Allah, the Provider and the Sustainer, made war booty lawful

I take refuge with Allaah, the Exalted, from the accursed devil.

بِسْمِ اللَّهِ الرَّحْمَـنِ الرَّحِيمِ

Bismillah-ir-Rahman-ir-Raheem: In the name of Allah, the Compassionate, the Merciful.

Welcome to my blog and praise the Magnificent Lord as you enter: Allahu Akbar: Allah is the Greatest .

May the Peace and Blessings of Allah Azza wa Jal, our Lord Glorified and Praised be He, be upon our beloved  Prophet, his Family, and Companions.

Allah, the Provider and the Sustainer, made war booty lawful.

مَا كَانَ لِنَبِىٍّ أَن يَكُونَ لَهُ أَسْرَى حَتَّى يُثْخِنَ فِي الاٌّرْضِ تُرِيدُونَ عَرَضَ الدُّنْيَا وَاللَّهُ يُرِيدُ الاٌّخِرَةَ وَاللَّهُ عَزِيزٌ حَكِيمٌ

(67. It is not (fitting) for a Prophet that he should have prisoners of war until he has fought (his enemies thoroughly) in the land. You desire the goods of this world, but Allah desires (for you) the Hereafter. And Allah is All-Mighty, All-Wise.)

لَّوْلاَ كِتَـبٌ مِّنَ اللَّهِ سَبَقَ لَمَسَّكُمْ فِيمَآ أَخَذْتُمْ عَذَابٌ عَظِيمٌ

 (68. Were it not a previous ordainment from Allah, a severe torment would have touched you for what you took.)

فَكُلُواْ مِمَّا غَنِمْتُمْ حَلَـلاً طَيِّباً وَاتَّقُواْ اللَّهَ إِنَّ اللَّهَ غَفُورٌ رَّحِيمٌ

 (69. So enjoy what you have gotten of booty in war, lawful and good, and have Taqwa of Allah. Certainly, Allah is Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful.)

Surah 8 Al Anfal Verse 67-69

Tafsir Ibn Kathir

Imam Ahmad recorded that Anas said, “The Prophet asked the people for their opinion about the prisoners of war of Badr, saying,

(Allah has made you prevail above them.) `Umar bin Al-Khattab stood up and said, `O Allah’s Messenger! Cut off their necks,’ but the Prophet turned away from him. The Messenger of Allah again asked,

(O people! Allah has made you prevail over them, and only yesterday, they were your brothers.) `Umar again stood up and said, `O Allah’s Messenger! Cut off their necks.’ The Prophet ignored him and asked the same question again and he repeated the same answer. Abu Bakr As-Siddiq stood up and said, `O Allah’s Messenger! I think you should pardon them and set them free in return for ransom.’ Thereupon the grief on the face of Allah’s Messenger vanished. He pardoned them and accepted ransom for their release. Allah, the Exalted and Most Honored, revealed this verse,

(Were it not a previous ordainment from Allah, a severe torment would have touched you for what you took).”

`Ali bin Abi Talhah narrated that Ibn `Abbas said about Allah’s statement,

(Were it not a previous ordainment from Allah…),

“In the Preserved Book, that war spoils and prisoners of war will be made allowed for you,

(would have touched you for what you took), because of the captives.

(a severe torment.) Allah, the Exalted said next,

(So enjoy what you have gotten of booty in war, lawful and good).” Al-`Awfi also reported this statement from Ibn `Abbas. A similar statement was collected from Abu Hurayrah, Ibn Mas`ud, Sa`id bin Jubayr, `Ata’, Al-Hasan Al-Basri, Qatadah and Al-A`mash. They all stated that,

(Were it not a previous ordainment from Allah. .) refers to allowing the spoils of war for this Ummah.

Supporting this view is what the Two Sahihs recorded that Jabir bin `Abdullah said that the Messenger of Allah said,

(I have been given five things which were not given to any Prophet before me. (They are:) Allah made me victorious by awe, (by His frightening my enemies) for a distance of one month’s journey. The earth has been made a place for praying and a purifyer for me. The booty has been made lawful for me, yet it was not lawful for anyone else before me. I have been given the right of intercession (on the Day of Resurrection). Every Prophet used to be sent to his people only, but I have been sent to all mankind.)

