Sulayman (Solomon), peace be upon him, and Queen Bilqis, the Queen of Sheba.

I take refuge with Allaah from the accursed devil.  

بِسْمِ اللَّهِ الرَّحْمَـنِ الرَّحِيمِ 

 Bismillah-ir-Rahman-ir-Raheem: In the name of Allah, the Compassionate, the Merciful.  

Welcome to my blog and praise the Magnificent Lord as you enter: Allahu Akbar: Allah is the Greatest .

 May the Peace and Blessing of Allah Azza wa Jal, our Lord Glorified and Praised be He, be upon our beloved Prophet, his Family, and Companions.  

Sulayman (Solomon) Alaihi Salaam and Queen Bilqis, the Queen of Sheba.

[قَالَ سَنَنظُرُ أَصَدَقْتَ أَمْ كُنتَ مِنَ الْكَـذِبِينَ

(27. (Sulayman) said: “We shall see whether you speak the truth or you are (one) of the liars.”)

اذْهَب بِّكِتَابِى هَـذَا فَأَلْقِهْ إِلَيْهِمْ ثُمَّ تَوَلَّ عَنْهُمْ فَانْظُرْ مَاذَا يَرْجِعُونَ

(28. “Go you with this letter of mine and deliver it to them, then draw back from them and see what they return.”)

 قَالَتْ يأَيُّهَا الْمَلأُ إِنَّى أُلْقِىَ إِلَىَّ كِتَابٌ كَرِيمٌ

(29. She said: “O chiefs! Verily, here is delivered to me a noble letter, ”)

 إِنَّهُ مِن سُلَيْمَانَ وَإِنَّهُ بِسْمِ اللَّهِ الرَّحْمَـنِ الرَّحِيمِ

 (30. “Verily, it is from Sulayman, and it (reads): `In the Name of Allah, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful;’)

 أَلاَّ تَعْلُواْ عَلَىَّ وَأْتُونِى مُسْلِمِينَ

(31. `Be you not exalted against me, but come to me submitting (as Muslims).’ ”)

Surah 27 An Naml, Verse 27-31

Tafsir ibn Kathir

Allah tells us what Sulayman said to the hoopoe when he told him about the people of Saba’ and their queen:

((Sulayman) said: “We shall see whether you speak the truth or you are (one) of the liars.”) meaning, `are you telling the truth’

(or you are (one) of the liars.) meaning, `or are you telling a lie in order to save yourself from the threat I made against you’

(Go you with this letter of mine and deliver it to them then draw back from them and see what they return.) Sulayman wrote a letter to Bilqis and her people and gave it to the hoopoe to deliver. It was said that he carried it on his wings, as is the way with birds, or that he carried it in his beak. He went to their land and found the palace of Bilqis, then he went to her private chambers and threw the letter through a small window, then he stepped to one side out of good manners. Bilqis was amazed and confused when she saw that, then she went and picked up the letter, opened its seal and read it. The letter said:

(it is from Sulayman, and it (reads): `In the Name of Allah, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful; Be you not exalted against me, but come to me submitting (as Muslims).’) So she gathered her commanders and ministers and the leaders of her land, and said to them:

(“O chiefs! Verily, here is delivered to me a noble letter.”) She described it as such because of the wondrous things she had seen, that it was delivered by a bird who threw it to her, then stood aside out of good manners. This was something that no king could do. Then she read the letter to them:

(Verily, it is from Sulayman, and it (reads): `In the Name of Allah, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful; Be you not exalted against me, but come to me submitting (as Muslims).’) Thus they knew that it was from Allah’s Prophet Sulayman, upon him be peace, and that they could not match him. This letter was the utmost in brevity and eloquence, coming straight to the point.

(Be you not exalted against me,) Qatadah said: “Do not be arrogant with me.

(but come to me submitting (as Muslims). )” `Abdur-Rahman bin Zayd bin Aslam said: “Do not refuse or be too arrogant to come to me

(but come to me submitting (as Muslims).)”

قَالَتْ يأَيُّهَا الْمَلأ أَفْتُونِى فِى أَمْرِى مَا كُنتُ قَـطِعَةً أَمْراً حَتَّى تَشْهَدُونِ

(32. She said: “O chiefs! Advise me in case of mine. I decide no case till you are present with me.”)

