The destruction of the the Firawn (Pharoah): An example for later generations

 I take refuge with Allaah from the accursed devil.  

بِسْمِ اللَّهِ الرَّحْمَـنِ الرَّحِيمِ 

  Bismillah-ir-Rahman-ir-Raheem: In the name of Allah, the Compassionate, the Merciful.  

 Welcome to my blog and praise the Magnificent Lord as you enter: Allahu Akbar: Allah is the Greatest .

  May the Peace and Blessing of Allah Azza wa Jal, our Lord Glorified and Praised be He, be upon our beloved Prophet, his Family, and Companions.

The Destruction of the Firawn (Pharoah): An example for later generations.

 وَلَقَدْ أَرْسَلْنَا مُوسَى بِـَايَـتِنَآ إِلَى فِرْعَوْنَ وَمَلاًّيْهِ فَقَالَ إِنِّى رَسُولُ رَبِّ الْعَـلَمِينَ

(46. And indeed We did send Musa with Our Ayat to Fir`awn and his chiefs. He said: “Verily, I am a Messenger of the Lord of all that exists.”)

فَلَمَّا جَآءَهُم بِـَايَـتِنَآ إِذَا هُم مِّنْهَا يَضْحَكُونَ

(47. But when he came to them with Our Ayat, behold, they laughed at them).

وَمَا نُرِيِهِم مِّنْ ءَايَةٍ إِلاَّ هِىَ أَكْبَرُ مِنْ أُخْتِهَا وَأَخَذْنَـهُم بِالْعَذَابِ لَعَلَّهُمْ يَرْجِعُونَ

 (48. And not an Ayah We showed them but it was greater than its fellow preceding it, and We seized them with torment, in order that they might turn.)

 وَقَالُواْ يأَيُّهَ السَّاحِرُ ادْعُ لَنَا رَبَّكَ بِمَا عَهِدَ عِندَكَ إِنَّنَا لَمُهْتَدُونَ

(49. And they said (to Musa): “O you sorcerer! Invoke your Lord for us according to what He has made a pact with you. Verily, We shall guide ourselves.”)

فَلَمَّا كَشَفْنَا عَنْهُمُ الْعَذَابَ إِذَا هُمْ يَنكُثُونَ

(50. But when We removed the torment from them, behold, they broke their covenant.)

Surah 46 Az Zukhruf Verse 44-50

Tafsir Ibn Kathir

Here Allah tells us about His servant and Messenger Musa, peace be upon him, and how He sent him to Fir`awn and his chiefs. That is, his governors, ministers, leaders and followers among the Egyptians and the Children of Israel. Allah sent him to call them to worship Allah alone, with no partner or associate, and to forbid them from worshipping anything other than Him. He sent him with mighty signs, such as his hand and his staff, other signs such as the flood, locusts, Qummal, frogs and blood, and the loss of their crops and lives. Yet despite all that they remained arrogant and stubbornly refused to follow him; they rejected his message and made fun of it, and laughed at the one who had brought it.

(And not an Ayah We showed them but it was greater than its fellow preceding it,) but despite that they would not give up their sin, misguidance, ignorance and confusion. Every time one of these signs came to them, they would go and implore Musa, saying,

(“O you sorcerer!…”) meaning, expert or knowledgeable one — this was the view of Ibn Jarir. The scholars of that time were the sorcerers or magicians, and magic was not regarded as something reprehensible by them at that time, so this was not a slight on their part. They were in a state of need, so it would not have been appropriate for them to insult him. This was a way of honoring him, as they thought. On each occasion, they promised Musa that if the torment was lifted from them, they would believe in him and let the Children of Israel go with him, but on each occasion they went back on their word. This is like the Ayat:

(So We sent on them: the flood, the locusts, the Qummal, the frogs, and the blood; manifest signs, yet they remained arrogant, and they were of those people who were criminals. And when the punishment struck them, they said: “O Musa! Invoke your Lord for us because of His promise to you. If you remove the punishment from us, we indeed shall believe in you, and we shall let the Children of Israel go with you.” But when We removed the punishment from them to a fixed term, which they had to reach, behold! they broke their word!) (7:133-135)

وَأَوْحَيْنَآ إِلَى مُوسَى أَنْ أَسْرِ بِعِبَادِى إِنَّكُم مّتَّبِعُونَ

(52. And We revealed to Musa, saying: “Depart by night with My servants, verily, you will be pursued.”)

