the meaning of `good’ before in Surat Al-Baqarah.

(“We have Hudna unto You”) `we repent, go back and return unto You,’ according to the meaning of, `Hudna’, given by Ibn `Abbas, Sa`id bin Jubayr, Mujahid, Abu Al-`Aliyah, Ad-Dahhak, Ibrahim At-Taymi, As-Suddi, Qatadah and several others.

(He said: (As to) My punishment I afflict therewith whom I will and My mercy embraces all things. That (mercy) I shall ordain for those who have Taqwa, and give Zakah; and those who believe in Our Ayat.) [7:156]

Allah answers the statement,

(“It is only Your trial…”) [7:155], by saying,

((As to) My punishment I afflict therewith whom I will and My mercy embraces all things.) Allah says here, `I do what I will, decide what I will and I have wisdom and justice in all matters.’ Certainly, there is no deity worthy of worship except Allah. Allah’s statement,

(and My mercy embraces all things) testifies to His encompassing mercy. Allah said that the angels who carry His Throne and those around the Throne supplicate,

(“Our Lord! You comprehend all things in mercy and knowledge.”) [40:7] Imam Ahmad recorded that Jundub bin `Abdullah Al-Bajali said, “A bedouin man came, he made his camel kneel and he tied it. Then he prayed behind the Messenger of Allah . When the Messenger of Allah finished the prayer, that man untied his camel mounted it and supplicated aloud, `O Allah! Grant Your mercy to me and to Muhammad, and do not give a share in it to anyone else.’ The Messenger of Allah commented (to his Companions),

(Do you think that this man is more misguided or his camel Did you not hear what this man has said) They said, `Yes.’ He said,

(You (the bedouin man) have restricted a vast mercy! Allah, the Exalted, the most Honored has created a hundred mercies and sent down one of them by which the creation, men, Jinn and animals, show mercy to each other. He left with Him ninety-nine mercies, so do you say that this man is more misguided or his camel) Ahmad and Abu Dawud collected this Hadith. Imam Ahmad recorded that Salman narrated that the Prophet said,

(Allah, the Exalted and Most Honored, has a hundred mercies. With one of them, the creations show mercy to each other, and even the beasts show kindness to their offspring. He has kept ninety-nine mercies with Him for the Day of Resurrection.) Muslim recorded it. Allah said next,

(That (mercy) I shall ordain for those who have Taqwa, ) meaning, I will ordain My mercy for them, as a favor and kindness from Me to them. Allah said in a similar Ayah,

(He has prescribed mercy for Himself) [6:12] Allah’s statement,

(for those who have Taqwa), means, `I will ordain My mercy for those who possess these qualities, and they are the Ummah of Muhammad,’

(for those who have Taqwa), who avoid Shirk and major sins,

(and give the Zakah), purify themselves, according to one opinion. It was also said that, `the Zakah’, here pertains to wealth. It is possible that both meanings are included here, for this Ayah was revealed in Makkah [before Zakah in fixed shares was ordained],

(and those who believe in Our Ayat.), those who have faith in them.

وَإِذْ قَالَ مُوسَى لِقَوْمِهِ يَـقَوْمِ إِنَّكُمْ ظَلَمْتُمْ أَنفُسَكُمْ بِاتِّخَاذِكُمُ الْعِجْلَفَتُوبُواْ إِلَى بَارِئِكُمْ فَاقْتُلُواْ أَنفُسَكُمْ ذَلِكُمْ خَيْرٌ لَّكُمْ عِندَ بَارِئِكُمْ فَتَابَ عَلَيْكُمْ إِنَّهُ هُوَ التَّوَّابُ

(54. And (remember) when Musa said to his people: “O my people! Verily, you have wronged yourselves by worshipping the calf. So turn in repentance to your Creator and kill yourselves (the innocent kill the wrongdoers among you), that will be better for you with your Creator.” Then He accepted your repentance. Truly, He is the One Who accepts repentance, the Most Merciful.)

Surah 2 Al Baqarah Verse 54

Tafsir ibn Kathir

This was the repentance required from the Children of Israel for worshipping the calf. Commenting on Allah’s statement;

(And (remember) when Musa said to his people: “O my people! Verily, you have wronged yourselves by worshipping the calf…), Al-Hasan Al-Basri said, “When their hearts thought of worshipping the calf,

(And when they regretted and saw that they had gone astray, they (repented and) said: “If our Lord does not have mercy upon us and forgive us”) (7:149). This is when Musa said to them,

(O my people! Verily, you have wronged yourselves by worshipping the calf…).” Abu `Al-`Aliyah, Sa`id bin Jubayr and Ar-Rabi` bin Anas commented on,

(So turn in repentance to your Bari’) that it means, “To your Creator.” Allah’s statement,

(to your Bari’ (Creator)) alerts the Children of Israel to the enormity of their error and means, “Repent to He Who created you after you associated others with Him in worship.”

