The Prophethood of Dawood (David), Peace Be Upon Him

 

I take refuge with Allaah from the accursed devil.

بِسْمِ اللَّهِ الرَّحْمَـنِ الرَّحِيمِ  

Bismillah-ir-Rahman-ir-Raheem: In the name of Allah, the Compassionate, the Merciful.  

Welcome to my blog and praise the Magnificent Lord as you enter: Allahu Akbar: Allah is the Greatest .  

May the Peace and Blessing of Allah Azza wa Jal, our Lord Glorified and Praised be He, be upon our beloved Prophet, his Family, and Companions.

The Prophethood of Dawood (David) Alaihi Salaam.

اصْبِر عَلَى مَا يَقُولُونَ وَاذْكُرْ عَبْدَنَا دَاوُودَ ذَا الاٌّيْدِ إِنَّهُ أَوَّابٌ

(17.And remember Our slave Dawud, endued with Al-Ayd. Verily, he was ever oft-returning in all matters and in repentance.)

إِنَّا سَخَّرْنَا الجِبَالَ مَعَهُ يُسَبِّحْنَ بِالْعَشِىِّ وَالإِشْرَاقِ

(18. Verily, We made the mountains to glorify Our praises with him in the `Ashi and Ishraq.)

وَالطَّيْرَ مَحْشُورَةً كُلٌّ لَّهُ أَوَّابٌ

(19. And (so did) the birds assembled, all obedient to him.)

وَشَدَدْنَا مُلْكَهُ وَءَاتَيْنَـهُ الْحِكْمَةَ وَفَصْلَ الْخِطَابِ

(20. We made his kingdom strong and gave him Al-Hikmah and sound judgement in speech and decision.)

 Surah 38 Sad, Verse 17-20

Tafsir Ibn Kathir

Al-Ayd means strength in knowledge and action. Ibn `Abbas, may Allah be pleased with him, As-Suddi and Ibn Zayd said, “Al-Ayd means strength.” Mujahid said, “Al-Ayd means strength in obedience to Allah.” Qatadah said, “Dawud, peace be upon him, was given strength in worship and the proper understanding of Islam.” He told us that he, peace be upon him, used to spend a third of the night in prayer, and he fasted for half a lifetime. This was reported in the Two Sahihs, where it is recorded that the Messenger of Allah said:

(The most beloved of prayer to Allah is the prayer of Dawud, and the most beloved of fasting to Allah is the fasting of Dawud. He used to sleep for half of the night, stand in prayer for a third of the night, then sleep for a sixth of the night, and he used to fast alternate days. He never fled from the battlefield, and he always turned to Allah.) which means that he turned to Allah with regard to all of his affairs.

(Verily, We made the mountains to glorify Our praises with him in the `Ashi and Ishraq. ) means, Allah caused the mountains to glorify His praises with him at sunrise and at the end of the day. This is like the Ayah:

(O you mountains. Glorify (Allah) with him! And you birds (also)!) (34:10). The birds also used to glorify Allah’s praises with him. If a bird flew by him and heard him chanting the Zabur, it would not go away; instead it would stay hovering in the air, glorifying Allah along with him. And the lofty mountains would respond to him and echo his glorification of Allah. Ibn Jarir recorded from `Abdullah bin Al-Harith bin Nawfal that Ibn `Abbas, may Allah be pleased with him, did not pray Ad-Duha. [`Abdullah said:] “So I took him to Umm Hani, may Allah be pleased with her, and said to her, `Tell him what you told me.’ She said, `The Messenger of Allah entered my house on the day of the conquest of Makkah. He called for water to be poured into a large bowl, then he called for a garment which he used as a screen between me and him, and he washed himself. Then he sprinkled water around the house and prayed eight Rak`ahs. This was Ad-Duha, and its standing, bowing, prostration and sitting were all equal in brevity.’ Ibn `Abbas, may Allah be pleased with him, left, saying, `I have read the Qur’an from cover to cover, and I never knew about Salat Ad-Duha until now!’ Then he recited:

(glorify Our praises with him in the `Ashi and Ishraq.) I used to say, “What is Salat Al-Ishraq, but now I know what it is.”

(And (so did) the birds assembled,) meaning, hovering in the air.

(all obedient to him.) means, they obeyed him and followed him in glorifying Allah. Sa`id bin Jubayr, Qatadah and Malik said, narrating from Zayd bin Aslam and Ibn Zayd:

(all obedient to him.) means, “Following his commands.”

(and gave him Al-Hikmah) Mujahid said, “This means understanding, reason and intelligence.” Qatadah said, “The Book of Allah and following what is in it.” As-Suddi said:

(Al-Hikmah) “Prophethood.”