فَأَرْسَلَ فِرْعَونُ فِى الْمَدَآئِنِ حَـشِرِينَ

(53. Then Fir`awn sent callers to (all) the cities.)

 إِنَّ هَـؤُلاءِ لَشِرْذِمَةٌ قَلِيلُونَ

(54. (Saying): “Verily, these indeed are but a small band.”)

 وَإِنَّهُمْ لَنَا لَغَآئِظُونَ

(55. “And verily, they have done what has enraged us.”)

وَإِنَّا لَجَمِيعٌ حَـذِرُونَ

(56. “But we are a host all assembled, amply forewarned.”)

 فَأَخْرَجْنَـهُمْ مِّن جَنَّـتٍ وَعُيُونٍ

 (57. So, We expelled them from gardens and springs,)

 وَكُنُوزٍ وَمَقَامٍ كَرِيمٍ

(58. Treasures, and every kind of honorable place.)

كَذَلِكَ وَأَوْرَثْنَـهَا بَنِى إِسْرَءِيلَ

(59. Thus and We caused the Children of Israel to inherit them.)

Surah 26 Ash Shuara Verse 52-59

Tafsir Ibn Kathir

After Musa stayed in Egypt for a long time, and the proof of Allah was established against Fir`awn and his chiefs, yet they were still arrogant and stubborn, then there was nothing left for them but punishment and vengeance. So Allah commanded Musa, peace be upon him, to take the Children of Israel out of Egypt by night, and take them wherever he would be commanded. So Musa, peace be upon him, did as he was commanded by his Lord, may He be glorified, and he led them forth after they had borrowed an abundance of jewelry from the people of Fir`awn. As more than one of the scholars of Tafsir have said, they left when the moon was rising, and Mujahid, may Allah have mercy on him, said that the moon was eclipsed that night. And Allah knows best. Musa asked about the grave of Yusuf (Prophet Joseph), peace be upon him, and an old woman from among the Children of Israel showed him where it was, so he took the remains with them, and it was said that they were among the things that were carried by Musa himself, may peace be upon them both. It was also said that Yusuf, peace be upon him, had left instructions in his will that if the Children of Israel ever left Egypt, they should take his remains with them. The following morning, when there was nobody to be found in the Israelite quarters, Fir`awn became angry and his anger intensified since Allah had decreed that he was to be destroyed. So he quickly sent his callers to all his cities, i.e., to mobilize his troops and bring them together, and he called out to them:

(Verily, these) meaning, the Children of Israel,

(indeed are but a small band. ) meaning, a small group.

(And verily, they have done what has enraged us.) means, `every time we have heard anything about them, it has upset us and made us angry.’

(But we are a host all assembled, amply forewarned.) means, `we are constantly taking precautions lest they betray us.’ Some of the Salaf read this with the meaning, “we are constantly forewarned and forearmed. And I want to destroy them to the last man, and destroy all their lands and property.” So he and his troops were punished with the very things he sought to inflict upon the Children of Israel. Allah says:

(So, We expelled them from gardens and springs, treasures, and every kind of honorable place.) meaning, they were thrown out of those blessings and into Hell, and they left behind the honorable places, gardens and rivers, wealth, provision, position and power in this world:

(Thus and We caused the Children of Israel to inherit them.) This is like the Ayat:

(And We made the people who were considered weak to inherit the eastern parts of the land and the western parts thereof which We have blessed) (7: 137).

(And We wished to do a favor to those who were weak in the land, and to make them rulers and to make them the inheritors) The two Ayat thereafter: [28:5-6].

فَانتَقَمْنَا مِنْهُمْ فَأَغْرَقْنَـهُمْ فِي الْيَمِّ بِأَنَّهُمْ كَذَّبُواْ بِـَايَـتِنَا وَكَانُواْ عَنْهَا غَـفِلِينَ

(136. So We took retribution from them. We drowned them in the sea, because they belied Our Ayat and were heedless with them.)