An-Nasa’i, Ibn Jarir and Ibn Abi Hatim recorded Ibn `Abbas saying, “Allah told the Children of Israel that their repentance would be to slay by the sword every person they meet, be he father or son. They should not care whom they kill. Those were guilty whom Musa and Harun were not aware of their guilt, they admitted their sin and did as they were ordered. So Allah forgave both the killer and the one killed.” This is part of the Hadith about the trials that we will mention in Surat Ta Ha, (20) Allah willing.

Ibn Jarir narrated that Ibn `Abbas said, “Musa said to his people,

(“So turn in repentance to your Creator and kill each other (the innocent kill the wrongdoers among you), that will be better for you with your Creator.” Then He accepted your repentance. Truly, He is the One Who accepts repentance, the Most Merciful.)

Allah ordered Musa to command his people to kill each other. He ordered those who worshipped the calf to sit down and those who did not worship the calf to stand holding knives in their hands. When they started killing them, a great darkness suddenly overcame them. After the darkness lifted, they had killed seventy thousand of them. Those who were killed among them were forgiven, and those who remained alive were also forgiven.”

وَإِذْ قُلْتُمْ يَـمُوسَى لَن نُّؤْمِنَ لَكَ حَتَّى نَرَى اللَّهَ جَهْرَةً فَأَخَذَتْكُمُ الصَّـعِقَةُ وَأَنتُمْ تَنظُرُونَ

(55. And (remember) when you said: “O Musa! We shall never believe in you until we see Allah plainly.” But you were seized with a bolt of lightning while you were looking).

 ثُمَّ بَعَثْنَـكُم مِّن بَعْدِ مَوْتِكُمْ لَعَلَّكُمْ تَشْكُرُونَ

(56.Then We raised you up after your death, so that you might be grateful.)

Surah 2 Al Baqarah Verse 55-56

Tafsir Ibn Kathir

Allah said, `Remember My favor on you for resurrecting you after you were seized with lightning when you asked to see Me directly, which neither you nor anyone else can bear or attain.’ This was said by Ibn Jurayj. Ibn `Abbas said that the Ayah

(And (remember) when you said: “O Musa ! We shall never believe in you until we see Allah plainly.”) means, “Publicly”, “So that we gaze at Allah.” Also, `Urwah bin Ruwaym said that Allah’s statement,

(While you were looking) means, “Some of them were struck with lightning while others were watching.” Allah resurrected those, and struck the others with lightning. As-Suddi commented on,

(But you were seized with a bolt of lightning) saying; “They died, and Musa stood up crying and supplicating to Allah, `O Lord! What should I say to the Children of Israel when I go back to them after You destroyed the best of them,

(If it had been Your will, You could have destroyed them and me before; would You destroy us for the deeds of the foolish ones among us)’ Allah revealed to Musa that these seventy men were among those who worshipped the calf. Afterwards, Allah brought them back to life one man at a time, while the rest of them were watching how Allah was bringing them back to life. That is why Allah’s said,

(Then We raised you up after your death, so that you might be grateful.)”

Ar-Rabi` bin Anas said, “Death was their punishment, and they were resurrected after they died so they could finish out their lives.” Qatadah said similarly.

`Abdur-Rahman bin Zayd bin Aslam commented on this Ayah, “Musa returned from meeting with his Lord carrying the Tablets on which He wrote the Tawrah. He found that they had worshipped the calf in his absence. Consequently, he commanded them to kill themselves, and they complied, and Allah forgave them. He said to them, `These Tablets have Allah’s Book, containing what He commanded you and what He forbade for you.’ They said, `Should we believe this statement because you said it By Allah, we will not believe until we see Allah in the open, until He shows us Himself and says: This is My Book, therefore, adhere to it. Why does He not talk to us as He talked to you, O, Musa”’ Then he (`Abdur-Rahman bin Zayd) recited Allah’s statement,

(We shall never believe in you until we see Allah plainly) and said, “So Allah’s wrath fell upon them, a thunderbolt struck them, and they all died. Then Allah brought them back to life after He killed them.” Then he (`Abdur-Rahman) recited Allah’s statement,

(Then We raised you up after your death, so that you might be grateful), and said, “Musa said to them, `Take the Book of Allah.’ They said, `No.’ He said, `What is the matter with you’ They said, `The problem is that we died and came back to life.’ He said, `Take the Book of Allah.’ They said, `No.’ So Allah sent some angels who made the mountain topple over them.”

This shows that the Children of Israel were required to fulfill the commandments after they were brought back to life. However, Al-Mawardy said that there are two opinions about this matter. The first opinion is that since the Children of Israel witnessed these miracles, they were compelled to believe, so they did not have to fulfill the commandments. The second opinion states that they were required to adhere to the commandments, so that no responsible adult is free of such responsibilities. Al-Qurtubi said that this is what is correct, because, he said, although the Children of Israel witnessed these tremendous calamities and incidents, that did not mean that they were not responsible for fulfilling the commandments any more. Rather they are responsible for that, and this is clear. Allah knows best.

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