(and sound judgement) Shurayh Al-Qadi and Ash-Sha`bi said, “Sound judgement is testimony and oaths.” Qatadah said, “Two witnesses for the plaintiff or an oath on the part of the defendant is meaning of sound judgement.” This is the sound judgement which the Prophets and Messengers judged and the believers and righteous accepted. This is the basis of this Ummah’s judicial system until the Day of Resurrection. This was the view of Abu `Abdur-Rahman As-Sulami. Mujahid and As-Suddi said, “It means passing the right judgement and understanding the case.” Mujahid also said, “It is soundness in speech and in judgement, and this includes all of the above.” This is what is meant, and this is the view favored by Ibn Jarir.

وَهَلْ أَتَاكَ نَبَؤُا الْخَصْمِ إِذْ تَسَوَّرُواْ الْمِحْرَابَ

(21. And has the news of the litigants reached you When they climbed over the wall into (his) Mihrab (private chamber of worship);)

إِذْ دَخَلُواْ عَلَى دَاوُودَ فَفَزِعَ مِنْهُمْ قَالُواْ لاَ تَخَفْ خَصْمَانِ بَغَى بَعْضُنَا عَلَى بَعْضٍ فَاحْكُمْ بَيْنَنَا بِالْحَقِّ وَلاَ تُشْطِطْ وَاهْدِنَآ إِلَى سَوَآءِ الصِّرَطِ

(22. When they entered in upon Dawud, he was terrified of them. They said: “Fear not! (We are) two litigants, one of us has wronged the other, therefore judge between us with truth, and treat us not with injustice, and guide us to the right way.)

إِنَّ هَذَآ أَخِى لَهُ تِسْعٌ وَتِسْعُونَ نَعْجَةً وَلِى نَعْجَةٌ وَحِدَةٌ فَقَالَ أَكْفِلْنِيهَا وَعَزَّنِى فِى الْخِطَابِ

(23. Verily, this my brother (in religion) has ninety-nine ewes, while I have (only) one ewe, and he says: “Hand it over to me, and he overpowered me in speech.”)

قَالَ لَقَدْ ظَلَمَكَ بِسُؤَالِ نَعْجَتِكَ إِلَى نِعَاجِهِ وَإِنَّ كَثِيراً مِّنَ الْخُلَطَآءِ لَيَبْغِى بَعْضُهُمْ عَلَى بَعْضٍ إِلاَّ الَّذِينَ ءَامَنُواْ وَعَمِلُواْ الصَّـلِحَـتِ وَقَلِيلٌ مَّا هُمْ وَظَنَّ دَاوُودُ أَنَّمَا فَتَنَّـهُ فَاسْتَغْفَرَ رَبَّهُ وَخَرَّ رَاكِعاً وَأَنَابَ

(24. [Dawud] said: “He has wronged you in demanding your ewe in addition to his ewes. And, verily, many partners oppress one another, except those who believe and do righteous good deeds, and they are few.” And Dawud guessed that We have tried him and he sought forgiveness of his Lord, and he fell down prostrate and turned (to Allah) in repentance.)

فَغَفَرْنَا لَهُ ذَلِكَ وَإِنَّ لَهُ عِندَنَا لَزُلْفَى وَحُسْنَ مَـَابٍ

(25. So, We forgave him that, and verily, for him is a near access to Us, and a good place of return.)

Surah 38 Sad, Verse 21-25

Tafsir Ibn Kathir

In discussing this passage, the scholars of Tafsir mention a story which is mostly based upon Isra’iliyat narrations. Nothing has been reported about this from the Infallible Prophet that we could accept as true. But Ibn Abi Hatim narrated a Hadith whose chain of narration cannot be regarded as Sahih because it is reported by Yazid Ar-Raqashi from Anas, may Allah be pleased with him. Although Yazid was one of the righteous, his Hadiths are regarded as weak by the Imams. So, it is better to speak briefly of this story and refer knowledge of it to Allah, may He be exalted. For the Qur’an is true and what it contains is also true.

(he was terrified of them.) This was because he was in his Mihrab (private chamber). That was the noblest part of his house, where he commanded that no one should enter upon him that day. So, he did not realize that these two people had climbed the fence surrounding his Mihrab (private chamber) to ask him about their case.

(and he overpowered me in speech.) means, `he defeated me.’

(And Dawud guessed that We have tried him) `Ali bin Abi Talhah reported that Ibn `Abbas said that this means, “We tested him.”

(and he fell down prostrate and turned (to Allah) in repentance.)