 وَأَوْرَثْنَا الْقَوْمَ الَّذِينَ كَانُواْ يُسْتَضْعَفُونَ مَشَـرِقَ الاٌّرْضِ وَمَغَـرِبَهَا الَّتِى بَارَكْنَا فِيهَا وَتَمَّتْ كَلِمَتُ رَبِّكَ الْحُسْنَى عَلَى بَنِى إِسْرءِيلَ بِمَا صَبَرُواْ وَدَمَّرْنَا مَا كَانَ يَصْنَعُ فِرْعَوْنُ وَقَوْمُهُ وَمَا كَانُواْ يَعْرِشُونَ

(137. And We made the people who were considered weak to inherit the eastern parts of the land and the western parts thereof which We have blessed. And the fair Word of your Lord was fulfilled for the Children of Israel, because of their endurance. And We destroyed what Fir`awn and his people produced, and what they erected.)

Surah 7 Al Araf 136-137

Tafsir Ibn Kathir

Allah states that when the people of Fir`awn rebelled and transgressed, even though He inflicted them with consecutive signs, one after another, He took retribution from them by drowning them in the sea that Musa parted by Allah’s power, and he and the Children of Israel passed through. In their pursuit, Fir`awn and his soldiers went in the sea chasing Musa and his people. When they all had gone inside the water, the sea closed in on them and they all drowned, because they belied the Ayat of Allah and were heedless of them. Allah said that He has granted the people who were considered weak, the Children of Israel, to inherit the eastern and western parts of the land. Al-Hasan Al-Basri and Qatadah commented that Allah’s statement,

(…the eastern parts of the land and the western parts thereof which We have blessed.) refers to the Sham area (Greater Syria). Also, Mujahid and Ibn Jarir said that Allah’s statement,

(And the fair Word of your Lord was fulfilled for the Children of Israel, because of their endurance.) is explained by Allah’s other statement, 

(And We wished to do a favor to those who were weak (and oppressed) in the land, and to make them rulers and to make them the inheritors. And to establish them in the land, and We let Fir`awn and Haman and their hosts receive from them that which they feared) [28:5-6]. Further, Allah’s statement,

(And We destroyed what Fir`awn and his people produced,) meaning, We destroyed what Fir`awn and his people produced, such as agriculture and buildings.

(and what they erected.) Ibn `Abbas and Mujahid said that

(they erected) means, they built.

فَأَتْبَعُوهُم مُّشْرِقِينَ

(60. So, they pursued them at sunrise.)

فَلَمَّا تَرَآءَا الْجَمْعَانِ قَالَ أَصْحَـبُ مُوسَى إِنَّا لَمُدْرَكُونَ

(61. And when the two hosts saw each other, the companions of Musa said: “We are sure to be overtaken.”)

 قَالَ كَلاَّ إِنَّ مَعِىَ رَبِّى سَيَهْدِينِ

(62. (Musa) said: “Nay, verily with me is my Lord. He will guide me.”)

 فَأَوْحَيْنَآ إِلَى مُوسَى أَنِ اضْرِب بِّعَصَاكَ الْبَحْرَ فَانفَلَقَ فَكَانَ كُلُّ فِرْقٍ كَالطَّوْدِ الْعَظِيمِ

(63. Then We revealed to Musa (saying): “Strike the sea with your stick.” And it parted, and each separate part became like huge mountain.)

وَأَزْلَفْنَا ثَمَّ الاٌّخَرِينَ

(64. Then We brought near the others to that place.)

وَأَنجَيْنَا مُوسَى وَمَن مَّعَهُ أَجْمَعِينَ

(65. And We saved Musa and all those with him.)

 ثُمَّ أَغْرَقْنَا الاٌّخَرِينَ

 (66. Then We drowned the others.)

إِنَّ فِى ذَلِكَ لأَيَةً وَمَا كَانَ أَكْثَرُهُم مُّؤْمِنِينَ

 (67. Verily, in this is indeed a sign, yet most of them are not believers.)

 وَإِنَّ رَبَّكَ لَهُوَ الْعَزِيزُ الرَّحِيمُ

 (68. And verily your Lord, He is truly the All-Mighty, the Most Merciful.)