Al-A`mash narrated that Abu Salih said that Abu Hurayrah said that the Messenger of Allah said,

(War booty was never allowed for any among mankind except us.) (Abu Hurayrah said;) This is why Allah the Most High said,

(So enjoy what you have gotten of booty in war, lawful and good.)

The Muslims then took the ransom for their captives. In his Sunan, Imam Abu Dawud recorded that Ibn `Abbas said that the Messenger of Allah fixed four hundred (Dirhams) in ransom from the people of Jahiliyyah in the aftermath of Badr. The majority of the scholars say that the matter of prisoners of war is up to the Imam. If he decides, he can have them killed, such as in the case of Bani Qurayzah. If he decides, he can accept a ransom for them, as in the case of the prisoners of Badr, or exchange them for Muslim prisoners. The Messenger exchanged a woman and her daughter who were captured by Salamah bin Al-Akwa`, for exchange of some Muslims who were captured by the idolators, or if he decides he can take the prisoner as a captives.

يَـأَيُّهَا النَّبِىُّ قُل لِّمَن فِى أَيْدِيكُم مِّنَ الاٌّسْرَى إِن يَعْلَمِ اللَّهُ فِي قُلُوبِكُمْ خَيْراً يُؤْتِكُمْ خَيْراً مِّمَّآ أُخِذَ مِنكُمْ وَيَغْفِرْ لَكُمْ وَاللَّهُ غَفُورٌ رَّحِيمٌ

(70. O Prophet! Say to the captives that are in your hands: “If Allah knows any good in your hearts, He will give you something better than what has been taken from you, and He will forgive you, and Allah is Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful.”)

وَإِن يُرِيدُواْ خِيَانَتَكَ فَقَدْ خَانُواْ اللَّهَ مِن قَبْلُ فَأَمْكَنَ مِنْهُمْ وَاللَّهُ عَلِيمٌ حَكِيمٌ

(71. But if they intend to betray you, they indeed betrayed Allah before. So He gave (you) power over them. And Allah is All-Knower, All-Wise.)

Surah 8 Al Anfal Verse 70-71

Tafsir Ibn Kathir

Pagan Prisoners at Badr were promised better than what They lost, if They become Righteous.

Muhammad bin Ishaq reported that `Abdullah bin `Abbas said that before the battle of Badr, the Messenger of Allah said,

(I have come to know that some people from Bani Hashim and others were forced to accompany the pagans, although they had no desire to fight us. Therefore, whoever meets any of them (Bani Hashim), do not kill him. Whoever meets Abu Al-Bukhtari bin Hisham, should not kill him. Whoever meets Al-`Abbas bin `Abdul-Muttalib, let him not kill him, for he was forced to come (with the pagan army).) Abu Hudhayfah bin `Utbah said, “Shall we kill our fathers, children, brothers and tribesmen (from Quraysh), and leave Al-`Abbas By Allah! If I meet him, I will kill him with the sword.” When this reached the Messenger of Allah , he said to `Umar bin Al-Khattab,

(O Abu Hafs!), and `Umar said, “By Allah that was the first time that the Messenger of Allah called me Abu Hafs.”

(Will the face of the Messenger of Allahs’s uncle be struck with the sword) `Umar said, “O Allah’s Messenger! Give me permission to cut off his neck (meaning Abu Hudhayfah) for he has fallen into hypocrisy, by Allah!” Ever since that happened, Abu Hudhayfah used to say, “By Allah! I do not feel safe from this statement coming back to haunt me, and I will continue to fear its repercussions, unless Allah, the Exalted, forgives me for it through martyrdom.” Abu Hudhayfah was martyred during the battle of Al-Yamamah, may Allah be pleased with him.