قَالُواْ نَحْنُ أُوْلُواْ قُوَّةٍ وَأُولُو بَأْسٍ شَدِيدٍ وَالاٌّمْرُ إِلَيْكِ فَانظُرِى مَاذَا تَأْمُرِينَ

(33. They said: “We have great strength, and great ability for war, but it is for you to command; so think over what you will command.”)

قَالَتْ إِنَّ الْمُلُوكَ إِذَا دَخَلُواْ قَرْيَةً أَفْسَدُوهَا وَجَعَلُواْ أَعِزَّةَ أَهْلِهَآ أَذِلَّةً وَكَذلِكَ يَفْعَلُونَ

(34. She said: “Verily, kings, when they enter a town, they destroy it and make the most honorable among its people the lowest. And thus they do.”)

 وَإِنِّى مُرْسِلَةٌ إِلَيْهِمْ بِهَدِيَّةٍ فَنَاظِرَةٌ بِمَ يَرْجِعُ الْمُرْسَلُونَ

(35. “But verily, I am going to send him a present, and see with what (answer) the messengers return.”)

Surah 27 An Naml 32-35

Tafsir Ibn Kathir

When she(Bilqis) read Sulayman’s letter to them and consulted with them about this news, she said:

(“O chiefs! Advise me in (this) case of mine. I decide no case till you are present with me.”) meaning, `until you come together and offer me your advice.’

(They said: “We have great strength, and great ability for war…”) They reminded her of their great numbers, preparedness and strength, then they referred the matter to her and said:

(but it is for you to command; so think over what you will command.) meaning, `we have the power and strength, if you want to go to him and fight him.’ The matter is yours to decide, so instruct us as you see fit and we will obey. Ibn `Abbas said: “Bilqis said:

(Verily, kings, when they enter a town, they destroy it and make the most honorable amongst its people the lowest.) And Allah said:

(And thus they do. ) Then she resorted to peaceful means, seeking a truce and trying to placate Sulayman, and said:

(But verily, I am going to send him a present, and see with what the messengers return.) meaning, `I will send him a gift befitting for one of his status, and will wait and see what his response will be. Perhaps he will accept that and leave us alone, or he will impose a tax which we can pay him every year, so that he will not fight us and wage war against us.’ Qatadah said: “May Allah have mercy on her and be pleased with her — how wise she was as a Muslim and (before that) as an idolator! She understood how gift-giving has a good effect on people.” Ibn `Abbas and others said: “She said to her people, if he accepts the gift, he is a king, so fight him; but if he does not accept it, he is a Prophet, so follow him.”

فَلَمَّا جَآءَ سُلَيْمَانَ قَالَ أَتُمِدُّونَنِ بِمَالٍ فَمَآ ءَاتَـنِى اللَّهُ خَيْرٌ مِّمَّآ ءَاتَـكُمْ بَلْ أَنتُمْ بِهَدِيَّتِكُمْ تَفْرَحُونَ

(36. So, when (the messengers with the gift) came to Sulayman, he said: “Will you help me in wealth What Allah has given me is better than that which He has given you! Nay, you rejoice in your gift!”) 

ارْجِعْ إِلَيْهِمْ فَلَنَأْتِيَنَّهُم بِجُنُودٍ لاَّ قِبَلَ لَهُمْ بِهَا وَلَنُخْرِجَنَّهُم مِّنْهَآ أَذِلَّةً وَهُمْ صَـغِرُونَ

(37. “Go back to them. We verily, shall come to them with armies that they cannot resist, and we shall drive them out from there in disgrace, and they will be abased.”)

Surah 27 An Naml, Verse 36-37

More than one of the scholars of Tafsir among the Salaf and others stated that she sent him a huge gift of gold, jewels, pearls and other things. It is apparent that Sulayman, peace be upon him, did not even look at what they brought at all and did not pay any attention to it, but he turned away and said, rebuking them:

(“Will you help me in wealth”) meaning, `are you trying to flatter me with wealth so that I will leave you alone with your Shirk and your kingdom’

(What Allah has given me is better than that which He has given you!) means, `what Allah has given to me of power, wealth and troops, is better than that which you have.’