Surah 26 Ash Shuara Verse 60-68

Tafsir Ibn Kathir

More than one of the scholars of Tafsir said that Fir`awn set out with a huge group, a group containing the leaders and entire government of Egypt at that time, i.e., the decision-makers and influential figures, princes, ministers, nobles, leaders and soldiers.

(So, they pursued them at sunrise.) means, they caught up with the Children of Israel at sunrise.

(And when the two hosts saw each other,) means, each group saw the other. At that point,

(the companions of Musa said: “We are sure to be overtaken.”) This was because Fir`awn and his people caught up with them on the shores of the Red Sea, so the sea was ahead of them and Fir`awn and his troops were behind them. Hence they said:

(“We are sure to be overtaken.” (Musa) said: “Nay, verily with me is my Lord. He will guide me.”) meaning, `nothing of what you fear will happen to you, for Allah is the One Who commanded me to bring you here, and He does not go back on His promise.’ Harun, peace be upon him, was in the front, with Yusha` bin Nun and a believer from the family of Fir`awn, and Musa, peace be upon him, was in the rear. More than one of the scholars of Tafsir said that they stood there not knowing what to do, and Yusha` bin Nun or the believer from the family of Fir`awn said to Musa, peace be upon him, “O Prophet of Allah, is it here that your Lord commanded you to bring us” He said: “Yes.” Then Fir`awn and his troops drew near and were very close indeed. At that point Allah commanded his Prophet Musa, peace be upon him, to strike the sea with his staff, so he struck it, and it parted, by the will of Allah. Allah says:

(And it parted, and each separate part became like huge mountain.) meaning, like mighty mountains. This was the view of Ibn Mas`ud, Ibn `Abbas, Muhammad bin Ka`b, Ad-Dahhak, Qatadah and others. `Ata’ Al-Khurasani said, “It refers to a pass between two mountains.” Ibn `Abbas said, “The sea divided into twelve paths, one for each of the tribes.” As-Suddi added, “And in it there were windows through which they could see one another, and the water was erected like walls.” Allah sent the wind to the sea bed to make it solid like the land. Allah says:

(and strike a dry path for them in the sea, fearing neither to be overtaken nor being afraid) (20:77). And here He says:

(Then We brought near the others to that place.) Ibn `Abbas, `Ata’ Al-Khurasani, Qatadah and As-Suddi said:

(Then We brought near) means, “We brought Fir`awn and his troops near to the sea.”

(And We saved Musa and all those with him. Then We drowned the others.) meaning: `We saved Musa and the Children of Israel and whoever followed their religion, and none of them were destroyed, but Fir`awn and his troops were drowned and not one of them remained alive, but was destroyed.’ Then Allah says:

(Verily, in this is indeed a sign,) meaning, this story with its wonders and tales of aid to the believing servants of Allah is definitive proof and evidence of Allah’s wisdom.

(yet most of them are not believers. And verily your Lord, He is truly the All-Mighty, the Most Merciful. ) The explanation of this phrase has already been discussed above.

وَلَقَدْ أَوْحَيْنَآ إِلَى مُوسَى أَنْ أَسْرِ بِعِبَادِى فَاضْرِبْ لَهُمْ طَرِيقاً فِى الْبَحْرِ يَبَساً لاَّ تَخَافُ دَرَكاً وَلاَ تَخْشَى

(77. And indeed We revealed to Musa: “Travel by night with My servants and strike a dry path for them in the sea, fearing neither to be overtaken nor being afraid.”)

 فَأَتْبَعَهُمْ فِرْعَوْنُ بِجُنُودِهِ فَغَشِيَهُمْ مِّنَ الْيَمِّ مَا غَشِيَهُمْ

(78. Then Fir`awn pursued them with his hosts, but the sea [Al-Yamm] completely overwhelmed them and covered them up.)

وَأَضَلَّ فِرْعَوْنُ قَوْمَهُ وَمَا هَدَى

(79. And Fir`awn led his people astray, and he did not guide them.)