Ibn `Abbas said, “On the eve after Badr, the Messenger of Allah spent the first part of the night awake, while the prisoners were bound. His Companions said to him, `O Allah’s Messenger! Why do you not sleep’ Al-`Abbas had been captured by a man from Al-Ansar, and the Messenger of Allah said to them,

(I heard the cries of pain from my uncle Al-`Abbas, because of his shackles, so untie him.) When his uncle stopped crying from pain, Allah’s Messenger went to sleep.” In his Sahih, Al-Bukhari recorded a Hadith from Musa bin `Uqbah who said that Ibn Shihab said that Anas bin Malik said that some men from Al-Ansar said to the Messenger of Allah , “O Allah’s Messenger! Give us permission and we will set free our maternal cousin Al-`Abbas without taking ransom from him.” He said,

(No, by Allah! Do not leave any Dirham of it.) And from Yunus Bikkir, from Muhammad bin Ishaq, from Yazid bin Ruwman, from `Urwah, from Az-Zuhri that several people said to him, “The Quraysh sent to the Messenger of Allah concerning ransoming their prisoners, and each tribe paid what was required for their prisoners. Al-`Abbas said, `O Allah’s Messenger! I became a Muslims before.’ The Messenger of Allah said,

(Allah knows if you are Muslim! If what you are claiming is true, then Allah will compensate you. As for your outward appearance, it was against us. Therefore, ransom yourself, as well as, your nephews Nawfal bin Al-Harith bin `Abdul-Muttalib and `Aqil bin Abu Talib bin `Abdul-Muttalib, and also your ally `Utbah bin `Amr, from Bani Al-Harith bin Fihr.) Al-`Abbas said, `I do not have that (money), O Allah’s Messenger!’ The Messenger said,

(What about the wealth that you and Umm Al-Fadl buried, and you said to her, `If I am killed in this battle, then this money that I buried is for my children Al-Fadl, `Abdullah and Quthm) Al-`Abbas said, `By Allah, O Allah’s Messenger! I know that you are Allah’s Messenger, for this is a thing that none except Umm Al-Fadl and I knew. However, O Allah’s Messenger! Could you count towards my ransom the twenty Uwqiyah (pertaining to a weight) that you took from me (in the battle)’ The Messenger of Allah said,

(No, for that was money that Allah made as war spoils for us from you).

So Al-`Abbas ransomed himself, his two nephews and an ally, and Allah revealed this verse,

(O Prophet! Say to the captives that are in your hands: “If Allah knows any good in your hearts, He will give you something better than what has been taken from you, and He will forgive you, and Allah is Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful.”) (8:70) Al-`Abbas commented, `After I became Muslim, Allah gave me twenty servants in place of the twenty Uwqiyah I lost. And I hope for Allah’s forgiveness.”

Al-Hafiz Abu Bakr Al-Bayhaqi recorded, that Anas bin Malik said, “The Prophet was brought some wealth from Bahrain and said;

(Distribute it in my Masjid) and it was the biggest amount of goods Allah’s Messenger had ever received. He left for prayer and did not even look at the goods. After finishing the prayer, he sat by those goods and gave some of it to everybody he saw. Al-`Abbas came to him and said, `O Allah’s Messenger! give me (something) too, because I gave ransom for myself and `Aqil. ‘ Allah’s Messenger told him to take. So he stuffed his garment with it and tried to carry it away but he failed to do so. He said, `Order someone to help me in lifting it.’ The Prophet refused. He then said to the Prophet , `Will you please help me to lift it’ Allah’s Messenger refused. Then Al-`Abbas dropped some of it and lifted it on his shoulders and went away. Allah’s Messenger kept on watching him till he disappeared from his sight and was astonished at his greediness. Allah’s Messenger did not get up until the last coin was distributed.” Al-Bukhari also collected this Hadith in several places of his Sahih with an abridged chain, in a manner indicating his approval of it.

Allah said,

(But if they intend to betray you, they indeed betrayed Allah before) meaning,

(But if they intend to betray you) in contradiction to what they declare to you by words.

(they indeed betrayed Allah before), the battle of Badr by committing disbelief in Him,

(So He gave (you) power over them), causing them to be captured in Badr,

(And Allah is All-Knower, All-Wise.)

He is Ever Aware of his actions and All-Wise in what He decides.

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