(Nay, you rejoice in your gift!) means, `you are the ones who are influenced by gifts and presents; we will accept nothing from you except Islam or the sword.’

(Go back to them) means, with their gift,

(We verily, shall come to them with armies that they cannot resist,) they have no power to match them or resist them.

(and we shall drive them out from there in disgrace,) `we shall drive them out in disgrace from their land.’

(and they will be abased.) means, humiliated and expelled. When her messengers came back to her with her undelivered gift, and told her what Sulayman said, she and her people paid heed and obeyed him. She came to him with her troops in submission and humility, honoring Sulayman and intending to follow him in Islam. When Sulayman, peace be upon him, realized that they were coming to him, he rejoiced greatly.

قَالَ يأَيُّهَا الْمَلأ أَيُّكُمْ يَأْتِينِى بِعَرْشِهَا قَبْلَ أَن يَأْتُونِى مُسْلِمِينَ

(38. He said: “O chiefs! Which of you can bring me her throne before they come to me surrendering themselves in obedience (as Muslims)”)

 قَالَ عِفْرِيتٌ مِّن الْجِنِّ أَنَاْ ءَاتِيكَ بِهِ قَبْلَ أَن تَقُومَ مِن مَّقَامِكَ وَإِنِّى عَلَيْهِ لَقَوِىٌّ أَمِينٌ

 (39. An `Ifrit from the Jinn said: “I will bring it to you before you rise from your place. And verily, I am indeed strong and trustworthy for such work.”)

 قَالَ الَّذِى عِندَهُ عِلْمٌ مِّنَ الْكِتَـبِ أَنَاْ ءَاتِيكَ بِهِ قَبْلَ أَن يَرْتَدَّ إِلَيْكَ طَرْفُكَ فَلَمَّا رَءَاهُ مُسْتَقِرّاً عِندَهُ قَالَ هَـذَا مِن فَضْلِ رَبِّى لِيَبْلُوَنِى أَءَشْكُرُ أَمْ أَكْفُرُ وَمَن شَكَرَ فَإِنَّمَا يَشْكُرُ لِنَفْسِهِ وَمَن كَفَرَ فَإِنَّ رَبِّى غَنِىٌّ كَرِيمٌ

(40. One with whom was knowledge of the Scripture, said: “I will bring it to you within the twinkling of an eye!” Then when he saw it placed before him, he said: “This is by the grace of my Lord — to test me whether I am grateful or ungrateful! And whoever is grateful, truly, his gratitude is for himself; and whoever is ungrateful, certainly my Lord is Rich, Bountiful.”)

Surah 27 An Naml, Verse 38-40

Tafsir Ibn Kathir

Muhammad bin Ishaq reported from Yazid bin Ruman: “When the messengers returned with word of what Sulayman said, she said: `By Allah, I knew he was more than a king, and that we have no power to match him, and that we can gain nothing by being stubborn with him. So, she sent word to him saying: “I am coming to you with the leaders of my people to see what you will instruct us to do and what you are calling us to of your religion.” Then she issued commands that her throne, which was made of gold and inlaid with rubies, chrysolite and pearls, should be placed in the innermost of seven rooms, one within the other, and all the doors should be locked. Then she told her deputy whom she was leaving in charge, “Take care of my people and my throne, and do not let anyone approach it or see it until I come back to you.” Then she set off to meet Sulayman with twelve thousand of her commanders from the leaders of Yemen, under each of whose command were many thousands of men. Sulayman sent the Jinn to bring him news of her progress and route every day and night, then when she drew near, he gathered together the Jinns and humans who were under his control and said:

(O chiefs! Which of you can bring me her throne before they come to me surrendering themselves in obedience (as Muslims)).”

(An `Ifrit from the Jinn said: ) Mujahid said, “A giant Jinn.” Abu Salih said, “It was as if he was a mountain.”

(I will bring it to you before you rise from your place.) Ibn `Abbas, may Allah be pleased with him, said, “Before you get up from where you are sitting.” As-Suddi and others said: “He used to sit to pass judgements and rulings over the people, and to eat, from the beginning of the day until noon.”