Surah 20 Ta Ha  Verse 77-79

 Tafsir Ibn Kathir

Allah, the Exalted, informs that He commanded Musa to journey at night with the Children of Israel, when Fir`awn refused to release them and send them with Musa. He was to take them away from Fir`awn’s captivity. Allah expounds upon this in Surahs other than this noble Surah. Musa left with the Children of Israel, and when the people of Egypt awoke in the morning they found that not a single one of them remained in Egypt. Fir`awn became extremely furious. He sent callers into all of the cities to gather together his army from all of his lands and provinces. He said to them,

(Verily, these indeed are but a small band. And verily, they have done what has enraged us.) [26:54-55] Then when he gathered his army and organized his troops, he set out after them and they followed them at dawn when the sun began to rise.

(And when the two hosts saw each other) [26:61] This means that each person of the two parties was looking at the other party.

(The companions of Musa said: “We are sure to be overtaken.” (Musa) said: “Nay, verily, with me is my Lord. He will guide me.”) [26:61-62] Musa stopped with the Children of Israel and the sea was in front of them and Fir`awn was behind them. Then, at that moment, Allah revealed to Musa,

(And strike a dry path for them in the sea.) So Musa struck the sea with his stick and he said, “Split for me, by the leave of Allah.” Thus, it split, and each separate part of the water became like a huge mountain. Then, Allah sent a wind to the land of the sea and it burned the soil until it became dry like the ground that is on land. For this reason Allah said,

(and strike a dry path for them in the sea, fearing neither to be overtaken…) This means being caught by Fir`awn.

(nor being afraid.) meaning, “Do not be afraid of the sea drowning your people.” Then, Allah, the Exalted, said,

(Then Fir`awn pursued them with his hosts, but the sea [Al-Yamm] completely overwhelmed them) Al-Yamm means the sea.

(and covered them up. ) meaning, covered them up with a thing that was well-familiar to them in such a situa- tion, as Allah states;

(And He destroyed the overthrown cities. So there covered them that which did cover.) [53:53-54] As Fir`awn pursued them into the sea, misled his people and did not lead them to the path of correct guidance, likewise, he will go ahead of his people on the Day of Resurrection, and will lead them in to the Hellfire. And evil indeed is the place to which they are led.

وَنَادَى فِرْعَوْنُ فِى قَوْمِهِ قَالَ يقَوْمِ أَلَيْسَ لِى مُلْكُ مِصْرَ وَهَـذِهِ الاٌّنْهَـرُ تَجْرِى مِن تَحْتِى أَفَلاَ تُبْصِرُونَ

(51. And Fir`awn proclaimed among his people (saying): “O my people! Is not mine the dominion of Egypt, and these rivers flowing underneath me. See you not then”)

أَمْ أَنَآ خَيْرٌ مِّنْ هَـذَا الَّذِى هُوَ مَهِينٌ وَلاَ يَكَادُ يُبِينُ

(52. “Am I not better than this one (Musa) who is despicable and can scarcely express himself clearly”)

 فَلَوْلاَ أُلْقِىَ عَلَيْهِ أَسْوِرَةٌ مِّن ذَهَبٍ أَوْ جَآءَ مَعَهُ الْمَلَـئِكَةُ مُقْتَرِنِينَ

 (53. Why then are not golden bracelets bestowed on him, or angels sent along with him”)

فَاسْتَخَفَّ قَوْمَهُ فَأَطَاعُوهُ إِنَّهُمْ كَانُواْ قَوْماً فَـسِقِينَ

 (54. Thus he fooled his people, and they obeyed him. Verily, they were ever a people who were rebellious.)

 فَلَمَّآ ءَاسَفُونَا انتَقَمْنَا مِنْهُمْ فَأَغْرَقْنَـهُمْ أَجْمَعِينَ

 (55. So when they angered Us, We punished them, and drowned them all.)

 فَجَعَلْنَـهُمْ سَلَفاً وَمَثَلاً لِّلاٌّخِرِينَ

(56. And We made them a precedent, and an example to later generations.)

Surah 43 Az Zukhruf Verse 51-56

Tafsir Ibn Kathir

Allah tells us how Fir`awn stubbornly persisted in his rebellion and disbelief. He assembled his people and addressed them in a vainglorious fashion, boasting of his dominion over Egypt.