(So, We forgave him that,)

The performance of Sajdah in Surah Sad is not one of the obligatory locations; it is a prostration of thanks (Sajdat Shukr). The evidence for it is the report recorded by Imam Ahmad from Ibn `Abbas, may Allah be pleased with him, who said; “The prostration in Surah Sad is not one of the obligatory prostrations; I saw the Messenger of Allah prostrating in this Surah.” This was also recorded by Al-Bukhari, Abu Dawud, At-Tirmidhi, and An-Nasa’i in his Tafsir. At-Tirmidhi said, “Hasan Sahih.” In his Tafsir of this Ayah, An-Nasa’i also recorded that Ibn `Abbas, may Allah be pleased with him, said, “The Prophet prostrated in Sad, and he said:

(Dawud prostrated as an act of repentance and we prostrate as an act of thanks.)” This was recorded only by An-Nasa’i. The men of its chain of narration are all reliable. In his Tafsir of this Ayah, Al-Bukhari recorded that Al-`Awwam said that he asked Mujahid about the prostration in Surah Sad. He said, `I asked Ibn `Abbas, may Allah be pleased with him, `Why do you prostrate’ He said, `Have you not read:

(and among his [Nuh’s] progeny Dawud, Sulayman) (6:84)

(They are those whom Allah had guided. So follow their guidance) (6:90). Dawud, peace be upon him, was one of those whom your Prophet was commanded to follow. Dawud prostrated here so the Messenger of Allah also prostrated here.”’ Abu Dawud recorded that Abu Sa`id Al-Khudri, may Allah be pleased with him, said, “The Messenger of Allah recited Sad while he was on the Minbar. When he reached the prostration, he came down from the Minbar and prostrated, and the people prostrated with him. On another occasion when he recited it, he reached the prostration and the people prepared to prostrate. He said:

(This is repentance for a Prophet, but I see that you are preparing to prostrate.) Then he came down (from the Minbar) and prostrated.” This was recorded only by Abu Dawud and its chain of narration meets the conditions of the Two Sahihs.

(and verily, for him is a near access to Us, and a good place of (final) return.) means, on the Day of Resurrection, he will have good deeds by virtue of which he will be brought close to Allah, and he will have a good place of (final) return, which means the lofty levels of Paradise, because of his repentance and his perfect justice in his kingdom. As it says in the Sahih:

(Those who are fair and just with their families and those who are under their authority will be on Minbars of light on the right hand of Ar-Rahman, and both His Hands are right Hands.)”

يدَاوُودُ إِنَّا جَعَلْنَـكَ خَلِيفَةً فِى الاٌّرْضِ فَاحْكُمْ بَيْنَ النَّاسِ بِالْحَقِّ وَلاَ تَتَّبِعِ الْهَوَى فَيُضِلَّكَ عَن سَبِيلِ اللَّهِ إِنَّ الَّذِينَ يَضِلُّونَ عَن سَبِيلِ اللَّهِ لَهُمْ عَذَابٌ شَدِيدُ بِمَا نَسُواْ يَوْمَ الْحِسَابِ

(26. O Dawud! Verily, We have placed you as a successor on the earth; so judge you between men in truth (and justice) and follow not your desire — for it will mislead you from the path of Allah. Verily, those who wander astray from the path of Allah (shall) have a severe torment, because they forgot the Day of Reckoning.)

Surah 38 Sad, Verse 26

Tafsir Ibn Kathir

This is advice from Allah, may He be exalted, to those who are in positions of authority. They should rule according to the truth and justice revealed from Him, they should not turn away from it and be led astray from the path of Allah. Allah has issued a stern warning of a severe punishment to those who go astray from His path and forget the Day of Resurrection. Ibn Abi Hatim recorded that Ibrahim Abu Zur`ah, who read the Scripture, reported that Al-Walid bin `Abd Al-Malik said to him: “Does anyone have the right to question the Khalifah You have read the first Scripture and the Qur’an, and you have understood them.” He replied, “May I speak, O Commander of the faithful” He said, “Speak, for you are under the protection of Allah.” I said, “O Commander of the faithful, are you more dear to Allah, or Dawud, peace be upon him For Allah gave him both prophethood and rulership, then He warned him in His Book:

(O Dawud ! Verily, We have placed you as a successor on the earth; so judge you between men in truth (and justice) and follow not your desire — for it will mislead you from the path of Allah).” `Ikrimah said:

((Those shall) have a severe torment, because they forgot the Day of Reckoning.) “They will have a severe punishment on the Day of Reckoning because of what they forgot. ” As-Suddi said, “They will have a severe punishment because of what they neglected to do for the sake of the Day of Reckoning.” This interpretation is more in accordance with the apparent meaning of the Ayah. And Allah, may He be glorified and exalted, is the Guide to the Truth.

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