(And verily, I am indeed strong and trustworthy for such work.) Ibn `Abbas said: “Strong enough to carry it and trustworthy with the jewels it contains. Sulayman, upon him be peace, said, “I want it faster than that.” From this it seems that Sulayman wanted to bring this throne as a demonstration of the greatness of the power and authority that Allah had bestowed upon him and the troops that He had subjugated to him. Power such as had never been given to anyone else, before or since, so that this would furnish proof of his prophethood before Bilqis and her people, because this would be a great and wondrous thing, if he brought her throne as if he were in her country, before they could come to it, although it was hidden and protected by so many locked doors. When Sulayman said, “I want it faster than that,

(One with whom was knowledge of the Scripture said: ) Ibn `Abbas said, “This was Asif, the scribe of Sulayman.” It was also narrated by Muhammad bin Ishaq from Yazid bin Ruman that he was Asif bin Barkhiya’ and he was a truthful believer who knew the Greatest Name of Allah. Qatadah said: “He was a believer among the humans, and his name was Asif.”

(I will bring it to you within the twinkling of an eye!) Meaning, lift your gaze and look as far as you can, and before you get tired and blink, you will find it before you. Then he got up, performed ablution and prayed to Allah, may He be exalted. Mujahid said: “He said, O Owner of majesty and honor.” When Sulayman and his chiefs saw it before them,

(he said: “This is by the grace of my Lord…”) meaning, `this is one of the blessings which Allah has bestowed upon me.’

(to test whether I am grateful or ungrateful! And whoever is grateful, truly, his gratitude is for himself;) This is like the Ayat:

(Whosoever does righteous good deed, it is for himself; and whosoever does evil, it is against himself.) (41:46)

(and whosoever does righteous good deed, then such will prepare a good place for themselves.) (30:44).

(and whoever is ungrateful, certainly my Lord is Rich, Bountiful.) He has no need of His servants or their worship.

(Bountiful) He is Bountiful in and of Himself, even if no one were to worship Him. His greatness does not depend on anyone. This is like what Musa said:

(If you disbelieve, you and all on earth together, then verily, Allah is Rich, Owner of all praise.) (14:8). It is recorded in Sahih Muslim:

(Allah, may He be exalted, says: “O My servants, if the first of you and the last of you, mankind and Jinn alike, were all to be as pious as the most pious among you, that would not add to My dominion in the slightest. O My servants, if the first of you and the last of you, mankind and Jinn alike, were all to be as evil as the most evil one among you, that would not detract from My dominion in the slightest. O My servants, these are deeds which I am recording for you, and I will judge you according to them, so whoever finds something good, let him praise Allah, and whoever finds otherwise, let him blame no one but himself.”)

قَالَ نَكِّرُواْ لَهَا عَرْشَهَا نَنظُرْ أَتَهْتَدِى أَمْ تَكُونُ مِنَ الَّذِينَ لاَ يَهْتَدُونَ

(41. He said: “Disguise her throne for her that we may see whether she will be guided, or she will be one of those not guided.”) 

 فَلَمَّا جَآءَتْ قِيلَ أَهَكَذَا عَرْشُكِ قَالَتْ كَأَنَّهُ هُوَ وَأُوتِينَا الْعِلْمَ مِن قَبْلِهَا وَكُنَّا مُسْلِمِينَ

 (42. So when she came, it was said, “Is your throne like this” She said: “As though it were the very same.” And he said, “Knowledge was bestowed on us before her, and we had submitted to Allah (as Muslims).”)

 وَصَدَّهَا مَا كَانَت تَّعْبُدُ مِن دُونِ اللَّهِ إِنَّهَا كَانَتْ مِن قَوْمٍ كَـفِرِينَ

(43. And Saddaha that which she used to worship besides Allah has prevented her (from Islam), for she was of a disbelieving people.)