(Is not mine the dominion of Egypt, and these rivers flowing underneath me) Qatadah said, “They had gardens and rivers of flowing water.”

(See you not then) means, `do you not see my position of might and power’ — implying that Musa and his followers were poor and weak. This is like the Ayah:

(Then he gathered (his people) and cried aloud, saying: “I am your lord, most high.” So Allah seized him with punishment for his last and first transgression.) (79:23-25)

(Am I not better than this one who is despicable) As-Suddi said, “He was saying, `indeed I am better than this one, who is despicable’.” Some of the grammarians of Basrah said that Fir`awn — may the curse of Allah be upon him — was saying that he was better than Musa, peace be upon him. But this is an obvious lie, may continued curses be upon him until the Day of Resurrection. By describing Musa as despicable he meant — as Sufyan said — insignificant. Qatadah and As-Suddi said, “He meant, weak.” Ibn Jarir said, “He meant, he had no power, authority or wealth.”

(and can scarcely express himself clearly) means, he cannot speak clearly, he stammers and cannot speak well. Fir`awn’s description of Musa as “despicable” is a lie; rather it is he who was despicable and insignificant, lacking in physical, moral and religious terms, and it is Musa who was noble, truthful, righteous and upright.

(and can scarcely express himself clearly). This was also a lie. Although something happened to Musa’s tongue when he was a child, when it was burnt by a coal. He asked Allah to loosen the knot from his tongue (i.e., to correct his speech defect) so that they could understand what he said, and Allah had answered his prayer and said:

(You are granted your request, O Musa) (20:36). It may be the case that some problem remained which he had not asked to be relieved of, as Al-Hasan Al-Basri suggested, and that he had asked only to be relieved of that which stood in the way of his conveying the Message. A person cannot be blamed for physical matters over which he has no control. Even though Fir`awn had the intelligence to understand that, he wanted to confuse and mislead his people, who were ignorant and stupid. So he said:

(Why then are not golden bracelets bestowed on him…) meaning, adornments which are placed on the arms. This was the view of Ibn `Abbas, may Allah be pleased with him, Qatadah and others.

(or angels sent along with him) meaning, to serve him and to testify that he is telling the truth. He looked only at outward appearances and did not understand the true inner matters that are clearer than what he focused on, if only he had understood that. Allah says:

(Thus he fooled his people, and they obeyed him.) meaning, he confused them and invited them to misguidance, and they responded to him.

(Verily, they were ever a people who were rebellious.) Then Allah says:

(So when they angered Us, We punished them, and drowned them all.) `Ali bin Abi Talhah reported that Ibn `Abbas, may Allah be pleased with him, said it means: “When they angered Us means, they provoked Our wrath.” Ad-Dahhak said, it means “They made Us angry.” This was also the view of Ibn `Abbas, Mujahid, `Ikrimah, Sa`id bin Jubayr, Muhammad bin Ka`b Al-Qurazi, Qatadah, As-Suddi and other scholars of Tafsir. Ibn Abi Hatim recorded that `Uqbah bin `Amir, may Allah be pleased with him, said that the Messenger of Allah said:

(When you see that Allah gives a person what he wants even though he is persisting in sin, that means that Allah is enticing him into destruction.) Then he recited:

(So when they angered Us, We punished them, and drowned them all.) It was reported that Tariq bin Shihab said, “I was with `Abdullah, may Allah be pleased with him, and the issue of sudden death was mentioned. He said, `It is a relief for the believer and a source of regret for the disbeliever.’ Then he recited the Ayah:

(So when they angered Us, We punished them, and drowned them all). ” `Umar bin `Abdul-`Aziz, may Allah be pleased with him, said, “I found that punishment comes with negligence, meaning the Ayah:

(So when they angered Us, We punished them, and drowned them all).”

(And We made them a precedent, and an example to later generations.) Abu Mijlaz said, “Precedent for others who do the same as they did.” He and Mujahid said, “An example, i.e., a lesson to those who come after them.” Allah is the One Who guides to the straight path, and unto Him is the final return.

www.tafsir.com

Advertisements