قِيلَ لَهَا ادْخُلِى الصَّرْحَ فَلَمَّا رَأَتْهُ حَسِبَتْهُ لُجَّةً وَكَشَفَتْ عَن سَاقَيْهَا قَالَ إِنَّهُ صَرْحٌ مُّمَرَّدٌ مِّن قَوارِيرَ قَالَتْ رَبِّ إِنِّى ظَلَمْتُ نَفْسِى وَأَسْلَمْتُ مَعَ سُلَيْمَـنَ لِلَّهِ رَبِّ الْعَـلَمِينَ

(44. It was said to her: “Enter As-Sarh,” but when she saw it, she thought it was a pool, and she (tucked up her clothes) uncovering her legs. Sulayman said: “Verily, it is a Sarh Mumarrad of Qawarir.” She said: “My Lord! Verily, I have wronged myself, and I submit, together with Sulayman to Allah, the Lord of all that exits.”)

Surah 27 An Naml, 41-44

Tafsir Ibn Kathir

When Sulayman brought the throne of Bilqis before she and her people arrived, he issued orders that some of its features should be altered, so that he could test her and see whether she recognized it and how composed she would be when she saw it. Would she hasten to say either that it was her throne or that it was not So he said:

(Disguise her throne for her that we may see whether she will be guided, or she will be one of those not guided.) Ibn `Abbas said: “Remove some of its adornments and parts.” Mujahid said: “He issued orders that it should be changed, so whatever was red should be made yellow and vice versa, and whatever was green should be made red, so everything was altered.” `Ikrimah said, “They added some things and took some things away.” Qatadah said, “It was turned upside down and back to front, and some things were added and some things were taken away.” 

(So when she came, it was said: “Is your throne like this”) Her throne, which had been altered and disguised, with some things added and others taken away, was shown to her. She was wise and steadfast, intelligent and strong-willed. She did not hasten to say that this was her throne, because it was far away from her. Neither did she hasten to say that it was not her throne, when she saw that some things had been altered and changed. She said,

((It is) as though it were the very same. ) This is the ultimate in intelligence and strong resolve.

(Knowledge was bestowed on us before her, and we had submitted to Allah.) Mujahid said, “This was spoken by Sulayman.”

(And Saddaha that which she used to worship besides Allah has prevented her, for she was of a disbelieving people.) This is a continuation of the words of Sulayman — according to the opinion of Mujahid and Sa`id bin Jubayr, may Allah be pleased with them both — i.e., Sulayman said:

(Knowledge was bestowed on us before her, and we had submitted to Allah.) and what stopped her from worshipping Allah alone was

(that which she used to worship besides Allah, for she was of a disbelieving people.) What Mujahid and Sa`id said is good; it was also the view of Ibn Jarir. Then Ibn Jarir said, “It could be that the subject of the verb.

(And Saddaha) refers to Sulayman or to Allah, so that the phrase now means:

(She would not worship anything over than Allah.)

(for she was of a disbelieving people.) I say: the opinion of Mujahid is supported by the fact that she declared her Islam after she entered the Sarh, as we shall see below.

(It was said to her: “Enter As-Sarh” but when she saw it, she thought it was a pool, and she (tucked up her clothes) uncovering her legs.) Sulayman had commanded the Shayatin to build for her a huge palace of glass beneath which water was flowing. Anyone who did not know the nature of the building would think that it was water, but in fact there was a layer of glass between a person walking and the water.

Allah says of Fir`awn — may Allah curse him — that he said to his minister Haman:

(Build me a Sarh that I may arrive at the ways.) (40:36-37) Sarh is also used to refer to the high constructed palaces in Yemen. Mumarrad means sturdily constructed and smooth.

(of Qawarir) means, made of glass, i.e., it was built with smooth surfaces. Marid is a fortress in Dawmat Al-Jandal. What is meant here is that Sulayman built a huge, lofty palace of glass for this queen, in order to show her the greatness of his authority and power. When she saw for herself what Allah had given him and how majestic his position was, she submitted to the command of Allah and acknowledged that he was a noble Prophet, so she submitted to Allah and said:

(My Lord! Verily, I have wronged myself,) meaning, by her previous disbelief and Shirk and by the fact that she and her people had worshipped the sun instead of Allah.

(and I submit, together with Sulayman to Allah, the Lord of all that exists.) meaning, following the religion of Sulayman, worshipping Allah alone with no partner or associate, Who created everything and measured it exactly according to its due measurements.

www.tafsir.com

%d bloggers like this: